Muscle Of Foot

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Muscle Of Foot

Name this muscle


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Name this muscle ?
    • A. 

      ABDUCTOR DIGITI MINIMI

    • B. 

      FLEXOR DIGIT MINIMI

    • C. 

      ABDUCTOR DIGIT V

    • D. 

      ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS

    • E. 

      ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS

  • 2. 
    Name this muscle
    • A. 

      FLEXOR DIGITORUM BREVIS

    • B. 

      FLEXOR DIGITI MINIMI

    • C. 

      ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS

    • D. 

      ABDUCTOR DIGITI V

    • E. 

      FLEXOR HALLUCIS BREVIS

  • 3. 
    • A. 

      ABDUCTOR HALLUCCIS

    • B. 

      FLEXOR DIGITORUM BREVIS

    • C. 

      LUMBRICALS

    • D. 

      ABDUCTOR DIGITI V

    • E. 

      FLEXOR ACCESSORIUS

  • 4. 
    Name this muscle
    • A. 

      ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS

    • B. 

      FLEXOR DIDGITORUM BREVIS

    • C. 

      ABDUCTIOR HALLUCIS

    • D. 

      ABDUCTOR DIGIT V

    • E. 

      FLEXOR ACCESSORIUS

  • 5. 
    Name this muscle
    • A. 

      LUMBRICALS

    • B. 

      FLEXOR ACCESSORIUS

    • C. 

      FLEXOR DIGITORUM BREVIS

    • D. 

      ABDUCTOR HALLUS

    • E. 

      DORSAL INTEROSSEI

  • 6. 
    Name this muscle
    • A. 

      EXTENSOR HALLUCIS

    • B. 

      EXTENSOR DIGIORUM BREVIS

    • C. 

      ADDUCTOR HULLUCIS

    • D. 

      ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS

  • 7. 
    Name this muscle
    • A. 

      PLANTAR INTEROSSEI

    • B. 

      QUADRATUS PLANTAE

    • C. 

      LUMBRICALS

    • D. 

      FLEXOR ACCESSORIUS

    • E. 

      BOTH B AND D

  • 8. 
    Name this muscle
    • A. 

      FLEXOR DIGITI MINIMI

    • B. 

      ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS

    • C. 

      ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS

    • D. 

      FLEXOR HALLUCIS BREVIS

  • 9. 
    Name this muscle 
    • A. 

      FLEXOR DIGITORUMM BREVIS

    • B. 

      EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS

    • C. 

      LUMBRICALS

    • D. 

      ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS

  • 10. 
    Name this muscle
    • A. 

      DORSAL INTEROSSEI

    • B. 

      PLANTAR INTEROSSEI

    • C. 

      EXTENSION HALLUCIS BREVIS

    • D. 

      EXTENSOR DIGIORUM BREVIS

    • E. 

      FLEXOR DIGITORUM BREVIS

  • 11. 
    Name this muscle
    • A. 

      ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS

    • B. 

      ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS

    • C. 

      FLEXOR HALLUCIS BREVIS

    • D. 

      FLEXOR DIGITI MINIMI

    • E. 

      LUMBRICALS

  • 12. 
    Name this muscle
    • A. 

      LUMBRICALS

    • B. 

      PLANTAR INTEROSSEI

    • C. 

      DORSAL INTEROSSEI

    • D. 

      FLEXOR DIGITORUM BREVIS

  • 13. 
    Insertion point of flexor digit minimi
    • A. 

      Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of hallux

    • B. 

      Base of proximal phalanx of lesser toes

    • C. 

      Lateral side of base of metatarsal head

    • D. 

      Lateral side of base of the 5th proximal phalanx

    • E. 

      Lateral side of the base of the proximal phalanx of hallux

  • 14. 
    Origins of abductor hallucis
    • A. 

      Medial process of posterior calcaneal tuberosity

    • B. 

      Medial and lateral process of posterior calcaneal tuberosity

    • C. 

      Lateral head of calcaneus tuberosity

    • D. 

      Base of metatarsals

    • E. 

      Plantar surface of the cuboid

  • 15. 
    Action of flexor digit minimi
    • A. 

      Abduction of 5th metatarophalangeal joint, Support lateral longitudinal arch

    • B. 

