Manipulating Research Materials Quiz

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Manipulating Research Materials Quiz - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Making up data or results and recording or reporting them.

    • A.

      Fabrication

    • B.

      Falsification

    • C.

      Plagiarism

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer
    A. Fabrication
    Explanation
    Fabrication refers to the act of creating or inventing data or results that do not actually exist and then recording or reporting them as if they were true. This can involve making up information entirely or manipulating existing data to fit a desired outcome. Fabrication is a form of research misconduct and is considered unethical and dishonest. It undermines the integrity and credibility of scientific or academic work.

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  • 2. 

    Manipulating research materials, equipment, or processes, or changing or omitting data or results such that the research is no longer accurately represented in the research record. 

    • A.

      Fabrication

    • B.

      Plagiarism

    • C.

      Falsification

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer
    C. Falsification
    Explanation
    Falsification refers to the act of manipulating research materials, equipment, processes, or data in a way that distorts or misrepresents the accuracy of the research record. This can involve changing or omitting data or results to present a false representation of the research findings. Falsification is a serious ethical violation as it undermines the integrity and credibility of scientific research.

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  • 3. 

    The appropriation of another person’s ideas, processes, results, or words without giving appropriate credit.

    • A.

      Plagerisim

    • B.

      Falsification

    • C.

      Fabrication

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer
    A. Plagerisim
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Plagiarism. Plagiarism refers to the act of using someone else's ideas, processes, results, or words without giving them proper credit. It involves presenting someone else's work as one's own, which is considered unethical and a violation of academic or professional integrity. Plagiarism can have serious consequences, including academic penalties, damage to one's reputation, and legal actions.

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  • 4. 

    Making something public has the following social and ethical dimensions: Such as Social: status, prestige, profit, control. and  Ethical: veracity, transparency, equity.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Making something public does indeed have social and ethical dimensions. Socially, it can impact one's status, prestige, profit, and control over the information or object being made public. Ethically, it involves considerations of veracity (truthfulness), transparency (openness), and equity (fairness). Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 5. 

    Authors must meet ALL of the following:

    • A.

       Substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data.

    • B.

       Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content.

    • C.

       Final approval of the version to be published.

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer(s)
    A.  Substantial contributions to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data.
    B.  Drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content.
    C.  Final approval of the version to be published.
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because it accurately lists all three criteria that authors must meet in order to be considered for the given requirements. These criteria include making substantial contributions to the conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data, as well as drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content, and giving final approval of the version to be published.

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  • 6. 

    Peer reviewers are expected to provide the following to the editor:

    • A.

       The value and the originality of the work.

    • B.

       Problems with the methodology or approach.

    • C.

       Problems with how the research has been explained.

    • D.

       Whether appropriate credit has been given to others

    Correct Answer(s)
    A.  The value and the originality of the work.
    B.  Problems with the methodology or approach.
    C.  Problems with how the research has been explained.
    D.  Whether appropriate credit has been given to others
    Explanation
    Peer reviewers are expected to provide the editor with an evaluation of the value and originality of the work, identifying any potential problems with the methodology or approach used in the research. They also assess how well the research has been explained and whether appropriate credit has been given to others who may have contributed to the work.

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  • 7. 

    Reviewer comments should identify positive aspects/negative aspects (constructivity). Should not include personal attacks, and its inappropriate for a reviewer to contact an author directly

    • A.

       Constructive critique

    • B.

       Competence:

    • C.

       Impartiality and integrity

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer
    A.  Constructive critique
  • 8. 

    §  potential reviewers should honestly evaluate their own ability to be impartial. Objective and fair consideration of manuscript. Should be based on manuscript’s merits.

    • A.

       Impartiality and integrity

    • B.

       Competence:

    • C.

       Confidentiality

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer
    A.  Impartiality and integrity
    Explanation
    The potential reviewers should honestly evaluate their own ability to be impartial and demonstrate integrity in their review process. They should consider the manuscript objectively and fairly, based on its merits. This ensures that the review process is unbiased and maintains the highest level of professionalism and ethical standards.

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  • 9. 

    Should accept an assignment only if they have enough expertise to provide an authoritative statement.

