Practice For Exam #1

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Practice For Exam #1 - Quiz

All of these questions came directly from the jeopardy game review.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Describe the rhodopsin cycle:

  • 2. 

    What is the major control center for maintaining homeostasis and regulation of endocrine function?

    • A.

      Thalamus

    • B.

      Medulla Oblongata

    • C.

      Hypothalamus

    • D.

      Pons

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypothalamus
    Explanation
    The hypothalamus is the major control center for maintaining homeostasis and regulating endocrine function. It plays a crucial role in regulating body temperature, hunger and thirst, sleep-wake cycles, and hormone production and release. It receives information from various parts of the body and sends signals to the pituitary gland to release hormones that control other endocrine glands. The hypothalamus also controls the autonomic nervous system, which regulates involuntary bodily functions such as heart rate and blood pressure. Overall, the hypothalamus is essential for maintaining a stable internal environment and coordinating various physiological processes.

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  • 3. 

    Which cranial nerve is motor and parasympathetic in function, innervates four of the six muscles that move the eye, and regulates the size of the pupil and shape of the lens?

    • A.

      Oculomotor Nerve (III)

    • B.

      Facial Nerve (VII)

    • C.

      Trigemenal Nerve (V)

    • D.

      Trochlear Nerve (IV)

    Correct Answer
    A. Oculomotor Nerve (III)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Oculomotor Nerve (III). This cranial nerve is responsible for both motor and parasympathetic functions. It innervates four of the six muscles that move the eye, allowing for eye movement and coordination. Additionally, it regulates the size of the pupil and the shape of the lens, controlling the amount of light entering the eye and allowing for proper focusing.

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  • 4. 

    Which pathway carries the sensations of two-point discrimination, proprioception, pressure, and vibration? Hint: Its primary neurons are located in the dorsal root ganglia.

    • A.

      Posterior Column Pathway

    • B.

      Anterolateral Pathway

    • C.

      Spinocerebellar Pathway

    • D.

      Dorsal-Column/Medial-Lemniscal System

    Correct Answer
    D. Dorsal-Column/Medial-Lemniscal System
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Dorsal-Column/Medial-Lemniscal System. This pathway carries sensations of two-point discrimination, proprioception, pressure, and vibration. Its primary neurons are located in the dorsal root ganglia.

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  • 5. 

    Which cranial nerve is somatic motor, sensory, and parasympathetic in function, detects taste in the posterior one-third of the tongue, and monitors blood pressure, blood carbon dioxide, oxygen, and pH levels?

    • A.

      Facial Nerve (VII)

    • B.

      Hypoglossal Nerve (XII)

    • C.

      Accessory Nerve (XI)

    • D.

      Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX)

    Correct Answer
    D. Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX)
    Explanation
    The Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX) is the correct answer because it is a cranial nerve that has multiple functions. It is somatic motor, sensory, and parasympathetic in function. It detects taste in the posterior one-third of the tongue, which is responsible for the sensation of bitter taste. Additionally, it monitors important physiological parameters such as blood pressure, blood carbon dioxide, oxygen, and pH levels.

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  • 6. 

    Which cranial nerve is sensory, transmits signals from the inner ear, and is responsible for hearing and balance?

    • A.

      Vestibulocochlear Nerve (VIII)

    • B.

      Trochlear Nerve (IV)

    • C.

      Vagus Nerve (X)

    • D.

      Hypoglossal (XII)

    Correct Answer
    A. Vestibulocochlear Nerve (VIII)
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Vestibulocochlear Nerve (VIII). This cranial nerve is sensory and is responsible for transmitting signals from the inner ear, which are essential for both hearing and balance. It carries information from the cochlea, responsible for hearing, and the vestibular system, responsible for balance, to the brain. The Vestibulocochlear Nerve plays a crucial role in our ability to perceive sound and maintain our balance.

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  • 7. 

    The prosencephalon gives rise to:

    • A.

      Diencephalon

    • B.

      Mesencephalon

    • C.

      Telencephalon

    • D.

      Myelencephalon

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Diencephalon
    C. Telencephalon
    Explanation
    The prosencephalon is one of the three primary divisions of the developing brain. It is responsible for giving rise to the diencephalon and telencephalon. The diencephalon is an important part of the brain that includes structures such as the thalamus and hypothalamus, which play crucial roles in sensory processing and regulation of bodily functions. The telencephalon is the most advanced part of the brain and is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, memory, and emotions. Therefore, the correct answer is diencephalon and telencephalon.

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  • 8. 

