A large organization, structured hierarchically, that carries out specific functions.
Any organization that has major problems when attempting to accomplish its goals.
A group of people who work to enforce policies in a way that prevents quick results.
Any large branch of a government that has power to interpret laws.
Government organizations, but not corporate or university ones.
Are not organized to make a profit, while private corporations are.
Have a single set of leaders, while private corporations do not.
Are much larger than private corporations.
Are not intended to serve the citizenry, as private corporations are.
Present an opportunity for career advancement, while private corporations do not.
Increased significantly in the last several decades.
Remained relatively stable for the last several decades.
Decreased substantially in the last ten years.
Grown to exceed the number of local government employees.
Grown to exceed the number of state government employees.
Less significant than independent agencies.
The fifteen major departments of the executive branch.
Directly accountable to the president.
Independent of direct control by the president.
Responsible for the actions of independent agencies.
Part of the legislative branch.
Responsible for monitoring the president.
The most recent cabinet departments.
Responsible for regulating major aspects of the economy.
Not part of cabinet departments but report directly to the president.
Responsible directly to Congress.
Staffed entirely by political appointees.
Independent executive agencies
Independent regulatory agencies
Courts of limited jurisdiction
Government corporations do not have to make a profit.
Private corporations must pay taxes.
Private corporations have stockholders.
You cannot invest in a government corporation.
Government corporations do not perform a particular economic function.
The major problem of the federal bureaucracy today.
The most efficient way of structuring large organizations.
A new theory for employee selection and retention.
The awarding of government jobs to political supporters and friends.
A means of ensuring the best and the brightest will hold positions in government.
Independent regulatory agency.
Created the Office of Personnel Management and the Merit Systems Protection Board.
Created the Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Labor.
Created the Civil Service Commission.
Created the Office of Management and Budget(OMB).
Abolished the Labor Department and the Civil Service Commission.
All federal agencies that are run by committees conduct their business regularly in public session.
All federal agencies will terminate after five years unless Congress grants the agency an extension.
All federal agencies hold at least half of their public meetings outside of Washington, D.C.
At least 40 percent of upper level positions within an agency be filled by females or ethnic minorities.
All federal agency meetings on personnel problems or court proceedings be held in public session.
Federal loan guarantees for small businesses.
The replacement of government services with services provided by private firms.
The hiring practices of the Civil Service.
The replacement of federal government services with state or local government services.
Reducing the number of levels in the federal hierarchy.
Does not accomplish his or her tasks by the end of a day.
Brings to public attention gross governmental inefficiency or illegal action.
Is hired in excess of the true labor requirements of an agency.
Is a person who serves in the position of an ombudsman.
Leaks the contents of a presidential speech to the press before it is given.
An appropriations authorization.
An executive order.
The Civil Service Act of 1978.
Authority to select high-level bureaucrats.
Authority to authorize or appropriate funds for particular agencies.
Authority to fire bureaucrats for not executing policy passed by Congress.
Power to find agency actions unconstitutional.
Power to appoint agency heads.
Confidential material on trade secrets.
Internal personnel rules.
Personal medical files.
To resolve political questions.
Very rarely when compared to Europe.
Only if there is no other alternative.
To resolve economic questions, but not political ones.
To provide a form of entertainment.
A judicial maxim.
The U.S. Constitution.
The Charter of the United Nations.
Article III of the Constitution.
Article IV of the Constitution.
The 5th Amendment.
Forms the basis of concurring opinions.
Is a controversy that is real and substantial as opposed to hypothetical or academic.
Arises when the opinions on the Supreme Court are tied.
Can be found in a case's dissenting opinion.
Is a hypothetical question.
They have the opportunity to veto judicial nominations.
They help to fund the judicial review board.
Madison stipulated their role in Federalist #10.
They bring to trial cases of discrimination, civil liberties cases, and more than a third of cases involving business matters.
They frequently are defendants in class-action suits.
Lawsuit filed by a third party who is not directly involved in the litigation.
Case sent back to the court that originally heard the case.
Lawsuit seeking damages for "all persons similarly situated."
Case in which the Supreme Court exercises original jurisdiction.