      Plantarflexion of 5th metatarsophalangeal joint

    • C. 

      Plantarflexion of metatarophalangeal joints of 4 lesser toes

    • D. 

      Flexes and abducts big toe. Supports medial longitudinal arch

    • E. 

      Abduction of 1st metatarsophalangeal joint

  • 16. 
    Insertion point  of abductor hallucis
    • A. 

      Four lateral toes at border of middle phalanx

    • B. 

      Proximal phalanx of toes 2,3,4,

    • C. 

      Proximal phalanx of hallux

    • D. 

      Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of hallux

    • E. 

      Lateral side of 5th proximal phalanx

  • 17. 
    Action of abductor hallucis
    • A. 

      Abduction of 5th metatarsophalangeal joint, Support lateral longitudinal arch

    • B. 

      Abduction of 1st metatarsophangeal joint Supports medial longitudinal arch

    • C. 

      Plantarflexion of metatarsophalangeal joint of hallux

    • D. 

      Plantarflexion of metatarsophangeal joint of four lesser toes

    • E. 

      Adduction of 1st metatarsophalangeal joint

  • 18. 
    Origins of abductor digit v
    • A. 

      Medial process of posterior calcaneal tuberosity

    • B. 

      Lateral head - tuberosity of calcaneus and medial head - medial side of calcaneus

    • C. 

      Base of the 5th metatarsal

    • D. 

      Medial and lateral processes of posterior calcaneal tuberosity

    • E. 

      Bases of 2,3,4 metatarsals

  • 19. 
    Insertion point of abductor digit v
    • A. 

      Lateral side of base of 5th proximal phalanx

    • B. 

      Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of hallux

    • C. 

      Medial side the base of the 5th proximal phalanx

    • D. 

      Lateral side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the hallux

    • E. 

      Proximal phalanx of hallux

  • 20. 
    Action of abductor digiti v
    • A. 

      Plantarflexion of metatarsophalangeal joint

    • B. 

      Abduction of 1st metatarsophalangeal joint

    • C. 

      Abduction of 5th metatarsal phalangeal joint. Supports lateral longitudinal arch

    • D. 

      Plantarflexion of 5th metatarsophalangeal joint

    • E. 

      Flexion of 1st metatarsophalangeal joint , support medial longitudinal arch

  • 21. 
    Which muscles are in the 1st layer
    • A. 

      FLEXOR DIGITORUM BREVIS

    • B. 

      ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS

    • C. 

      ADDUCTOR HALLUCIS

    • D. 

      ABDUCTOR DIGIT V

    • E. 

      A, B AND D

  • 22. 
    • A. 

      Medial process of posterior calcaneal tuberosity & flexor reticulum

    • B. 

      Medial aspect of base of proximal phalanx of big toe via medial sesamoid

    • C. 

      Medial process of posterior calcaneal tuberosity

    • D. 

      Base of 5th metatarsal

    • E. 

      Plantar surface of the cuboid

  • 23. 
    What muscles are in the 2nd layer
    • A. 

      LUMBRICALS

    • B. 

      ABDUCTOR HALLUCIS

    • C. 

      FLEXOR ACCESSORIUS

    • D. 

      BOTH A AND B

    • E. 

      BOTH A AND C

  • 24. 
    Insertion of flexor digitorum brevis
    • A. 

      Medial side of base of proximal of hallux

    • B. 

      Lateral side of base of 5th proximal phalanx

    • C. 

      Base of proximal phalanx of four lesser toes

    • D. 

      By 3 tendons into proximal phalanx of toes 2,3,4

    • E. 

      Four tendons to four lateral toes to border of middle phalanx.

  • 25. 
    Action of flexor digitorum brevis
    • A. 

      Abduction of 1st metatarsophalangeal joint

    • B. 

      Adduction of 1st metatarsophalangeal joint

    • C. 

      Plantarflexion of metatarophalangeal joint to 4 lesser toes

    • D. 

      Plantarflexion of 5th metatarsophalangeal joint

    • E. 

      Extends lesser interphalangeal joints and flexes lesser metatarsophalangeal joints

  • 26. 
    Insertion of lumbricals
    • A. 

      Tendons split to give 2 insertion: lateral side of base of the proximal phalanx and dorsal expansion of 3,4,5

    • B. 

