Would be nasty, brutish, and short.
Would be free of unnecessary intrusion.
Is unnecessary, given man’s inherent qualities.
Is a utopian ideal.
Protects basic rights of Americans.
Defines the two central duties of national government.
Establishes the limits of government power.
Acknowledges life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as fundamental human rights.
Dividing power across state and national government; giving distinct duties to each branch of government
dividing power between state and national government; giving each branch some power over the others
Dividing the government into three branches; giving each branch some power over the others
Giving each branch some power over the others; dividing the government into three branches
Separation of powers.
Checks and balances.
People’s opposition to powerful government.
A desire to improve the public good.
People’s altruistic tendencies.
Mimic the structure of English government.
Counter the effects of powerful factions.
Prevent class-based politics.
Competing political ideologies.
Citizens’ strong commitment to the free market and economic individualism.
A system of checks and balances.
The collective action problem.
Citizens are incapable of organizing efficient methods of distribution.
Public goods are often underproduced in a free market.
Only the government has the power to limit negative externalities.
According to several states’ laws, public goods must be funded by tax dollars.
Politics is everywhere.
Politics is conflictual.
The political process matters.
The government is corrupt
Government influences most aspects of daily life.
The political party in power has extensive control over the policies enacted.
People generally dislike political conflict.
Over 11 million people receive a paycheck from the federal government.
Conflict could be avoided without political parties.
Government would be better off without conflict.
Conflict in politics is a good thing.
Conflict in politics is inevitable.
The media tries to create an artificially conflictual environment.
The easy issues get resolved and go away, the hard ones stay.
Members of Congress genuinely dislike each other.
The political parties disagree on everything.
Compromise means abandoning principles.
Agreements never exist in the midst of controversies.
Congress never gets anything done.
Compromise and bargaining are essential to getting things done.
Americans’ rejection of government intervention in the economy.
The Founders’ inability to predict how the American economy would develop.
Slavery and its aftermath.
The difficulty in revising laws established by the Constitution.
Government regulation; economic individualism
The free market; economic individualism
The free market; economic mutualism
Government regulation; economic mutualism
Any conflict that occurs on the basis of race, ethnicity, gender, or political ideology.
The conflicts that exist as a result of the inherent differences among people living in the North and the South.
The conflict among factions that form during each presidential election.
The conflict between religious and secular Americans.
An increase in benefits for welfare recipients
Making abortion illegal
Reducing business regulation
Cutting the marginal tax rate
It established a national supreme court.
Each a state had a single vote in Congress.
All thirteen states had to agree to pass legislation.
States shared authority to coin money with Congress.
National popular election
Appointment by the Congress
Appointment by the judiciary
No executive leader was specified in the Articles of Confederation.
The states were unable to raise taxes.
New York state troops threatened to occupy Massachusetts territory.
Trade between the states was inefficient.
South Carolina threatened to form an alliance with Spain.
Guarantee the rights of the majority.
Prevent foreign invasion.
Provide public goods.
There was more inequality in American than in Europe.
There was more inequality in Europe than in America.
Inequality in Europe and America was quite high.
Inequality in Europe and American was quite low.
Political man is concerned with collective interests, rather than self-interest.
Providing many groups access to government prevents authoritarianism.
Providing many groups access to government promotes authoritarianism.
Restricting civil liberties is necessary to produce stability and security.