    The brainstem is composed of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The brainstem is indeed composed of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain. These structures are located at the base of the brain and are responsible for many vital functions such as controlling breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. They also serve as a pathway for nerve signals traveling between the brain and spinal cord. Therefore, it is correct to say that the brainstem consists of these three parts.

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  • 9. 

    The posterior column, spinocerebellar, and corticospinal are all ascending spinal tracts.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The corticospinal tract is a descending tract.

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  • 10. 

    Which tastant is depicted in the image below:

    Correct Answer
    Bitter
    Quinine
  • 11. 

    Which tastant is depicted in the image below:

    Correct Answer
    Salt
  • 12. 

    Which tastant is depicted in the image below:

    Correct Answer
    Sour
  • 13. 

    Which tastant is depicted in the image below:

    Correct Answer
    Sweet
    Glucose
  • 14. 

    Which tastant is depicted in the image below:

    Correct Answer
    Umami
  • 15. 

    The _______ ________ and dynamic labyrinth are two organs involved in balance.

    Correct Answer
    static labyrinth
    Explanation
    The static labyrinth and dynamic labyrinth are two organs involved in balance. The static labyrinth refers to the structures in the inner ear that are responsible for detecting the position of the head in relation to gravity. This includes the utricle, saccule, and the otolith organs. These structures provide information about the body's orientation and help maintain balance. The dynamic labyrinth, on the other hand, refers to the semicircular canals in the inner ear that detect rotational movements of the head. Together, these two organs work in harmony to ensure proper balance and orientation.

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  • 16. 

    A sudden increase in blood pressure triggers a _________ reflex, which decreases the heart rate.

    Correct Answer
    parasympathetic
    Explanation
    A sudden increase in blood pressure triggers a parasympathetic reflex, which decreases the heart rate. The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for the body's rest and digest response, which includes slowing down the heart rate. When blood pressure rises, the parasympathetic reflex is activated to counteract the increase and bring the heart rate back to normal. This reflex helps maintain homeostasis and prevent excessive strain on the cardiovascular system.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following are not a part of the enteric nervous system?

    • A.

      Efferent neurons

    • B.

      Somatic neurons

    • C.

      Interneurons

    • D.

      Afferent neurons

    Correct Answer
    B. Somatic neurons
    Explanation
    Somatic neurons are not a part of the enteric nervous system. The enteric nervous system is a complex network of neurons that controls the function of the gastrointestinal tract. It consists of afferent neurons (sensory neurons that transmit information from the gut to the central nervous system), interneurons (neurons that connect different neurons within the enteric nervous system), and efferent neurons (motor neurons that control the movement and function of the gut). Somatic neurons, on the other hand, are responsible for controlling voluntary movements and sensory perception in the body. They are not involved in the regulation of the gastrointestinal tract.

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  • 18. 

    Sympathetic axons leave the sympathetic chain ganglia by the ___________ nerve.

    Correct Answer
    spinal
    splanchic
    splanchic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is spinal. Sympathetic axons leave the sympathetic chain ganglia through the spinal nerve. The term "splanchic" is repeated twice in the options, which seems to be an error or duplication.

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  • 19. 

    Damage to this nerve reduces secretion to salivary and lacrima nerves.

    • A.

      Vagus (X)

    • B.

      Glossopharyngeal (IX)

    • C.

      Trigemenal Nerve (V)

    • D.

      Facial Nerve (VII)

    Correct Answer
    D. Facial Nerve (VII)
    Explanation
    Damage to the Facial Nerve (VII) can result in reduced secretion to the salivary and lacrimal glands. The Facial Nerve innervates the muscles of facial expression and also carries parasympathetic fibers that control the secretion of saliva and tears. If the Facial Nerve is damaged, the signals to these glands may be disrupted, leading to reduced secretion.

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  • 20. 

    Odor ______ occurs when you can no longer distinguish a particular odor after prolonged exposure; same occurs when you can no longer recognize a sound until you consciously listen for it.

    Correct Answer
    adaptation
    Explanation
    Adaptation refers to the process of becoming accustomed to a particular stimulus over time, resulting in a decreased sensitivity or awareness of that stimulus. In the context of the question, the term "odor adaptation" describes the phenomenon where prolonged exposure to a specific odor leads to a diminished ability to detect or recognize that odor. Similarly, "sound adaptation" refers to the situation where prolonged exposure to a sound causes a decreased ability to perceive or identify that sound, unless one consciously focuses on it.

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  • 21. 

    Endolymph stops moving automatically once you stop moving.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because endolymph, the fluid found in the inner ear, continues to move even after we stop moving. This movement of endolymph is responsible for maintaining our sense of balance and equilibrium.