    • A.

       Confidentiality

    • B.

       Constructive critique

    • C.

       Competence

    • D.

       Impartiality and integrity

    Correct Answer
    C.  Competence
    Explanation
    This answer is correct because competence refers to having the necessary knowledge, skills, and expertise to perform a task effectively. In this context, accepting an assignment only if one has enough expertise ensures that they are competent enough to provide an authoritative statement. It is important to have the necessary competence to maintain professionalism and ensure the quality of work.

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  • 10. 

    Mentors should posess

    • A.

       Experience with the research and challenges that the trainees face.

    • B.

       The ability and willingness to communicate that experience.

    • C.

       An interest in helping another person develop into a successful professional.

    • D.

      Should be available, listen carefully, keep in touch, allow for differences, let trainees make decisions, teach by words and examples, and keep learning about effective mentoring.

    • E.

       Locate prospective mentors

    Correct Answer(s)
    A.  Experience with the research and challenges that the trainees face.
    B.  The ability and willingness to communicate that experience.
    C.  An interest in helping another person develop into a successful professional.
    D. Should be available, listen carefully, keep in touch, allow for differences, let trainees make decisions, teach by words and examples, and keep learning about effective mentoring.
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes qualities and actions that mentors should possess in order to effectively support trainees. These qualities include experience with the research and challenges faced by trainees, the ability and willingness to communicate that experience, and an interest in helping trainees develop into successful professionals. Additionally, the answer suggests that mentors should be available, listen carefully, keep in touch, allow for differences, let trainees make decisions, teach by words and examples, and continue learning about effective mentoring.

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  • 11. 

    O   Trainees should:

    • A.

       Identify their career plans

    • B.

       Locate prospective mentors

    • C.

       Distinguish between supervisors and mentees

    • D.

       Be clear about needs and expectations

    • E.

       Keep learning about effective mentoring.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A.  Identify their career plans
    B.  Locate prospective mentors
    C.  Distinguish between supervisors and mentees
    D.  Be clear about needs and expectations
    E.  Keep learning about effective mentoring.
    Explanation
    Trainees should identify their career plans, locate prospective mentors, distinguish between supervisors and mentees, be clear about needs and expectations, and keep learning about effective mentoring. This is important because trainees need to have a clear understanding of their career goals and how mentoring can help them achieve these goals. They should also actively seek out mentors who can provide guidance and support. It is crucial for trainees to differentiate between supervisors and mentors, as their roles and responsibilities may differ. Additionally, trainees should clearly communicate their needs and expectations to their mentors to ensure a productive mentoring relationship. Lastly, trainees should continuously learn about effective mentoring practices to enhance their mentoring experience.

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  • 12. 

    Conflicts of interests are situations that increase the risk of bias

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Conflicts of interest refer to situations where individuals or entities have competing interests that could potentially influence their judgment or actions. These conflicts can create a risk of bias because the conflicting interests may lead to decisions or behaviors that prioritize personal gain over objective decision-making. Therefore, it is true that conflicts of interest increase the risk of bias.

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  • 13. 

    O   Having a conflict of interest is not the same as simply having conflicting desires or individual biases.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Having a conflict of interest means being in a situation where a person's personal interests or biases can potentially influence their judgment or actions in a way that may not be objective or fair. It goes beyond having conflicting desires or biases, as it involves a situation where there is a potential for a person's personal interests to interfere with their ability to make impartial decisions. Therefore, the given statement is true as it correctly distinguishes between having a conflict of interest and simply having conflicting desires or biases.

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  • 14. 

    O   Having a conflict of interest implies only the potential for bias/wrongdoing, not a certainty or likelihood.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Having a conflict of interest means that there is a possibility of bias or wrongdoing, but it does not guarantee that it will occur or that it is likely to happen. It simply suggests that there is a potential for a person's judgment or actions to be influenced by their personal interests, which may compromise their objectivity or integrity. Therefore, the statement is true as it accurately reflects the nature of conflicts of interest.

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  • 15. 