Delaware and New York
New Jersey and New York
Pennsylvania and Rhode Island
New Jersey and Virginia
Strong, independent executive
Chief executive chosen by the electorate
Chief executive chosen by the legislature
Weak legislative branch
Each get three-fifths of a vote; each count as three-fifths of a person for taxation
Each count as three-fifths of a person for taxation; each count as three-fifths of a person for the census
Each get three-fifths of a vote; each count as three-fifths of a person for the census
Each receive three-fifths the amount of social services that nonslaves got; each get three-fifths of a vote
Free trade versus domestic protectionism
Legislative power versus executive power
Majority rule versus minority rights
National power versus states’ rights
The Antifederalist Papers
The Federalist Papers
The Pluralist Papers
The right to regulate commerce
The right to declare war
The right to establish a post office
The right to nominate judges
National supremacy clause
Congressional powers clause
Necessary and proper clause
A politically unpopular action
Vetoing popular legislation
abuses of power
Does not; does
Does; does not
Does not; does not
McCullough v. Maryland
Marbury v. Madison
Barron v. Baltimore
Priestman v. United States
Does not; does
Does; does not
Does not; does not
Ratified by state convention
Ratified by state legislature
Ratified by public referenda
Ratified by unanimous congressional approval
The process of conducting national elections
The process of establishing political parties
The process of amending the Constitution
The process of selecting Supreme Court justices
The Supreme Court’s ruling that Congress could create a bank
Congress’s levying a national tax to support the Marine Corps in the battle against the Barbary pirates
The president’s unilaterally setting national foreign policy
Congress’s removal of appointed officials from the president’s Cabinet
Some parts are ignored.
The Constitution can be amended.
Central passages are ambiguous.
Explicit details allow only one interpretation of its meaning.
Privileges and immunities clause
Full faith and credit clause
Treat non-state residents within their borders as they would state residents
Respect one another’s laws
Not delay other states’ members of Congress en route to Washington, D.C.
Give foreign diplomats the same protections that the national government provides
McCullough v. Maryland
Gibbons v. Ogden
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Gideon v. Wainwright
Equally subject to the decisions of state supreme courts.
Seen as distinct entities providing separate services.
Seen as distinct entities providing overlapping, occasionally redundant services to ensure that all citizens have access to necessary public goods.
Entitled to declare each other’s legislation void.
Chisholm v. Georgia (1793)
Barron v. Baltimore (1833)
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
McCullough v. Maryland (1819)
Intertribal trade among Native Americans
Interstate; laissez-faire capitalism
Interstate; commonwealth capitalism
Intrastate; laissez-faire capitalism
Intrastate; commonwealth capitalism
Layer cake federalism
Marble cake federalism
Picket fence federalism
Cherry cobbler federalism
Divided into discrete “blocks” of grants, each capped at $50 million.
To be spent on a policy area decided on by the state or local government.
Contingent on state or local endorsement of some contentious piece of federal legislation.
to be spent within a specified policy area, although the receiving state or local government can decide how to spend within that area.
National government; 1930s
National government; 1980s
Greater control by state and local governments of nationally funded programs.
Greater control by the national government of state programs.
The consolidation of block grants into categorical grants.
An increase in unfunded mandates.
President George H. W. Bush
Crises and war; rise of coercive federalism
Crises and war; decline in unfunded mandates
The rights revolution; decline in unfunded mandates
The rights revolution; doctrine of interposition
Necessary and proper
The national government uses regulations, mandates, and conditional funding to pressure the states to change their policies.
The state governments attempt to lobby the national government for specific laws or grants.
The national government relies on grants alone to influence state policies.
State governments compete with each other for business and jobs through the policies they adopt.
States levy taxes against each other, and the national government levies taxes on the individual states.
The national government is in perpetual conflict with state governments over matters of economic policy and taxation.
States compete to attract business and jobs through the policies they adopt.
States provide block and categorical grants to local governments within the state.
National laws that designate block grants to be spent by the states on remedial education initiatives
State laws that supplement national education laws pertaining to education
National laws that address discriminatory state laws
State laws that address discriminatory national laws
Strong national power; states’ rights
Strong national power; strong national power
States’ rights; states’ rights
States’ rights; strong national power
Race to the bottom
Tragedy of the commons
Competition of convenience
Beggar thy Neighbor Paradox
Encouraging policy innovation; giving citizens several paths to contact government
Encouraging policy innovation; maintaining interstate variation in resources
Maintaining interstate variation in resources; discouraging policy innovation
Maintaining interstate variation in resources; giving citizens several paths to contact government