Physiology Quiz 1-3 For Final Review

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Physiology Quiz 1-3 For Final Review - Quiz

To study for Physiology. . Duhh


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The smallest living units capable of carrying out their own basic life functions are called?

    • A.

      Organs

    • B.

      Cells

    • C.

      Organ system

    • D.

      I like pizza

    Correct Answer
    B. Cells
    Explanation
    Cells are the smallest living units capable of carrying out their own basic life functions. They are the building blocks of all living organisms and are responsible for carrying out essential processes such as growth, reproduction, and metabolism. Cells can vary in size, shape, and function, but they all share the common characteristic of being able to independently carry out the processes necessary for life.

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  • 2. 

    Organs of the body are defined as

    • A.

      Two or more tissues combined to form a structure that allows each tissue to function independently.

    • B.

      A combination of two or more tissues that make up a structure which performs a specific function.

    • C.

      Bonus POINT X 100000!

    Correct Answer
    B. A combination of two or more tissues that make up a structure which performs a specific function.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "a combination of two or more tissues that make up a structure which performs a specific function." This answer accurately describes the definition of organs in the body. Organs are composed of different types of tissues that work together to carry out specific functions in the body.

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  • 3. 

    What type of molecule is shown in the Figure below?

    • A.

      Disaccharide

    • B.

      MonoSacharide

    • C.

      Cellulose

    • D.

      Jeiel is awesome just saying

    Correct Answer
    A. Disaccharide
    Explanation
    The molecule shown in the figure is a disaccharide. A disaccharide is a type of carbohydrate composed of two monosaccharide units joined together by a glycosidic bond. It is formed through a dehydration synthesis reaction, where a water molecule is eliminated. Disaccharides are commonly found in foods such as sucrose (table sugar) and lactose (milk sugar).

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  • 4. 

    What is a negative feedback?

    • A.

      A decrease in function in response to a stimulus. For example, the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone decreases as the amount of circulating estrogen increases.

    • B.

      An increase in function in response to a stimulus. For example, the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone increases as the amount of circulating estrogen increases.

    • C.

      Homeostasis

    • D.

      Osmolarity

    Correct Answer
    A. A decrease in function in response to a stimulus. For example, the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone decreases as the amount of circulating estrogen increases.
    Explanation
    Negative feedback is a regulatory mechanism in which a decrease in function occurs in response to a stimulus. This can be seen in the example provided, where the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone decreases as the amount of circulating estrogen increases. Negative feedback helps maintain homeostasis by counteracting any deviations from the desired set point.

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  • 5. 

    _________ are molecules that are composed of one or more phosphate groups, a 5-carbon sugar and a nitrogenous base.

    Correct Answer
    Nucleotide
    Explanation
    Nucleotides are molecules that consist of one or more phosphate groups, a 5-carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous base. These components are the building blocks of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. Nucleotides play a crucial role in genetic information storage, transmission, and protein synthesis. They are responsible for carrying the genetic code and are involved in various cellular processes.

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  • 6. 

    ________ is a polysaccharide found in animal cells,

    Correct Answer
    Glycogen
    glycogen
    Explanation
    Glycogen is a polysaccharide found in animal cells. It serves as a storage form of glucose in animals, similar to how plants store glucose as starch. Glycogen is primarily stored in the liver and muscles and can be broken down into glucose when energy is needed. It is an important energy source during periods of fasting or intense exercise. The repeated unit of glycogen is glucose, which is linked together in a branched structure.

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  • 7. 

    ________ is a polysaccharide found in plants

    Correct Answer
    Cellulose
    cellulose
    Explanation
    Cellulose is a polysaccharide that is found in plants. It is a complex carbohydrate made up of glucose molecules and forms the structural component of plant cell walls. Cellulose provides strength and rigidity to plant cells and is the most abundant organic compound on Earth. It cannot be digested by humans and serves as dietary fiber.

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  • 8. 

    ________ are molecules that form the bilayer of cell membranes and micelles.

    Correct Answer
    Phospholipids
    Phospholipid
    phospholipds
    phospholipid
    Explanation
    Phospholipids are molecules that form the bilayer of cell membranes and micelles. They consist of a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tails, which allow them to arrange themselves in a bilayer structure. This arrangement creates a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from its surroundings, while also allowing certain molecules to pass through. Phospholipids are essential for maintaining the integrity and functionality of cell membranes and are crucial for various cellular processes.

