Rocks And Minerals Test Review (Graded)

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Michael Slaughter
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Quizzes Created: 3 | Total Attempts: 1,903
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Rock And Mineral Quizzes & Trivia

Test Review for Test (12-12-13)


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of these has the greatest hardness?

    • A.

      Gypsum

    • B.

      Iron

    • C.

      Gold

    • D.

      Diamond

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. Diamond
    Explanation
    Diamond has the greatest hardness among the given options. Hardness is a measure of a material's resistance to scratching or indentation. Diamond is the hardest naturally occurring substance on Earth, ranking 10 on the Mohs scale of hardness. It is composed of carbon atoms arranged in a unique crystal lattice structure, which gives it exceptional strength and durability. Gypsum, iron, and gold are relatively softer materials compared to diamond and therefore have lower hardness ratings.

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  • 2. 

    Which of these is measured to have the least hardness?

    • A.

      Cotton

    • B.

      Talc

    • C.

      Shale

    • D.

      Finger Nails

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    B. Talc
    Explanation
    Talc is measured to have the least hardness compared to the other options listed. Hardness is a measure of a material's resistance to scratching or indentation. Talc has a Mohs hardness scale rating of 1, which is the lowest on the scale. Cotton, shale, and finger nails have higher hardness values compared to talc, making talc the correct answer for the material with the least hardness.

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  • 3. 

    Some feldspar types are referred to as k-spar.  Why?

    • A.

      They contain Krypton

    • B.

      They contain Keratin

    • C.

      They contain Sodium

    • D.

      They contain Potassium

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. They contain Potassium
    Explanation
    Feldspar types are referred to as k-spar because they contain potassium. Feldspar is a group of minerals that are commonly found in igneous and metamorphic rocks. Potassium is one of the elements present in the composition of feldspar minerals. Therefore, the term "k-spar" is used to specifically refer to feldspar types that contain potassium.

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  • 4. 

    What is the main chemical formula for silicates?

    • A.

      One Silicon and Two Oxygen

    • B.

      One Silicon and Four Oxygen

    • C.

      Two Silicon and Eight Oxygen

    • D.

      Four Silicon and One Oxygen

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    B. One Silicon and Four Oxygen
    Explanation
    The main chemical formula for silicates is one silicon and four oxygen. Silicates are a type of mineral that make up the majority of the Earth's crust. The formula SiO4 represents the basic building block of silicates, with one silicon atom bonded to four oxygen atoms. This arrangement forms a tetrahedral structure, which is characteristic of silicates. Silicates are important in various industries, such as construction, ceramics, and glass manufacturing.

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  • 5. 

    Igneous rocks that cool most rapidly will have the ____________________ crystals

    • A.

      Largest

    • B.

      Smallest

    • C.

      Most Colorful

    • D.

      Prettiest

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    B. Smallest
    Explanation
    Igneous rocks that cool most rapidly will have the smallest crystals. This is because rapid cooling prevents the atoms in the molten rock from arranging themselves into a regular pattern, resulting in the formation of small crystals. Slow cooling allows more time for the atoms to arrange themselves into larger crystals. Therefore, the faster the cooling process, the smaller the crystals will be in the resulting igneous rock.

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  • 6. 

    Most Minerals in the Earth's crust are classified as _______________.

    • A.

      Metamorphic

    • B.

      Silicate

    • C.

      Glossy

    • D.

      Sedamentary

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    B. Silicate
    Explanation
    Most minerals in the Earth's crust are classified as silicate because silicates are the most abundant and widely distributed minerals in the Earth's crust. Silicates are composed of silicon and oxygen, and they make up approximately 90% of the Earth's crust. They are found in various forms, including quartz, feldspar, mica, and clay minerals. Silicates are important components of rocks and minerals, and their abundance plays a crucial role in the geology and composition of the Earth's crust.

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  • 7. 

    Which process occurs when sand particles settles out of the water or wind and deposit sediments?

    • A.

      Cementation

    • B.

      Foliation

    • C.

      Phosphoresence

    • D.