    A conflict of interest is considered research misconduct, since the federal definition of research misconduct is limited to fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    A conflict of interest is not considered research misconduct according to the federal definition of research misconduct, which only includes fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism. This means that while a conflict of interest may raise ethical concerns, it does not fall under the category of research misconduct as defined by federal regulations.

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  • 16. 

    O   Factors contributing to increase in research collaborations are

    • A.

       Technological advances permit easy communication worldwide

    • B.

       Scarce resources

    • C.

       Private and federal funding sources encourage collaborative and multidisciplinary projects.

    • D.

       Difference between academic and industrial research with respect to data sharing

    Correct Answer(s)
    A.  Technological advances permit easy communication worldwide
    B.  Scarce resources
    C.  Private and federal funding sources encourage collaborative and multidisciplinary projects.
    Explanation
    The factors contributing to an increase in research collaborations are technological advances that allow for easy communication worldwide, scarce resources, and private and federal funding sources that encourage collaborative and multidisciplinary projects. These factors create an environment where researchers are able to connect and collaborate across different institutions and disciplines, leading to increased research collaborations. Additionally, the difference between academic and industrial research with respect to data sharing may also contribute to the increase in collaborations, as researchers from different sectors may need to collaborate in order to access and share necessary data.

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  • 17. 

    §  Researchers who work within the same discipline and  §  Multi-disciplinary research (researchers working across several disciplines) are examples of collaborative research

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Collaborative research involves researchers working together towards a common goal. In this case, the question states that researchers within the same discipline and researchers working across several disciplines are examples of collaborative research. This means that researchers who specialize in the same field and researchers from different fields coming together to conduct research are both considered collaborative research. Therefore, the answer "True" is correct.

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  • 18. 

    What are the potential problems of collaborative research

    • A.

       Differences in style of investigators

    • B.

       Differences in style of research across and within disciplines

    • C.

       Difference between academic and industrial research with respect to data sharing

    • D.

       Ethical considerations may affect research across institutions and nations

    Correct Answer(s)
    A.  Differences in style of investigators
    B.  Differences in style of research across and within disciplines
    C.  Difference between academic and industrial research with respect to data sharing
    D.  Ethical considerations may affect research across institutions and nations
    Explanation
    The potential problems of collaborative research include differences in style of investigators, differences in style of research across and within disciplines, difference between academic and industrial research with respect to data sharing, and ethical considerations that may affect research across institutions and nations. These issues can lead to communication and coordination challenges, conflicts in research approaches, difficulties in sharing data and findings, and ethical dilemmas that need to be addressed for successful collaboration.

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  • 19. 

    Research is the process whereby scientists attempt to understand the world and its inhabitants. Scientific research is governed by a strict set of rules that define the scientific method

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Research is indeed the process through which scientists seek to comprehend the world and its inhabitants. It involves systematic investigation, data collection, analysis, and interpretation to gain knowledge and understanding. The scientific method provides a structured approach to conducting research, ensuring objectivity, reliability, and validity. Therefore, the statement "Research is the process whereby scientists attempt to understand the world and its inhabitants" is true.

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  • 20. 

    Factors that can increase the likelihood of a positive collaboration include

    • A.

       Communication throughout a project

    • B.

       Discussing in advance who will do what project and understanding that the research may evolve

    • C.

       Discussing in advance authorship

    • D.

       Discussing in advance data management

    • E.

       Concluding or continuing the collaboration

    • F.

       Clarifying data ownership issues beyond the collaboration

    • G.

       Developing trust, collegiality, and a profound sense of fairness and accountability

    Correct Answer(s)
    A.  Communication throughout a project
    B.  Discussing in advance who will do what project and understanding that the research may evolve
    C.  Discussing in advance authorship
    D.  Discussing in advance data management
    E.  Concluding or continuing the collaboration
    F.  Clarifying data ownership issues beyond the collaboration
    G.  Developing trust, collegiality, and a profound sense of fairness and accountability
    Explanation
    The factors listed in the answer are all important for increasing the likelihood of a positive collaboration. Communication throughout the project ensures that all team members are on the same page and can address any issues or concerns that may arise. Discussing in advance who will do what project and understanding that the research may evolve helps to establish clear roles and expectations. Discussing authorship and data management in advance helps to prevent conflicts and ensure that everyone's contributions are recognized. Concluding or continuing the collaboration, clarifying data ownership issues, and developing trust, collegiality, fairness, and accountability are all crucial for maintaining a positive and productive collaboration.