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  • 9. 

    _Biomolecules are made up mostly of Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, and Oxygen

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Biomolecules, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, are composed primarily of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms. These elements are essential for the structure and function of biomolecules, as they form the backbone and provide the necessary functional groups for chemical reactions. Therefore, it is true that biomolecules are made up mostly of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen.

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  • 10. 

    __Alpha-helixes and β-pleated sheets are examples of quaternary structures of a protein

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement is false because alpha-helixes and beta-pleated sheets are examples of secondary structures of a protein, not quaternary structures. Quaternary structure refers to the arrangement of multiple protein subunits to form a functional protein complex.

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  • 11. 

    Total body water is composed of ________.

    • A.

      Intracellular and extracellular fluid

    • B.

      Intracellular and interstitial fluid

    • C.

      I like pancakes

    Correct Answer
    A. Intracellular and extracellular fluid
    Explanation
    Total body water is composed of intracellular and extracellular fluid. Intracellular fluid refers to the fluid inside the cells, while extracellular fluid refers to the fluid outside the cells. These two types of fluid make up the majority of the body's water content. Intracellular fluid is essential for cell function and helps maintain cell shape and structure. Extracellular fluid, on the other hand, includes interstitial fluid (fluid between cells) and other fluids such as blood plasma and lymph. Both intracellular and extracellular fluid are crucial for various physiological processes in the body.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following pairs of characteristics is more likely to make a substance diffuse through the cell membrane?

    • A.

      small, non-polar molecule

    • B.

      Large, polar molecule

    Correct Answer
    A. small, non-polar molecule
    Explanation
    Small, non-polar molecules are more likely to diffuse through the cell membrane because the cell membrane is composed of a phospholipid bilayer. The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids repel polar molecules, making it difficult for them to pass through. On the other hand, small non-polar molecules can easily pass through the hydrophobic region of the membrane, allowing them to diffuse across. Therefore, small, non-polar molecules have a higher likelihood of diffusing through the cell membrane compared to large, polar molecules.

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  • 13. 

    Define positive feedback

    • A.

      An increase in function in response to a stimulus. For example, micturition increases after the flow of urine has started, and the uterus contracts more frequently and with greater strength after it has begun to contract in labor.

    • B.

      Bonus points x 1million multiplier!

    Correct Answer
    A. An increase in function in response to a stimulus. For example, micturition increases after the flow of urine has started, and the uterus contracts more frequently and with greater strength after it has begun to contract in labor.
    Explanation
    Positive feedback is a process in which there is an increase in function in response to a stimulus. This means that when a specific stimulus occurs, the function or activity related to that stimulus increases. For example, in the case of micturition, the act of urination, there is an increase in the flow of urine after it has already started. Similarly, in labor, the uterus contracts more frequently and with greater strength after it has already begun to contract. This type of feedback loop amplifies the initial stimulus, leading to a further increase in the function or activity.

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  • 14. 

    _Biomolecules are made up mostly of Carbon, Hydrogen, Magnesium, and Oxygen

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Biomolecules are not made up mostly of Carbon, Hydrogen, Magnesium, and Oxygen. While Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen are indeed common elements found in biomolecules, Magnesium is not typically a major component. Other elements such as Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Sulfur are also commonly found in biomolecules. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 15. 

    ___Not all proteins have quaternary structure

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Not all proteins have quaternary structure because quaternary structure refers to the arrangement of multiple protein subunits to form a functional protein complex. While many proteins do have a quaternary structure, such as hemoglobin or antibodies, there are also many proteins that exist as single polypeptide chains and do not require multiple subunits for their function. These proteins can have a primary, secondary, and tertiary structure, but do not exhibit quaternary structure.

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  • 16. 

    The molecule on top is a?

    • A.

      Triglyceride

    • B.

      Fatty Acid Fatty Acid

    • C.

      Carbohydrate

    • D.

      Obama

    Correct Answer
    A. Triglyceride
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Triglyceride because a triglyceride is a type of molecule that consists of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol backbone. It is the main form of fat stored in the body and is an important source of energy. Fatty acids, on the other hand, are the building blocks of triglycerides and other types of lipids. Carbohydrates and Obama are unrelated to the given molecule and are not the correct answers.

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  • 17. 