Lawsuit in which the parties are from different jurisdictions.
General jurisdiction courts.
Courts of limited jurisdiction.
In matters where the United States is a party.
In cases where jurisdiction has been granted by statute.
To intervene in a federal case.
Over cases appealed from state supreme courts.
In cases affecting foreign diplomats and in cases in which a state is a party.
Less than one case in forty thousand.
Less than one case in four thousand.
Roughly 4 percent.
Over half of all cases.
A majority of cases filed in federal court, but significantly less than a majority of all other cases.
The rule of four.
The gang of four.
The Sign of the Four.
The rule of six.
The sign of five.
An amicus brief.
The judicial implementation.
A writ of certiorari.
A majority opinion.
A dissenting opinion.
A consenting opinion.
An amicus curiae brief.
A concurring opinion.
Required Democrats to be consulted on judicial nominations.
Gave the President of the United States authority to appoint federal judges without the approval of the Senate.
Prevented Democratic Senators from being able to speak on the floor of the Senate about the qualifications of judges.
Required a judicial nominee to receive unanimous approval from the Senate Judiciary Committee prior to a vote by the entire Senate.
Members of the opposition party, the Democrats, would not be allowed to invoke senatorial courtesy.
An Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
A conservative ruling by the Supreme Court.
A liberal ruling by the Supreme Court.
A law deemed unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
An action by Congress to overturn a Supreme Court ruling.
Is limited to policies that affect major economic variables.
Can be defined as all policies that affect housing.
Can be defined as all the laws, government planning, and government actions that concern internal issues of national importance.
Is limiting to matters relating to law enforcement.
Relates to the activities of the government in its relations with foreign countries.
The process of making Congress aware that an issue requires congressional action.
The discussion of the proposal by governmental officials and the public.
The process of deciding on a specific proposal.
Concerned with the implementation of policy by bureaucrats, the courts, police and individual citizens.
The actions taken by members of the president's staff in response to congressional initiatives.
Privacy protections enacted by Congress had made it nearly impossible to determine an individual's actual income.
Their conviction that every American should own a home blinded them to the risks of lending to unqualified individuals.
They knew they could sell the risky mortgages to someone else.
Internet application forms made it possible for individuals to falsely inflate their incomes.
Mortgage originators were forced by banks to meet impossibly high sales quotas.
Caps on out-of-pocket expenses
Free preventive care
A single-payer system
Creating a government-run insurance plan.
Requiring electronic medical records.
Studying which treatments work best.
Taxing risky, experimental, or elective medical procedures.
Reducing the number of unnecessary procedures.
The Senate was much tougher on the issue than the House of Representatives, calling for every illegal immigrant to be considered a felon.
Most of the legislation allowed illegal immigrants to ultimately become citizens.
President Bush did not think the Act was comprehensive enough and vetoed it.
A compromise between the House and the Senate was reached at the last minute and the act was passed just before recess.
It sparked a series of immigrants' rights protests and did not pass the Senate.
Encouraged oil drilling in Alaska and the Gulf of Mexico.
Raised fuel-efficiency standards for vehicles.
Created tax incentives for public transportation users in major cities.
Proposed the building of new nuclear power facilities.
Proposed annexing two Canadian oil-producing provinces into the United States.
The Kyoto protocol called for a reduction in the emission of greenhouse gases to 5.2 percent below 1990 levels by 2012.
President Bush submitted the Kyoto protocol to the Senate in 2001, but the Senate would not ratify it.
By 2004, fewer than twenty nations had ratified the Kyoto protocol.
Thirteen of the fifteen original European Union signatories met their 2010 emission targets.
President Bush criticized Canada for its "lack of global conscience" and its rising emission rates.
Have political advantages for a sitting president.
Take place when the economy grows more than usual.
Take place when the economy suffers a severe slowdown.
Are no longer a problem in our modern economy.
Are associated with periods of inflation.
About the same value
Twice as much
Five times as much
Using changes in the amount of money in circulation to affect overall business activity.
Using changes in the amount of taxes and government expenditures to affect business activity.
Using changes in interest rates to affect business activity.
Under the control of the Federal Reserve System.