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  • 21. 

    Conducted to contribute new scientific knowledge with no intention of solving a social or clinical problem or any practical application

    • A.

      Basic research

    • B.

      Applied research

    • C.

      Laboratory studies

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer
    A. Basic research
    Explanation
    Basic research refers to scientific investigations that are conducted purely to contribute new knowledge and understanding in a particular field, without any specific intention of solving a social or clinical problem or having any practical application. It is driven by curiosity and aims to expand the theoretical foundations of a discipline. This type of research often takes place in laboratories and focuses on fundamental principles and concepts. Applied research, on the other hand, is conducted with the goal of solving practical problems or addressing specific issues in society or industry.

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  • 22. 

    Conducted to solve a social problem, clinical problem, or other practical application.

    • A.

      Basic research

    • B.

      Applied research

    • C.

      Laboratory Studies

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer
    B. Applied research
    Explanation
    Applied research is the correct answer because it refers to research that is conducted to solve a social problem, clinical problem, or other practical application. Unlike basic research, which focuses on expanding knowledge and understanding, applied research aims to directly address real-world issues and find practical solutions. This type of research often involves conducting experiments and collecting data in real-life settings or through field studies. It is driven by the need for practical outcomes and can have direct implications for policy-making, decision-making, and problem-solving in various domains.

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  • 23. 

    Laboratory Studies are 

    • A.

       Conducted in more or less contrived settings outside the mainstream of daily life.

    • B.

      Conducted to contribute new scientific knowledge with no intention of solving a social or clinical problem or any practical application.

    • C.

       Maintains rigid control over variables

    • D.

       Risks laboratory bias

    Correct Answer(s)
    A.  Conducted in more or less contrived settings outside the mainstream of daily life.
    C.  Maintains rigid control over variables
    D.  Risks laboratory bias
    Explanation
    Laboratory studies are conducted in controlled settings that are separate from everyday life. This allows researchers to manipulate variables and maintain strict control over the conditions of the study. However, this controlled environment also carries the risk of laboratory bias, where the results may not accurately reflect real-world situations. Despite this, laboratory studies are valuable for contributing new scientific knowledge without the specific goal of solving social or clinical problems or having practical applications.

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  • 24. 

     Field Studies are 

    • A.

       Conducted in every day settings such as homes, schools or clinics.

    • B.

       Aims to observe behaviors as they occur in their natural environment.

    • C.

       May sacrifice close control over variables for closer ties to reality

    • D.

       Participants are randomly assigned to two or more conditions.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A.  Conducted in every day settings such as homes, schools or clinics.
    B.  Aims to observe behaviors as they occur in their natural environment.
    C.  May sacrifice close control over variables for closer ties to reality
    Explanation
    Field studies are conducted in everyday settings such as homes, schools, or clinics. They aim to observe behaviors as they occur in their natural environment and may sacrifice close control over variables for closer ties to reality. This means that researchers go out into the real world to observe and gather data, rather than conducting experiments in a controlled laboratory setting. This allows for a more realistic understanding of how behaviors occur in their natural context.

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  • 25. 

    Two requirements are central to the definition of a true experiment.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A true experiment requires two central requirements. The first requirement is the presence of an independent variable, which is manipulated by the researcher to observe its effect on the dependent variable. The second requirement is the random assignment of participants to different groups or conditions. This ensures that any differences observed between groups can be attributed to the independent variable rather than other factors. Therefore, the statement "Two requirements are central to the definition of a true experiment" is true.

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  • 26. 

    Participants are randomly assigned to two or more conditions and  Researchers control the selection of conditions, and they can freely manipulate the conditions are the two requirements for a true experiment. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In a true experiment, participants are randomly assigned to different conditions, and researchers have control over the selection and manipulation of these conditions. Random assignment helps ensure that any differences observed between the conditions are not due to preexisting differences among participants, but rather the result of the manipulation of the independent variable. By manipulating the conditions, researchers can test the cause-and-effect relationship between variables. Therefore, both random assignment and control over the conditions are necessary requirements for a true experiment.