    _Protein and Lipids can be broken down and used in energy metabolism starting with glycolysis.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Protein and lipids cannot be directly broken down and used in energy metabolism starting with glycolysis. Instead, they undergo different metabolic pathways before entering the glycolysis process. Protein is broken down into amino acids, which can be converted into intermediates of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle. Lipids are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol, with fatty acids being converted into acetyl-CoA, which can enter the citric acid cycle. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 18. 

    All molecules that are in two solutions separated by a semi-permeable membrane will have an electrochemical gradient.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When two solutions are separated by a semi-permeable membrane, the molecules in both solutions will have an electrochemical gradient. This means that there will be a difference in both electrical charge and concentration of molecules between the two solutions. The semi-permeable membrane allows certain molecules to pass through while blocking others, causing a separation of ions and molecules. This concentration difference creates an electrochemical gradient, which can affect the movement of molecules across the membrane through processes like diffusion or active transport. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 19. 

    Occurs in the cytoplasm only and produces 2ATP/Glucose

    • A.

      Krebs Cycle

    • B.

      Linking Step

    • C.

      Blarghh

    • D.

      Glycolysis

    Correct Answer
    D. Glycolysis
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is the correct answer because it is the process that occurs in the cytoplasm and produces 2 ATP per glucose molecule. It is the initial step of cellular respiration and breaks down glucose into two molecules of pyruvate, generating a small amount of ATP and NADH in the process. The Krebs Cycle and Linking Step occur in the mitochondria, while "Blarghh" is not a recognized term in biology.

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  • 20. 

    Produces the most ATP

    • A.

      Oxidative Phosphorylation

    • B.

      Kreb's Cycle

    • C.

      You can do this!

    Correct Answer
    A. Oxidative Phosphorylation
    Explanation
    Oxidative phosphorylation is the process in which ATP is produced in the mitochondria of cells. It involves the transfer of electrons from electron carriers to the electron transport chain, which generates a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This proton gradient is then used by ATP synthase to produce ATP. The Kreb's cycle, on the other hand, is a series of reactions that occur in the mitochondria and generate electron carriers for oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore, while both processes are involved in ATP production, oxidative phosphorylation directly produces more ATP compared to the Kreb's cycle.

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  • 21. 

    Can run in the absence of oxygen

    • A.

      Glycolysis

    • B.

      Superman duh..

    Correct Answer
    A. Glycolysis
    Explanation
    Glycolysis is a metabolic pathway that occurs in the cytoplasm of cells and does not require oxygen to produce energy. It is the initial step in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. During glycolysis, glucose is broken down into two molecules of pyruvate, generating a small amount of ATP and NADH. This process is essential for the production of energy in cells when oxygen is limited or not available, such as during intense exercise or in certain microorganisms. Therefore, glycolysis can run in the absence of oxygen.

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  • 22. 

    Starts with Acetyl-CoA and produces some CO2 and ATP and NADH

    • A.

      Kreb's Cycle

    • B.

      My name is Batman

    Correct Answer
    A. Kreb's Cycle
    Explanation
    The Kreb's Cycle, also known as the citric acid cycle, is a series of chemical reactions that occur in the mitochondria of cells. It starts with Acetyl-CoA and produces carbon dioxide (CO2), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). This cycle plays a crucial role in the process of cellular respiration, where glucose is broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP.

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  • 23. 

    A small, non-polar molecule crosses a membrane up its concentration gradient. This is an example of:

    • A.

      Simple Passive Diffusion

    • B.

      Active Transport

    • C.

      Some guy climbing the stairs

    Correct Answer
    B. Active Transport
    Explanation
    Active transport refers to the movement of molecules across a membrane against their concentration gradient, requiring the use of energy. In this scenario, the small, non-polar molecule is crossing the membrane up its concentration gradient, which means it is moving from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This movement against the concentration gradient requires energy, thus making it an example of active transport.

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  • 24. 

    What does flux describe?

    • A.

      Rate at which a substance crosses the plasma membrane

    • B.

      Rate of transport

    • C.

      Number of molecules that cross the membrane per given time (mole/s)

    • D.

      All options are correct therefore I hereby choose this answer because by clicking this answer I then agree to choose the rest of the other answers with the click of a button.