      The tendon split to give 2 insertions : to the base of the proximal phalanx and to the dorsal expanion of 2,3,4,5

    • C. 

      Base of proximal phalanx and dorsal expansion , medial side

    • D. 

      Into tendons of flexor didgitorum longus

    • E. 

      Lateral side of the base of the 5th phalangeal joint

  • 27. 
    Origins of flexor accessorius
    • A. 

      Lateral head - tuberosity of calcaneus, medial head - medial side of calcaneus

    • B. 

      Medial process of posterior calcaneal tuberosity

    • C. 

      Lateral side of base of 5th proximal phalanx

    • D. 

      Medial and lateral process of posterior calcaneal tuberosity

    • E. 

      Plantar surface of the cuboid

  • 28. 
    Action of flexor hallucis brevis
    • A. 

      Plantarflexion of 1st metatarsal phalangeal joint

    • B. 

      Flexion of 1st metatarsal phalangeal joint

    • C. 

      Adduction of 1st meatarsal phalangeal joint

  • 29. 
    Origins of flexor digitorum brevis
    • A. 

      Medial and lateral processes of posterior calcaneal tuberosity

    • B. 

      Lateral head of tuberosity of calcaneus

    • C. 

      Base of the 5th proximal phalanx

    • D. 

      Medial process of posterior calcaneal tuberosity

    • E. 

      Plantar surface of the cuboid

  • 30. 
    Insertion piont of flexor accessorius
    • A. 

      Base of proximal phalanx and dorsal expansion

    • B. 

      The tendons split to give 2 inserations to base of the proximal phalanx and dorsal expansin of 2,3,4,5

    • C. 

      Lateral side of the base of the 5th proximal phalanx

    • D. 

      Into the tendons of flexor digitorum longus

    • E. 

      The tendons split to give 2 inserations to base of the proximal phalanx and dorsal expansin of 3,4,5

  • 31. 
    Action of flexor accessorius
    • A. 

      Extends lesser interphalangeal joint

    • B. 

      Plantar flexion of metatarsophalangeal joint

    • C. 

      Redirection the pull of FDL and assist plantarflexion

    • D. 

      Adduction of 1st metatarsophalangeal joint

    • E. 

      Abduction of 1st metatarsophalangeal joint

  • 32. 
    Which muscle are the sesamoid bone inserted into the tendon
    • A. 

      Flexor digit V

    • B. 

      Abductor Hallucis

    • C. 

      Adductor Hallucis

    • D. 

      Flexor digiti minimi

    • E. 

      Flexor hallucis brevis

  • 33. 
    Which muscle origin from medial process of posterior calcaneal tuberosity
    • A. 

      Flexor digitorium brevis

    • B. 

      Abductor Hallucis

    • C. 

      Adductor Hallucis

    • D. 

      Plantar interossei

    • E. 

      Both A and B

  • 34. 
    Origins of lumbricals
    • A. 

      2nd from medial aspect of 1st tendon of FDL, 1,3,4 from adjacent of FDL

    • B. 

      4th from medial aspect of 4th tendon of FDL, 1,2,3,from adjacent of FDL

    • C. 

      1st from medial aspect of 1st tendon of FDL, 2,3,4 from adjacent of FDL

    • D. 

      Joint capsules & inter metatarsal ligments of 2,3,4

    • E. 

      Joint capsuls & intermetatarsal ligaments of 3,4,5

  • 35. 
    Name a unipennate muscle
    • A. 

      Flexor accessorius

    • B. 

      Adductor hallucis

    • C. 

      Lumbrical

  • 36. 
    Insertion of flexor hallucis brevis
    • A. 

      The tendons of FDL

    • B. 

      Lateral side of the base of the 5th proximal phalanx

    • C. 

      Lateral side of the base of proximal phalanx of hallux

    • D. 

      The tendons split to give 2 insertions to either side of the base of the proximal phalanx

  • 37. 
    Origins of adductor hallucis
    • A. 

      Transverse head : joint capsul & intermetatarsal ligaments of 3,4,5 oblique head: base of 2,3,4 metatarsals

    • B. 

      Transverse head : joint capsul & intermetatarsal ligaments of 2,4,5 oblique head: base of 2,3,4 metatarsals

    • C. 