An area that is controlled exclusively by the President of the United States, according to Article II of the Constitution.
The total amount owed by all individuals, corporations, and governments in the United States.
The total amount owed by the federal government to individuals, businesses and foreigners.
A percentage of the gross national product not to exceed ten percent of all gross sales.
Money not available for use.
The total amount owed by the federal government to individuals, businesses, and foreigners, as well as interagency borrowings withing the government.
Using changes in the rate at which new money is put in circulation to alter national economic variables.
Using changes in the size of the federal budget deficit to alter national economic variables.
Regulating tax rates to ensure controlled growth and low inflation.
The economic policies of the president and Congress.
Linkage of the consumer price index and the gross national product.
Reduce their taxable income legally.
Choose the state to which they will pay taxes.
Register formal complaints to the Internal Revenue Service
Pay taxes only on investment income.
Commit crimes without fear of incarceration.
A nation's external goals and the techniques and strategies used to achieve them.
The formal agreements that are approved by the World Court.
Interactions with other countries that are not related to economics.
The treaties that are ratified by the Senate.
The manner in which the armed forces are deployed.
An in-kind subsidy.
A subset of policies having to do with the U.S. armed forces.
Foreign and domestic policy designed to protect the nation's independence and political and economic integrity.
A policy pursued by nations acting principally in their own interest.
A policy intended to perpetuate cooperation and agreement on moral standards for conduct.
A policy of sending experts in such areas as agriculture, engineering, or business to aid other nations.
An advisory body to the president on foreign policy matters.
Under the functional control of the State Department.
A standing committee of the House and the Senate.
An advisory body to the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
A private research council that provides analysis of world events.
Sees nations as normally willing to cooperate and agree on moral standards for conduct.
Mandates noninterference with the internal policies of sovereign nations.
Supports steps to establish a single world government.
Sees each nation as acting principally in its own interest.
Contends that spreading Christianity ought to be a major goal of U.S. foreign policy.
The United States would go to war with any country that attacks it.
Islamists would not be allowed to take power in any additional nations.
America would leave the United Nations if that body did not support its military initiatives.
The United States would no longer participate in the World Trade Organization or in the World Bank.
The United States was prepared to wage preemptive war against perceived threats with or without allies.
The United Nations
The European Union
The "axis of evil"
A rise in violence between rival Islamic groups
A U.S. troop surge to neutralize Shiite militants
An uprising of tribal leaders, who called on the U.S. to help them against Al Qaeda.
A coordinated effort of Al Qaeda to terrorize the population through suicide bombings
A political movement led by Shiite cleric Muqtada al Sadr
Pakistan; North Korea
China; North Korea
North Korea; Iran
The militant group Hamas
The Kurdish People's Liberation Front
The militant group Hezbollah
The Palestine Liberation Organization
The extremist group Free Jerusalem Now
The U.S. backing out of trade agreements with Somalia.
More expensive goods being shipped in trade routes off of the Somali coast.
The global economic crisis that began in late 2008.
The collapse of Somali governmental authority in 1999.
The relocation of an influential warlord to Somalia in 2000.
Directly responsible to Congress.
Not involved in short-term foreign policy.
The executive agency that has primary authority over foreign affairs.
Responsible for making foreign policy, not the president.
One of the largest cabinet departments.
The President of the United States
The Vice President of the United States
The secretary of State
The Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Secretary of Defense
Is larger than any other federal department.
Was created during the administration of George Washington.
Was formed in 1978 through an executive order.
Is run by the secretary of defense who is always an admiral or general.
Has primary authority over foreign affairs.
That this country was destined to become a very powerful nation.
That the U.S. was unable to raise an army and had no international power.
The influence of religion.
The strength of the new Navy.
Our interests in the Pacific.
Texas and Cuba
Alaska and Guam
Hawaii and the Philippines
Puerto Rico and Jamaica
The Philippines and Puerto Rico
Ended with the onset of the Great Depression.
Came to a permanent end with the bombings of the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor.
Ended when the U.S. entered the United Nations.
Ended when France and the United States signed a mutual alliance pact.
Ended with the Korean War.