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  • 27. 

    A research design that does not meet the requirements of a true experiment is called a quasi experiment 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    A research design that does not meet the requirements of a true experiment is called a quasi experiment. This means that the design lacks one or more important elements of a true experiment, such as random assignment of participants to groups or a control group. Quasi experiments are often used when it is not possible or ethical to conduct a true experiment, but they do not provide the same level of control and validity as true experiments.

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  • 28. 

    Independent variables are 

    • A.

      Controlled and manipulated in experimental research designs

    • B.

      Fixed in quasi-experimental designs; fixed because they are inherent to the participant and cant be controlled

    • C.

      The focus of observations in experiments, what the researcher is looking at.

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Controlled and manipulated in experimental research designs
    B. Fixed in quasi-experimental designs; fixed because they are inherent to the participant and cant be controlled
    Explanation
    In experimental research designs, independent variables are controlled and manipulated by the researcher. This means that the researcher has control over the values or levels of the independent variable and can manipulate them to observe their effects on the dependent variable. On the other hand, in quasi-experimental designs, independent variables are fixed because they are inherent to the participant and cannot be controlled by the researcher. This means that the values or levels of the independent variable are predetermined and cannot be changed or manipulated.

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  • 29. 

    Dependent variables are

    • A.

      The focus of observations in experiments, what the researcher is looking at

    • B.

      Can be manipulated by the researcher

    • C.

      Anything that has not been identified as an IV or DV.

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer
    A. The focus of observations in experiments, what the researcher is looking at
    Explanation
    Dependent variables are the focus of observations in experiments, meaning they are the variables that the researcher is looking at and measuring. They can be manipulated by the researcher, meaning the researcher has control over how they are changed or affected. Option 4, "anything that has not been identified as an IV or DV," is incorrect because dependent variables have been specifically identified as the variables of interest in the research study.

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  • 30. 

    Active variables can't be manipulated by the researcher

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    This statement is false. Active variables can be manipulated by the researcher. In research, active variables are those that are intentionally changed or manipulated by the researcher in order to observe their effect on other variables or outcomes. The ability to manipulate active variables is a key aspect of experimental research design, allowing researchers to test hypotheses and establish cause-and-effect relationships.

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  • 31. 

    Attribute variables are measured, but can’t be manipulated

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Attribute variables are characteristics or qualities that are observed and measured, but cannot be manipulated or controlled by the researcher. These variables are often used in descriptive research to describe or categorize a group or phenomenon. For example, variables such as gender, age, or ethnicity are attribute variables because they can be observed and measured, but cannot be changed or manipulated by the researcher. Therefore, the statement "Attribute variables are measured, but can't be manipulated" is true.

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  • 32. 

    These have an order (sometimes artificial categories are created from continuous variables).

    • A.

       Continuous variables

    • B.

       Active variables

    • C.

       Dependent variables

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer
    A.  Continuous variables
    Explanation
    Continuous variables are variables that can take on any value within a certain range. They are not restricted to specific categories or levels. In this context, the statement suggests that there is an order or hierarchy among the variables mentioned, and continuous variables are one of the categories within that order. The explanation implies that the other options (active variables and dependent variables) may also be part of this order or hierarchy, but it does not provide any further details about their relationship or characteristics.

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  • 33. 

     do not have an order, but instead form groupings/categories.

    • A.

       Categorical variables

    • B.

       Continuous variables

    • C.

       Active variables

    • D.

       Attribute variables

    Correct Answer
    A.  Categorical variables
    Explanation
    Categorical variables are variables that do not have a specific order or numerical value, but instead form groupings or categories. They represent qualitative or nominal data, such as gender, color, or type of car. These variables cannot be measured on a continuous scale and can only take on a limited number of distinct values. In contrast, continuous variables can take on any value within a range and can be measured on a continuous scale, such as height or weight. Active variables and attribute variables are not commonly used terms in statistics, so it is unclear what they refer to in this context.