      Transverse head : joint capsul & intermetatarsal ligaments of 3,4,5 oblique head: base of 3,4,5 metatarsals

    • D. 

      Transverse head : joint capsul & intermetatarsal ligaments of 2,3,4,5 oblique head: base of 2,3,4, 5 metatarsals

  • 38. 
    Action of adductor hallucis
    • A. 

      Abduction of 1st metatarsal phalangeal joint

    • B. 

      Abduction of 5th metatarsal phalangeal joint

    • C. 

      Adduction of 1st metatarsal phalangeal joint

    • D. 

      Adduction of 5th metatarsal phalangeal joint

  • 39. 
    Origins of flexor hallucis brevis
    • A. 

      Plantar surface of the cuboid

    • B. 

      Base of 5th metatarsal

    • C. 

      Base of 2,3,4 metatarsals

    • D. 

      Plantar surface of calcaneal

    • E. 

      Lateral head of posterior calcaneal

  • 40. 
    Which muscle insert into lateral side of the base of the proximal phalanx of the hallux
    • A. 

      Adductor hallucis

    • B. 

      Abductor hallucis

    • C. 

      Flexor hallucis brevis

    • D. 

      Both a and c

    • E. 

      Both b and c

  • 41. 
    Origins of plantar interossei
    • A. 

      Bipennate from inner aspects of shafts of all metatarsals

    • B. 

      Inferomedial shafts of 3rd , 4th and 5th metatarsals

    • C. 

      Adjacent sides of 3,4.5 metatarsal shafts

    • D. 

      Medial side of 2, 3, 4

    • E. 

      Adjacent sides of 2,3,4

  • 42. 
    Insertion point of plantar interossei
    • A. 

      Bases of proximal phalanges and dorsal extensor expansions of medial side of 2nd toe and lateral sides of 2nd , 3rd and 4th toes

    • B. 

      The tendons split to give 2 insertions to lateral side of base of the proximal phalanx and dorsal expansion of 3, 4. 5

    • C. 

      The tendons split to give 2 insertions to lateral side of base of the proximal phalanx and dorsal expansion of 2, 3, 4. 5

    • D. 

      Medial sides of bases of proximal phalanges with slips to dorsal extensor expansions of 3rd, 4th and 5th toes

    • E. 

      The tendons split to give 2 insertions to lateral side of base of the proximal phalanx and dorsal expansion of 2, 3, 4.

  • 43. 
    ORIGINS OF DORSAL INTEROSSEI
    • A. 

      Medial side of 2nd and adjacent sides of 2nd,3rd,4th,and 5th meatatarsal shafts

    • B. 

      Bases of proximal phalanges and dorsal extensor expansions of medial side of 2nd toe and lateral sides of 2nd , 3rd and 4th toes

    • C. 

      Medial side of 2nd and adjacent sides of 3rd,4th,and 5th meatatarsal shafts

    • D. 

      Bases of proximal phalanges and dorsal extensor expansions of medial side of 2nd toe and lateral sides of 2nd , 3rd 4th and 5th toes

  • 44. 
    Insertion of dorsal interossei
    • A. 

      Bases of proximal phalanges and dorsal extensor expansions of medial side of 2nd toe and lateral sides of 2nd , 3rd and 4th toes

    • B. 

      Bases of proximal phalanges and dorsal extensor expansions of medial side of 3rd toe and lateral sides of 2nd , 3rd and 4th toes

    • C. 

      Bases of proximal phalanges and dorsal extensor expansions of medial side of 2nd toe and lateral sides of 3rd and 4th toes

    • D. 

      Bases of proximal phalanges and dorsal extensor expansions of medial side of 2nd toe and lateral sides of 3rd, 4th and 5th toes

  • 45. 
    Action of dorsal interossei
    • A. 

      Abduction of 2nd , 3rd and 4th toes, flexion of interphalangeal joints and metatarsal phalangeal joints

    • B. 

      Adduction of 2nd , 3rd and 4th toes, flexion of interphalangeal joints and metatarsal phalangeal joints

    • C. 

      Abduction of 3rd,4th and 5th toes, flexion of interphalangeal joints and metatarsal phalangeal joints

    • D. 

