Problems On Analysing Arguments-2

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Problems On Analysing Arguments-2 - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    For too long, school cafeterias, in an effort to provide food they thought would be appetizing to young people, mimicked fast-food restaurants, serving items such as burgers and fries, pizza, hot dogs, and fried chicken. School districts nationwide are now addressing this trend by incorporating some simple and inexpensive options that will make cafeteria lunches healthier while still appealing to students. This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      . school cafeterias have always emphasized nutritional guidelines over any other considerations

    • B.

      Young people would rather eat in a school cafeteria than a local fast-food restaurant.

    • C.

      School lunch menus are becoming healthier due to major new initiatives on the part of school districts

    • D.

      . it is possible to make school lunches both healthier and appealing without spending a great deal of money and undertaking a radical transformation.

    Correct Answer
    D. . it is possible to make school lunches both healthier and appealing without spending a great deal of money and undertaking a radical transformation.
    Explanation
    The paragraph states that school districts are addressing the trend of serving unhealthy fast food in cafeterias by incorporating simple and inexpensive options that will make cafeteria lunches healthier while still appealing to students. This supports the statement that it is possible to make school lunches both healthier and appealing without spending a great deal of money and undertaking a radical transformation.

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  • 2. 

    During the last six years, the number of practicing physicians has increased by about 20%. During the same time period, the number of healthcare managers has increased by more than 600%. These percentages mean that many doctors have lost the authority to make their own schedules, determine the fees that they charge, and decide on prescribed treatments. This paragraph best supports the statement that doctors

    • A.

      Resent the interference of healthcare managers.

    • B.

      No longer have adequate training.

    • C.

      Care a great deal about their patients.

    • D.

      Are less independent than they used to be

    Correct Answer
    D. Are less independent than they used to be
    Explanation
    The paragraph explains that the number of healthcare managers has increased significantly compared to the increase in the number of practicing physicians. It further states that this increase in healthcare managers has resulted in doctors losing authority over their schedules, fees, and treatment decisions. This implies that doctors are now less independent than they used to be, as their decision-making power has been interfered with by healthcare managers.

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  • 3. 

    By the time they reach adulthood, most people can perform many different activities involving motor skills. Motor skills involve such diverse tasks as riding a bicycle, threading a needle, and cooking a dinner. What all these activities have in common is their dependence on precision and timing of muscular movement. This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      Most adults have not refined their motor skills

    • B.

      All adults know how to ride a bicycle

    • C.

      Refined motor skills are specifically limited to adults

    • D.

      Threading a needle is a precise motor skill.

    Correct Answer
    D. Threading a needle is a precise motor skill.
    Explanation
    The paragraph states that motor skills involve precision and timing of muscular movement. It also gives examples of different activities that require motor skills, including threading a needle. Therefore, the paragraph best supports the statement that threading a needle is a precise motor skill.

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  • 4. 

    Close-up images of Mars by the Mariner 9 probe indicated networks of valleys that looked like the stream beds on Earth. These images also implied that Mars once had an atmosphere that was thick enough to trap the sun’s heat. If this were true, something happened to Mars billions of years ago that stripped away the planet’s atmosphere. This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      Mars now has little or no atmosphere.

    • B.

      Mars once had a thicker atmosphere than Earth does

    • C.

      . the Mariner 9 probe took the first pictures of Mars

    • D.

      . Mars is closer to the sun than Earth is

    Correct Answer
    A. Mars now has little or no atmosphere.
    Explanation
    The paragraph states that the close-up images of Mars by the Mariner 9 probe indicated that Mars once had an atmosphere that was thick enough to trap the sun's heat. However, something happened billions of years ago that stripped away the planet's atmosphere. This implies that Mars now has little or no atmosphere, supporting the statement that Mars now has little or no atmosphere.

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  • 5. 

    Forest fires feed on decades-long accumulations of debris and leap from the tops of young trees into the branches of mature trees. Fires that jump from treetop to treetop can be devastating. In old-growth forests, however, the shade of mature trees keeps thickets of small trees from sprouting, and the lower branches of mature trees are too high to catch the flames. This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      Forest fire damage is reduced in old-growth forests.