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  • 34. 

    Operational definitions: describe the activities necessary to measure and manipulate variables in research; they can be though of as instructions for…

    • A.

      O Selecting subjects

    • B.

      O Measuring variables

    • C.

      O Carrying out procedures

    • D.

      O (You also have to give a continuum. Ex. Good versus bad performance).

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. O Selecting subjects
    B. O Measuring variables
    C. O Carrying out procedures
    D. O (You also have to give a continuum. Ex. Good versus bad performance).
    Explanation
    The answer provided correctly lists the activities that operational definitions describe, which include selecting subjects, measuring variables, carrying out procedures, and providing a continuum for evaluation. Operational definitions are instructions that guide researchers on how to measure and manipulate variables in their study. They provide clear and specific guidelines on how to select participants, measure the variables of interest, and carry out the necessary procedures. Additionally, operational definitions often include a continuum or scale for evaluating the variables, such as a range from good to bad performance.

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  • 35. 

    Basically refers to the repeatability or consistency of a study or task.

    • A.

      Reliability

    • B.

      Blinding procedures

    • C.

      Inter-observer reliability

    • D.

      Intra-observer reliability

    Correct Answer
    A. Reliability
    Explanation
    Reliability refers to the consistency or repeatability of a study or task. It indicates the extent to which the results or measurements obtained from the study or task are consistent and can be relied upon. In other words, if a study or task is reliable, it means that if it were repeated, similar results would be obtained. Reliability is an important aspect in research and measurement, as it ensures that the findings are not due to chance or random error. Therefore, the given answer, "Reliability," accurately describes the concept of consistency or repeatability in a study or task.

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  • 36. 

    The researchers, research assistants, and/or subjects performing the tasks outlined by the research plan do so without knowledge of the research questions or hypotheses.

    • A.

      Reliability

    • B.

      Blinding procedures

    • C.

      Inter-observer reliability

    • D.

      Intra-observer reliability

    Correct Answer
    B. Blinding procedures
    Explanation
    Blinding procedures refer to a method used in research studies where the researchers, research assistants, or subjects involved in the study are unaware of the research questions or hypotheses. This is done to minimize bias and ensure the reliability of the study's results. By keeping the participants blind to the research objectives, it helps to eliminate any potential influence on their behavior or responses. Blinding procedures are commonly used in various fields of research to enhance the validity and objectivity of the study findings.

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  • 37. 

    Intra-observer reliability is one person judges the same item across multiple points in time to see if that changes. The more consistent they are, the more reliable the task is

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Intra-observer reliability refers to the consistency of judgments made by the same person over multiple instances. If the person's judgments remain consistent across different points in time, it indicates a high level of reliability in the task. Therefore, the statement "True" is correct as it accurately reflects the concept of intra-observer reliability.

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  • 38. 

    The consistency of two or more individuals who independently observe the same event

    • A.

      Intra-observer reliability

    • B.

      Blinding procedures

    • C.

      Inter-observer reliability

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer
    C. Inter-observer reliability
    Explanation
    Inter-observer reliability refers to the consistency of observations made by different individuals who independently observe the same event. It measures the agreement between observers and assesses the degree to which they provide similar results. This is important in research and data collection to ensure that the observations are accurate and not influenced by individual biases or errors. Therefore, the given answer is Inter-observer reliability.

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  • 39. 

    The extent to which a concept, conclusion, or measurement is well-founded and corresponds accurately to the real world.

    • A.

      Reliability

    • B.

      Validity

    • C.

      Internal validity

    • D.

      Option4

    Correct Answer
    B. Validity
    Explanation
    Validity refers to the degree to which a concept, conclusion, or measurement accurately represents the real world. It is about the extent to which a test or measurement tool measures what it is intended to measure. In other words, it assesses whether the results obtained from a study or experiment are accurate and can be trusted. Validity is crucial in research as it ensures that the findings and conclusions drawn from the study are meaningful and applicable to the real world.

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  • 40. 

    The degree to which the relationship between the IV and DV is observed without the influence of EVs.

    • A.

      Internal validity

    • B.