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  • 22. 

    Preganglionic cell bodies are located in the sympathetic division in lateral horns:

    • A.

      C1 - C7

    • B.

      T1 - T12

    • C.

      T1 - L2

    • D.

      C1 - T2

    Correct Answer
    C. T1 - L2
    Explanation
    The correct answer is T1 - L2. Preganglionic cell bodies are located in the sympathetic division in the lateral horns of the spinal cord from T1 to L2. This means that the preganglionic neurons responsible for transmitting signals from the central nervous system to the autonomic ganglia are found in the spinal cord segments between T1 and L2.

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  • 23. 

    This/these nerve(s) regulates taste and synapses in the nucleus of the tractus:

    • A.

      Facial (VII)

    • B.

      Glossopharyngeal (IX)

    • C.

      Vagus (X)

    • D.

      Trigeminal (V)

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Facial (VII)
    B. Glossopharyngeal (IX)
    C. Vagus (X)
    Explanation
    The facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), and vagus (X) nerves regulate taste and synapse in the nucleus of the tractus. These cranial nerves are responsible for transmitting taste sensations from the tongue and relaying them to the brain for processing. The nucleus of the tractus solitarius is the primary site of synaptic connections for taste information. Therefore, the correct answer is Facial (VII), Glossopharyngeal (IX), and Vagus (X).

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  • 24. 

    This/these part(s) makes up the fibrous tunic of the eye:

    • A.

      Lens

    • B.

      Sclera

    • C.

      Retina

    • D.

      Cornea

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Sclera
    D. Cornea
    Explanation
    The fibrous tunic of the eye is composed of the sclera and cornea. The sclera is the tough, white outer layer of the eye that provides structural support and protection. The cornea is the clear, dome-shaped front surface of the eye that helps to focus light onto the retina. Together, the sclera and cornea form the fibrous tunic, which is responsible for maintaining the shape and integrity of the eye. The lens and retina are part of other layers of the eye and are not included in the fibrous tunic.

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  • 25. 

    The smooth muscle that attaches to the lens of the eye is called the:

    • A.

      Ciliary body

    • B.

      Iris

    • C.

      Conjunctiva

    • D.

      Sclera

    Correct Answer
    A. Ciliary body
    Explanation
    The ciliary body is the correct answer because it is a smooth muscle that attaches to the lens of the eye. It is responsible for controlling the shape of the lens and adjusting its focus, allowing the eye to see objects at different distances. The iris is the colored part of the eye that controls the size of the pupil, while the conjunctiva is a thin, clear membrane that covers the front surface of the eye. The sclera is the tough, white outer layer of the eye.

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  • 26. 

    Which division does the image below depict:

    Correct Answer
    parasympathetic
    parasympathetic division
    Explanation
    The image below depicts the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. This division is responsible for controlling the body's rest and digest functions, promoting relaxation, and conserving energy. It works in opposition to the sympathetic division, which is responsible for the fight or flight response. The image likely shows the anatomical structures and pathways associated with the parasympathetic division.

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  • 27. 

    Which of the following cranial nerves has no parasympathetic fibers?

    • A.

      Facial (VII)

    • B.

      Trigimenal Nerve (V)

    • C.

      Oculomotor (III)

    • D.

      Glossopharyngeal (IX)

    Correct Answer
    B. Trigimenal Nerve (V)
    Explanation
    The trigeminal nerve (V) does not have any parasympathetic fibers. The trigeminal nerve is responsible for sensory information from the face and motor functions such as chewing. It does not have any involvement in the parasympathetic nervous system, which is responsible for rest and digest activities in the body. Therefore, the correct answer is Trigeminal Nerve (V).

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  • 28. 

    Which cranial nerves are both motor and sensory in function?

    • A.

      Olfactory

    • B.

      Trigeminal

    • C.

      Facial

    • D.

      Glossopharyngeal

    • E.

      Vagus

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Trigeminal
    C. Facial
    D. Glossopharyngeal
    E. Vagus
    Explanation
    The cranial nerves that are both motor and sensory in function are the Trigeminal, Facial, Glossopharyngeal, and Vagus nerves. These nerves have both motor fibers, which control muscles, and sensory fibers, which transmit sensory information from various parts of the head and neck. The Trigeminal nerve is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as chewing, the Facial nerve controls facial expressions and carries taste sensations, the Glossopharyngeal nerve is involved in swallowing and taste, and the Vagus nerve regulates functions of the heart, lungs, and digestive system.

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