      Adduction of 3rd,4th and 5th toes, flexion of interphalangeal joints and metatarsal phalangeal joints

  • 46. 
    Attachments of long plantar ligaments
    • A. 

      Distally: deep part of navicular, superfical part to base of 2,3,4 metatarsals

    • B. 

      Distally: deep part of cubiod, superfical part to base of 2,3,4 metatarsals

    • C. 

      Proximally: plantar surface of calcaneum distal to tubercles

    • D. 

      Both a and c

    • E. 

      Both b and c

  • 47. 
    Insertion of extensor digiorum brevis
    • A. 

      By 2 tendons into proximal phalanx of 2, 3,

    • B. 

      By 2 tendons into proximal phalanx of 3, 4,

    • C. 

      By 3 tendons into proximal phalanx of 2, 3, 4

    • D. 

      By 3 tendons into proximal phalanx of 3, 4, 5

  • 48. 
    Action of extensor digiorum brevis 
    • A. 

      Extends 2, 3,4 metatarsal phalangeal joints

    • B. 

      Extends 3,4,5 metatarsal phalangeal joints

    • C. 

      Extends 3,4 metatarsal phalangeal joints

    • D. 

      Extends 2, 3 metatarsal phalangeal joints

  • 49. 
    Insertion of extensor hallucis brevis
    • A. 

      Medial phalanx of hallux

    • B. 

      Lateral base of 5th proximal phalanx

    • C. 

      Proximal phalanx of hallux

    • D. 

      Lateral side of the base of the proximal phalanx

  • 50. 
    • A. 

      Adduction 2nd 3rd 4th and 5th toes flexion interphalangeal joints and metatarsal phalangeal joints

    • B. 

      The tendons split to give 2 insertions to lateral side of base of the proximal phalanx and dorsal expansion of 2, 3, 4. 5

    • C. 

      Adduction 3rd 4th and 5th toes flexion interphalangeal joints and metatarsal phalangeal joints

    • D. 

      Abduction 2nd , 3rd and 4th toes flexion interphalangeal joints and metatarsal phalangeal joints

    • E. 

      Abduction 3rd , 4th and 5th toes flexion interphalangeal joints and metatarsal phalangeal joints

  • 51. 
    Insertion of adductor hallucis
    • A. 

      Lateral side of the base of proximal phalanx of the hallux

    • B. 

      Lateral side of the base of the 5th proximal phalanx

    • C. 

      Medial side of base of proximal phalanx of hallus

    • D. 

      Base of the proximal phalanx

  • 52. 
    Action of extensor hallucis brevis
    • A. 

      Extends 5th metatarsal phalangeal joint

    • B. 

      Extends all metatarsal joints

    • C. 

      Plantar flexion of 1st metatarsal phalangeal joint

    • D. 

      Extends 1st metatarsal phalangeal joint

  • 53. 
    ORIGINS OF EXTENSOR DIGITORUM BREVIS
    • A. 

      Superior surface of calcaneum

    • B. 

      Plantar surface of calcaneum

    • C. 

      Superior surface of cuboid

    • D. 

      Plantar surface of cuboid

  • 54. 
    ORIGINS OF EXTENSOR DIGIORUM BREVIS 
    • A. 

      Superior surface of anterior calcaneum

    • B. 

      Plantar surface of calcaneum

    • C. 

      Superior surface of cubiod

    • D. 

      Base of 4th metatarsals

  • 55. 
    Plantar calcaneo navicular ligaments is also called
    • A. 

      Spring ligament

    • B. 

      Short ligament

    • C. 

      Long plantar ligament

  • 56. 
    Plantar calcaneo cuboid ligament is also called
    • A. 

      Spring ligament

    • B. 

      Short ligament

    • C. 

      Long plantar ligament

  • 57. 
    Spring ligament attachments
    • A. 

      Proximally superior tubercle of calcaneum

    • B. 

      Proximally anterior tubercle of calcaneum

    • C. 

      Distally cuboid proximal to peroneal groove

    • D. 

      Both a and c

    • E. 

      Both b and c

  • 58. 
    Short ligaments attachments
    • A. 

      Proximally sustentaculum tali of calcaneum

    • B. 

      Distally plantar surface & tuberosity of the navicular

    • C. 

      Distally plantar surface navicular

    • D. 