      Validity

    • C.

      Reliability

    • D.

      Inter judge validity

    Correct Answer
    A. Internal validity
    Explanation
    Internal validity refers to the extent to which a study accurately measures the causal relationship between the independent variable (IV) and dependent variable (DV), without the influence of extraneous variables (EVs). In other words, it assesses whether the observed relationship between the IV and DV is truly a cause-and-effect relationship. High internal validity means that the study design and procedures minimize the impact of confounding factors, increasing confidence in the results. Therefore, internal validity is the correct answer as it specifically addresses the absence of EVs in observing the relationship between the IV and DV.

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  • 41. 

    Threats to internal validity include 

    • A.

      Ambiguous temporal precedence effects

    • B.

      Differential selection effects

    • C.

      History effects

    • D.

      Maturation effects

    • E.

      Statistical regression effects

    • F.

      Attrition effects

    • G.

      Multiple-test effects

    • H.

      Instrumental effects

    • I.

      Additive and interaction effects

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Ambiguous temporal precedence effects
    B. Differential selection effects
    C. History effects
    D. Maturation effects
    E. Statistical regression effects
    F. Attrition effects
    G. Multiple-test effects
    H. Instrumental effects
    I. Additive and interaction effects
    Explanation
    The answer includes a comprehensive list of threats to internal validity. These threats can affect the validity of research findings by introducing confounding factors or biases. Ambiguous temporal precedence effects refer to uncertainty in the order of cause and effect. Differential selection effects occur when groups being compared are not equivalent at the start of the study. History effects refer to external events that may influence the outcome. Maturation effects are changes that occur naturally over time. Statistical regression effects occur when extreme scores regress towards the mean. Attrition effects refer to the loss of participants during a study. Multiple-test effects arise when conducting multiple statistical tests. Instrumental effects occur when changes in measurement instruments affect the results. Additive and interaction effects involve the combined influence of multiple factors.

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  • 42. 

    Ambiguous temporal precedence effects is also known as the chicken and the egg problem

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because ambiguous temporal precedence effects, also known as the chicken and the egg problem, refer to a situation where it is difficult to determine which event or factor came first and caused the other. This analogy is often used to describe situations where the cause and effect relationship is unclear or uncertain, much like the dilemma of whether the chicken or the egg came first.

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  • 43. 

    Differential selection effects

    • A.

      Or the chicken and the egg problem.

    • B.

      Things like culture, sex, etc.

    • C.

      Outside events, or extraneous variables that may influence the dependent variable during the course of the study

    • D.

      Changes that occur within the organism that can cause a threat to the IV. Physical abilities, mental abilities, boredom, fatigue, e

    Correct Answer
    B. Things like culture, sex, etc.
    Explanation
    The correct answer refers to "things like culture, sex, etc." as examples of differential selection effects. These factors can influence the dependent variable in a study and create biases or confounding variables. For example, cultural norms or gender roles may impact the way individuals respond to certain stimuli or tasks, leading to variations in the results. By considering these factors, researchers can better understand and control for potential biases, ensuring the validity of their findings.

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  • 44. 

    Outside events, or extraneous variables that may influence the dependent variable during the course of the study.

    • A.

      History effects

    • B.

      Maturation effects

    • C.

      Multiple-test effects

    • D.

      Statistical regression effects

    Correct Answer
    A. History effects
    Explanation
    History effects refer to external events or circumstances that occur during the course of a study and may influence the dependent variable. These events could be unrelated to the study but still have an impact on the results. For example, if a study is investigating the effectiveness of a new teaching method, a history effect could be the introduction of a new educational policy that affects all schools in the area. This external event could confound the results of the study and make it difficult to determine the true impact of the teaching method.

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  • 45. 

    Changes that occur within the organism that can cause a threat to the IV. Physical abilities, mental abilities, boredom, fatigue, etc. Minimized by reducing the time required for observations.

    • A.

      History effects

    • B.

      Maturation effects

    • C.

      Attrition effects

    • D.