    Correct Answer
    D. All options are correct therefore I hereby choose this answer because by clicking this answer I then agree to choose the rest of the other answers with the click of a button.
    Explanation
    Flux describes the rate at which a substance crosses the plasma membrane, the rate of transport, and the number of molecules that cross the membrane per given time (mole/s).

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  • 25. 

    This graph shows

    • A.

      Facilitated Diffusion

    • B.

      Active Transport

    Correct Answer
    A. Facilitated Diffusion
    Explanation
    The graph most likely shows facilitated diffusion because it is a passive process that relies on carrier proteins to transport molecules across the cell membrane. Active transport, on the other hand, requires energy to move molecules against their concentration gradient. Without further information, it is reasonable to assume that the graph represents the movement of molecules through facilitated diffusion.

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  • 26. 

    This graph shows

    • A.

      Passive Diffusion

    • B.

      Truck crossing 99

    • C.

      Ultimate Diffusion

    Correct Answer
    A. Passive Diffusion
    Explanation
    The graph represents a process called passive diffusion. It shows the movement of trucks crossing a road numbered 99. The term "ultimate diffusion" is not clear in the context of the graph, but it could possibly refer to the maximum limit or saturation point of the diffusion process.

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  • 27. 

    _Osmolarity and molarity of a solution will not always be different.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because osmolarity and molarity can be equal in certain situations. Osmolarity is a measure of the total concentration of solute particles in a solution, while molarity is a measure of the concentration of a solute in a solution. In some cases, the solute particles may dissociate into multiple ions, resulting in a higher osmolarity compared to molarity. However, if the solute does not dissociate or only dissociates into one particle, the osmolarity and molarity will be the same. Therefore, it is possible for the osmolarity and molarity of a solution to be equal.

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  • 28. 

    Which of the fllowing is NOT a type of endocytosis.

    • A.

      Receptor-mediated phagocytosis

    • B.

      Phagocytosis

    • C.

      Receptormediated pinocytosis

    • D.

      Option 4

    Correct Answer
    A. Receptor-mediated phagocytosis
    Explanation
    Receptor-mediated phagocytosis is indeed a type of endocytosis. It is a process by which cells specifically take in large particles or microorganisms by binding them to specific receptors on the cell surface, followed by internalization and digestion. This process is important for immune responses and the clearance of pathogens. Therefore, the correct answer is Option 4, as it is NOT a type of endocytosis.

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  • 29. 

    What determines the effect of the chemical signal?

    • A.

      The type of messenger

    • B.

      What type and amount of receptor is present

    Correct Answer
    B. What type and amount of receptor is present
    Explanation
    The effect of a chemical signal is determined by the type and amount of receptor that is present. Receptors are proteins located on the surface of cells or inside cells, and they are specific to certain chemical signals. When a chemical signal binds to its specific receptor, it triggers a series of cellular responses. The type of receptor determines the specific response that will occur, while the amount of receptor present can affect the intensity or magnitude of the response. Therefore, the type and amount of receptor present play a crucial role in determining the effect of the chemical signal.

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  • 30. 

    _   A  ____________ tend to combine with or dissolve in lipids or fats. (loves fat)

    Correct Answer
    lipophilic
    lipophilic's
    Lipophilic
    Lipophilic's
    hydrophobic
    Hydrophobic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "lipophilic" or "lipophilic's". Lipophilic substances have an affinity for lipids or fats and tend to combine with or dissolve in them. "Hydrophobic" is not the correct answer as it refers to substances that repel or do not mix well with water, not specifically lipids or fats.

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  • 31. 

    _ A ________ have a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wet by water. (water loving)

    Correct Answer
    Hydrophilic
    hydrophilic
    lipophobic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Hydrophilic". Hydrophilic substances have a tendency to mix with, dissolve in, or be wet by water. This term is often used to describe molecules or materials that have an affinity for water and can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules. In contrast, "lipophobic" refers to substances that repel or are not soluble in lipids or fats.

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  • 32. 

    Which side has a higher concentration of water?

    • A.

      Hyperosmotic side

    • B.

      Hypoosmotic side

    • C.

      Aquaman has terrible powers

    Correct Answer
    B. Hypoosmotic side
    Explanation
    The hypoosmotic side has a higher concentration of water compared to the hyperosmotic side. In osmosis, water molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. Therefore, the hypoosmotic side, which has a lower solute concentration, will have a higher concentration of water molecules.

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  • 33.