      Both a and b

    • E. 

      Both a and c

  • 59. 
    Straightening a joint so that the angle between its parts is increased and the parts move farther apart.
    • A. 

      Flexion

    • B. 

      Extension

    • C. 

      Abduction

    • D. 

      Adduction

  • 60. 
    Moving a part toward the midline.
    • A. 

      Adduction

    • B. 

      Abduction

    • C. 

      Flexion

    • D. 

      Hyperextension

  • 61. 
    Moving a part so that its end follows a circular path.
    • A. 

      Flexion

    • B. 

      Circumduction

    • C. 

      Rotation

    • D. 

      Extension

  • 62. 
    Bending a joint so that the angle between its parts is decreased.
    • A. 

      Rotation

    • B. 

      Extension

    • C. 

      Flexion

    • D. 

      Adduction

  • 63. 
    Name this bone ? formely known as the scaphoid posterior articular facet for the talus ; anterior articular facet for the 3 cuneiforms
  • 64. 
    Name the largest cunieform
  • 65. 
  • 66. 
  • 67. 
  • 68. 
    Name this bone formerly known as the astragalus articular facet on upper surface and sides of tibia and fibulaon under surface for calcaneum on the anterior surface for navicular
  • 69. 
    Which bone in the foot is unique in having no muscles attached to it
  • 70. 
    Which layer does the flexor digitorum longus and flexor hallucis longus attach
    • A. 

      1st

    • B. 

      2nd

    • C. 

      3rd

    • D. 

      4th

  • 71. 
  • 72. 
  • 73. 
    Where is the intertrochanteric line
  • 74. 
    Name this bone ?posterior articular facet for the calcaneus: anterior articular facet for 4th and 5th metatarsal.has groove on the under surface for tendon of peroneus longus  
  • 75. 
    Name the smallest cunieform
  • 76. 
    Name this bone ?the largest foot bone articular facet on upper surface for the talus : anterior surface for cuboidprominent sustentaculum tali projecting medially
  • 77. 
    Name the site that the highlighted area articulates with
  • 78. 
    Name the site that the highlighted area articulates with
  • 79. 
    Name the site that the highlighted area articulates with
  • 80. 
    Name the site that the highlighted area articulates with
  • 81. 
    Name the site that the highlighted area articulates with 
  • 82. 
    An enlargement of the end of a bone.
    • A. 

      Trochanter

    • B. 

      Condyle

    • C. 

      Epicondyle

    • D. 

      Head

  • 83. 
    A tube like passageway within a bone.
    • A. 

      Fossa

    • B. 

      Process

    • C. 

      Meatus

    • D. 

      Trochanter

  • 84. 
    A tiny pit or depression
    • A. 

      Condyle

    • B. 

      Epicondyle

    • C. 

      Fossa

    • D. 

      Fovea

  • 85. 
    A prominent projection on a bone.
    • A. 

      Tuberosity

    • B. 

      Process

    • C. 

      Tubercle

    • D. 

      Condyle

    • E. 

      Epicondyle

  • 86. 
    A tube like passageway within a bone
    • A. 

      Meatus

    • B. 

      Sinus

    • C. 

      Tubercle

    • D. 

      Fovea

    • E. 

      Foramen

  • 87. 
    A thorn like projection.
    • A. 

      Foramen

    • B. 

      Process

    • C. 

      Spine

    • D. 

      Sinus

  • 88. 
    A rounded process that usually articulates with another bone
    • A. 

      Foramen

    • B. 

      Tuberosity

    • C. 

      Condyle

    • D. 

      Epicondyle

    • E. 

      Tubercle

  • 89. 
    A relatively deep pit or depression.
    • A. 

      Fovea

    • B. 

      Foramen

    • C. 

      Tubercle

    • D. 

      Sinus

    • E. 

      Fossa

  • 90. 
    A projection situated above a condyle.
    • A. 

      Meatus

    • B. 

      Process

    • C. 

      Tuberosity

    • D. 

      Tubercle

    • E. 

      Epicondyle

  • 91. 
    An opening through a bone, which usually serves as a passageway for blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments
    • A. 

      Process

    • B. 

      Foramen

    • C. 

      Sinus

    • D. 

      Fovea