    • B.

      Small trees should be cut down to prevent forest fires

    • C.

      Mature trees should be thinned out to prevent forest fires

    • D.

      Old-growth forests have a larger accumulation of forest debris

    Correct Answer
    A. Forest fire damage is reduced in old-growth forests.
    Explanation
    The paragraph explains that in old-growth forests, the shade of mature trees prevents small trees from sprouting and the lower branches of mature trees are too high to catch the flames. This indicates that old-growth forests have a natural mechanism to reduce forest fire damage, supporting the statement that forest fire damage is reduced in old-growth forests.

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  • 6. 

    Originating in the 1920s, the Pyramid scheme is one of the oldest con games going. Honest people are often pulled in, thinking the scheme is a legitimate investment enterprise. The first customer to “fall for” the Pyramid scheme will actually make big money and will therefore persuade friends and relatives to join also. The chain then continues with the con artist who originated the scheme pocketing, rather than investing, the money. Finally, the pyramid collapses, but by that time, the scam artist will usually have moved out of town, leaving no forwarding address. This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      It is fairly easy to spot a Pyramid scheme in the making

    • B.

      The first customer of a Pyramid scheme is the most gullible.

    • C.

      the people who set up Pyramid schemes are able to fool honest people

    • D.

      the Pyramid scheme got its name from its structure

    Correct Answer
    C. the people who set up Pyramid schemes are able to fool honest people
    Explanation
    The paragraph explains how the Pyramid scheme works and how honest people are often fooled into thinking it is a legitimate investment. It mentions that the con artist convinces the first customer to join and then persuades others to join as well, ultimately pocketing the money instead of investing it. This supports the statement that the people who set up Pyramid schemes are able to fool honest people.

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  • 7. 

    Most Reality TV centers on two common motivators: fame and money. The shows transform waitresses, hairdressers, investment bankers, counselors, and teachers, to name a few, from obscure figures to household names. A lucky few successfully parlay their fifteen minutes of fame into celebrity. The luckiest stars of Reality TV also reap huge financial rewards for acts including eating large insects, marrying someone they barely know, and revealing their innermost thoughts to millions of people. This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      The stars of Reality TV are interested in being rich and famous.

    • B.

      Reality TV is the best thing that has happened to network television in a long time.

    • C.

      For Reality TV stars, fame will last only as long as their particular television show.

    • D.

      Traditional dramas and sitcoms are being replaced by Reality TV programming at an alarming rate

    Correct Answer
    A. The stars of Reality TV are interested in being rich and famous.
    Explanation
    The paragraph states that most Reality TV centers on fame and money, transforming ordinary people into household names and offering huge financial rewards for their participation. This supports the statement that the stars of Reality TV are interested in being rich and famous.

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  • 8. 

    The image of a knitter as an older woman sitting in a comfortable, old-fashioned living room with a basket of yarn at her feet and a bun in her hair is one of the past. As knitting continues to become more popular and increasingly trendy, it is much more difficult to describe the average knitter. Knitters today might be 18, 28, 40, or 65. They might live in a big urban center and take classes in a knitting shop that doubles as a cafe or they may gather in suburban coffee shops to support one another in knitting and other aspects of life. They could be college roommates knitting in their dorm room or two senior citizens knitting in a church hall. Even men are getting in the act. It would be incredibly difficult to come up with an accurate profile of a contemporary knitter to replace that image of the old woman with the basket of yarn! This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      People are returning to knitting in an attempt to reconnect with simpler times.

    • B.

      Knitting is now more of a group activity, as opposed to an individual hobby.

    • C.

      Creating an accurate profile of a particular type of person depends on the people in this group having traits and characteristics in common.

    • D.

      Young people are turning to knitting in record numbers.

    Correct Answer
    C. Creating an accurate profile of a particular type of person depends on the people in this group having traits and characteristics in common.
    Explanation
    The paragraph describes how the image of a knitter has evolved and diversified over time, indicating that there is no longer a specific demographic or stereotype associated with knitting. It mentions that knitters today can be of various ages, live in different locations, and have different backgrounds. This suggests that creating an accurate profile of a particular type of person who knits would be difficult because the knitting community is diverse and does not necessarily share common traits and characteristics. Therefore, the statement that creating an accurate profile of a particular type of person depends on the people in this group having traits and characteristics in common is best supported by the paragraph.