      Deposition

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Deposition
    Explanation
    Deposition is the process that occurs when sand particles settle out of water or wind and deposit sediments. This process involves the settling and accumulation of sediments, such as sand, in a specific location. It is a key step in the formation of sedimentary rocks, as the sediments that are deposited can eventually become compacted and cemented together to form rock layers. Cementation, foliation, and phosphorescence are not processes that specifically involve the settling and deposition of sediments, making them incorrect answers.

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  • 8. 

    The tendency of a mineral to break along a smooth plane is called what?

    • A.

      Cleavage

    • B.

      Fracture

    • C.

      Melt

    • D.

      Hardness

    Correct Answer
    A. Cleavage
    Explanation
    Cleavage refers to the tendency of a mineral to break along a smooth plane. This means that when a mineral is subjected to stress or force, it will break along specific planes of weakness, resulting in flat, smooth surfaces. Cleavage is a property that is determined by the internal arrangement of atoms within the mineral's crystal structure. Different minerals exhibit different types and degrees of cleavage, which can be used as an identifying characteristic in mineral identification.

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  • 9. 

     From what type of rock can metamorphic rocks be formed?

    • A.

      Sedimentary

    • B.

      Igneous

    • C.

      Metamorphic

    • D.

      All of these

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    Metamorphic rocks can be formed from any type of rock, including sedimentary, igneous, and even other metamorphic rocks. This is because the process of metamorphism involves the transformation of existing rocks under intense heat and pressure. Sedimentary rocks can be subjected to heat and pressure, causing them to recrystallize and form metamorphic rocks. Similarly, igneous rocks can also undergo metamorphism when exposed to high temperatures and pressures. Additionally, pre-existing metamorphic rocks can be further transformed into new metamorphic rocks through the same process. Therefore, all types of rocks have the potential to become metamorphic rocks.

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  • 10. 

     What are the three types of sedimentary rock?

    • A.

      organic, chemical and clastic rocks

    • B.

      Extrusive, chemical and intrusive rocks

    • C.

      intrusive, clastic and organic rocks

    • D.

      porphyritic, organic and chemical rocks

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    A. organic, chemical and clastic rocks
    Explanation
    The three types of sedimentary rock are organic, chemical, and clastic rocks. Organic rocks are formed from the accumulation and compaction of organic materials such as plants and animals. Chemical rocks are formed when minerals dissolved in water crystallize and precipitate out. Clastic rocks are formed from the accumulation and lithification of fragments of pre-existing rocks.

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  • 11. 

    What is the main difference between a conglomerate and a sedimentary breccia?

    • A.

      Breccia sediments are angular; conglomerate sediments are rounded.

    • B.

      Breccia is well stratified (layered); a conglomerate is poorly stratified.

    • C.

      Breccia sediments are the size of baseballs; conglomerate sediments are larger.

    • D.

      Breccia has a compacted, clay-rich matrix; conglomerate has no matrix.

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    A. Breccia sediments are angular; conglomerate sediments are rounded.
    Explanation
    The main difference between a conglomerate and a sedimentary breccia is that breccia sediments are angular, while conglomerate sediments are rounded.

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  • 12. 

    ____________________ are examples of sheet silicates:  

    • A.

      Olivine and feldspar

    • B.

      Pyroxenes and amphiboles

    • C.

      Micas

    • D.

      Quartz

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    C. Micas
    Explanation
    Micas are examples of sheet silicates because they have a layered structure with sheets of silica tetrahedra that are weakly bonded together. This structure allows micas to easily split into thin sheets or flakes. Micas are commonly found in igneous and metamorphic rocks and have a variety of colors and compositions. Olivine and feldspar, pyroxenes and amphiboles, and quartz are not examples of sheet silicates as they have different crystal structures.

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  • 13. 

    Which sequence of terms reflects increasing clastic sediment size? 

    • A.

      sand, silt, clay, boulder

    • B.

      boulder, pebble, sand, silt

    • C.

      Silt, sand, pebble, clay

    • D.