      Multiple-test effects

    Correct Answer
    B. Maturation effects
    Explanation
    Maturation effects refer to changes that naturally occur within an organism over time, which can potentially influence the outcome of an experiment. These changes can include physical and mental development, as well as changes in boredom or fatigue levels. To minimize the impact of maturation effects, researchers can reduce the time required for observations, ensuring that the experiment is conducted within a reasonable timeframe to minimize the influence of maturation on the results.

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  • 46. 

    Participants that score very high or very low on the test tend to regress to the mean during the next test. Minimized by not choosing subjects based on extreme scores.

    • A.

      Statistical regression effects

    • B.

      Maturation effects

    • C.

      Multiple-test effects

    • D.

      Ambiguous temporal precedence effects

    Correct Answer
    A. Statistical regression effects
    Explanation
    Statistical regression effects refer to the tendency for extreme scores on a test to move closer to the average on subsequent tests. In this context, participants who score very high or very low on the test are likely to regress to the mean during the next test. This phenomenon can be minimized by not selecting subjects based on extreme scores, as it helps to reduce the influence of statistical regression and obtain more reliable results.

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  • 47. 

      Involve loss of participation due to one or more reasons. Studies that require a long period of time for completion are especially vulnerable, or health related characteristics/low SES. Minimized by operational definition (ex. If you’re going to move in 2 years don’t participate.

    • A.

      Maturation effects

    • B.

      Differential selection effects

    • C.

      Attrition effects

    • D.

      Multiple-test effects

    Correct Answer
    C. Attrition effects
    Explanation
    Attrition effects refer to the loss of participants in a study over time. This can happen due to various reasons such as participants dropping out, moving away, or no longer being interested or available to continue participating. Attrition effects can be especially problematic in studies that require a long period of time for completion or involve individuals with health-related characteristics or low socioeconomic status. To minimize attrition effects, researchers can use operational definitions and screen participants to ensure their commitment and availability for the duration of the study.

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  • 48. 

    If a participant is tested more than once, it affects other tests. Either reduced or increased anxiety. Minimized by counterbalancing tests (one group gets test A then B, next group gets test B then A). These halves are averaged and the adverse effects are minimized.

    • A.

      Maturation effects

    • B.

      Additive and interaction effects

    • C.

      Instrumental effects

    • D.

      Multiple-test effects

    Correct Answer
    D. Multiple-test effects
    Explanation
    When a participant is tested multiple times, it can have an impact on their performance in subsequent tests. This can be due to factors such as increased or decreased anxiety, fatigue, or familiarity with the testing procedure. To minimize these effects, counterbalancing is used, where one group of participants receives Test A followed by Test B, while the other group receives Test B followed by Test A. By averaging the results of these two groups, the adverse effects of multiple testing can be minimized. Therefore, the correct answer is Multiple-test effects.

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  • 49. 

    Unwanted variations in instruments used to measure human behaviors AKA technical difficulty. Minimized by training.

    • A.

      Instrumental effects

    • B.

      Additive and interaction effects

    • C.

      History effects

    • D.

      Multiple-test effects

    Correct Answer
    A. Instrumental effects
    Explanation
    Instrumental effects refer to the unwanted variations that can occur in the instruments used to measure human behaviors. These variations can introduce errors and inaccuracies in the measurements, making it difficult to obtain reliable and valid data. However, these instrumental effects can be minimized through proper training and calibration of the instruments. Therefore, the correct answer is instrumental effects.

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  • 50. 

    Combo of one or more of other effects. Not easily identified or measured. Eliminate effects when possible.

    • A.

      History effects

    • B.

      Ambiguous temporal precedence effects

    • C.

      Additive and interaction effects

    • D.

      Attrition effects

    Correct Answer
    C. Additive and interaction effects
    Explanation
    The correct answer is additive and interaction effects. Additive effects refer to the combined impact of multiple factors, where the total effect is equal to the sum of each individual effect. Interaction effects, on the other hand, occur when the effect of one factor depends on the presence or level of another factor. These effects can be difficult to identify or measure individually, as they are often intertwined and can influence each other. However, it is important to try and eliminate these effects when possible to accurately understand and interpret the results.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Jul 25, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 07, 2014
    Quiz Created by
    Jbunney
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