      Silt, sand, pebble, boulder

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. Silt, sand, pebble, boulder
    Explanation
    The correct answer is silt, sand, pebble, boulder. This sequence reflects increasing clastic sediment size because silt particles are smaller than sand particles, sand particles are smaller than pebble particles, and pebble particles are smaller than boulder particles.

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  • 14. 

    ________ is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock.

    • A.

      Coal

    • B.

      Granite

    • C.

      Shale

    • D.

      Breccia

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    C. Shale
    Explanation
    Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock. It is composed of very small particles, such as clay and silt, that have been compacted and cemented together over time. Shale is known for its ability to split into thin layers, called fissility, and is commonly used as a source of oil and natural gas. Coal is not a sedimentary rock, but rather a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock. Granite is an igneous rock, and breccia is a coarse-grained sedimentary rock. Therefore, the correct answer is shale.

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  • 15. 

    The process of lithification of clastic (detrital) sedimentary rocks involves ___________.

    • A.

      Melting and crystallization

    • B.

      weathering and erosion

    • C.

      Compaction and cementation

    • D.

      deformation and melting

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    C. Compaction and cementation
    Explanation
    The process of lithification of clastic (detrital) sedimentary rocks involves compaction and cementation. Compaction occurs when the weight of overlying sediments compresses the lower layers, reducing the pore space and increasing the density of the sediment. Cementation, on the other hand, refers to the process of minerals precipitating and filling in the remaining pore spaces, binding the sediment particles together to form a solid rock. These two processes are essential in transforming loose sediment into a coherent and durable sedimentary rock.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is a metamorphic rock?  

    • A.

      Basalt

    • B.

      Granite

    • C.

      Sandstone

    • D.

      Slate

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. Slate
    Explanation
    Slate is a metamorphic rock because it is formed from the metamorphism of shale or mudstone. During metamorphism, the original sedimentary rock is subjected to heat and pressure, causing the minerals within it to recrystallize and reorient their structure. This process transforms the rock into slate, which is characterized by its fine-grained texture, layered appearance, and ability to split into thin sheets.

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  • 17. 

    You go out and dig around in your back yard, the deeper you dig you begin to discover a layer of rock several feet underground.  Under closer inspection the rock layer that is lignite coal.  What type of environment was present when the sediment was deposited?

    • A.

      A moving river.

    • B.

      A swamp.

    • C.

      A mountain range.

    • D.

      A shallow sea.

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    B. A swamp.
    Explanation
    The presence of lignite coal suggests that the sediment was deposited in a swamp environment. Lignite coal is formed from the remains of plants that grow in wet, marshy areas such as swamps. The fact that the rock layer is several feet underground indicates that it was buried over time, which is consistent with the formation of coal in swamp environments where plant material accumulates and is eventually buried and compressed.

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  • 18. 

    According to Bowens’ Reaction Series, which of the following would be rare to find on the surface of the Earth due to the conditions under which it formed?

    • A.

      Quartz

    • B.

      biotite

    • C.

      Olivine

    • D.

      Potassium feldspar

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    C. Olivine
    Explanation
    Olivine would be rare to find on the surface of the Earth due to the conditions under which it formed. Olivine is a mineral that forms at high temperatures and pressures, typically in the Earth's mantle or in extrusive igneous rocks. It is not stable under the conditions found on the Earth's surface, where lower temperatures and pressures prevail. Therefore, olivine is not commonly found on the surface of the Earth.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following conditions lead to metamorphic rocks?

    • A.

      A change in chemical environment.

    • B.

      An increase in temperature.

    • C.

      An increase in pressure.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    • E.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above.
    Explanation
    Metamorphic rocks are formed through the process of metamorphism, which involves changes in the chemical environment, an increase in temperature, and an increase in pressure. These conditions cause the existing rocks to undergo physical and chemical changes, resulting in the formation of new rocks with different mineral compositions and textures. Therefore, all of the given conditions - a change in chemical environment, an increase in temperature, and an increase in pressure - can lead to the formation of metamorphic rocks.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 20, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 11, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Michael Slaughter
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