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  • 9. 

                    One New York publisher has estimated that 50,000 to 60,000 people in the United States want an anthology that includes the complete works of William Shakespeare. And what accounts for this renewed interest in Shakespeare? As scholars point out, his psychological insights into both male and female characters are amazing even today.This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      Shakespeare's characters are more interesting than fictional characters today.

    • B.

      People even today are interested in Shakespeare's work because of the characters.

    • C.

      Academic scholars are putting together an anthology of Shakespeare's work.

    • D.

      Shakespeare was a psychiatrist as well as a playwright.

    Correct Answer
    B. People even today are interested in Shakespeare's work because of the characters.
    Explanation
    The paragraph states that there is a renewed interest in Shakespeare's work because of his amazing psychological insights into both male and female characters. This suggests that people are interested in Shakespeare's work because of the characters, making "people even today are interested in Shakespeare's work because of the characters" the best-supported statement.

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  • 10. 

    One of the warmest winters on record has put consumers in the mood to spend money. Spending is likely to be the strongest in thirteen years. During the month of February, sales of existing single-family homes hit an annual record rate of 4.75 million.This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      Consumer spending will be higher thirteen years from now than it is today.

    • B.

      More people buy houses in the month of February than in any other month.

    • C.

      During the winter months, the prices of single-family homes are the lowest.

    • D.

      Warm winter weather is likely to affect the rate of home sales.

    Correct Answer
    D. Warm winter weather is likely to affect the rate of home sales.
    Explanation
    The paragraph mentions that one of the warmest winters on record has put consumers in the mood to spend money and that sales of existing single-family homes hit an annual record rate in the month of February. This suggests that warm winter weather is likely to affect the rate of home sales, as it creates a favorable environment for consumers to spend money and potentially buy homes.

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  • 11. 

    Generation Xers are those people born roughly between 1965 and 1981. As employees, Generation Xers tend to be more challenged when they can carry out tasks independently. This makes Generation Xers the most entrepreneurial generation in history.This paragraph best supports the statement that Generation Xers

    • A.

      Work harder than people from other generations.

    • B.

      Have a tendency to be self-directed workers

    • C.

      Have an interest in making history

    • D.

      Tend to work in jobs that require risk-taking behavior.

    Correct Answer
    B. Have a tendency to be self-directed workers
    Explanation
    The paragraph states that Generation Xers tend to be more challenged when they can carry out tasks independently, implying that they have a tendency to be self-directed workers. This aligns with the given answer choice.

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  • 12. 

    If you're a fitness walker, there is no need for a commute to a health club. Your neighborhood can be your health club. You don't need a lot of fancy equipment to get a good workout either. All you need is a well-designed pair of athletic shoes.This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      Fitness walking is a better form of exercise than weight lifting.

    • B.

      A membership in a health club is a poor investment.

    • C.

      Walking outdoors provides a better workout than walking indoors.

    • D.

      Fitness walking is a convenient and valuable form of exercise.

    Correct Answer
    D. Fitness walking is a convenient and valuable form of exercise.
    Explanation
    The paragraph explains that fitness walkers don't need to go to a health club and can use their neighborhood as their health club. It also mentions that they don't need fancy equipment, just a good pair of athletic shoes. This suggests that fitness walking is a convenient form of exercise because it can be done anywhere and doesn't require expensive equipment or a membership at a health club. Additionally, it implies that fitness walking is valuable because it provides a good workout. Therefore, the paragraph best supports the statement that fitness walking is a convenient and valuable form of exercise.

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  • 13. 

    In the past, consumers would rarely walk into an ice cream store and order low-fat ice cream. But that isn't the case today. An increasing health consciousness combined with a much bigger selection of tasty low-fat foods in all categories has made low-fat ice cream a very profitable item for ice cream store owners.This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      Low-fat ice cream produces more revenue than other low-fat foods.

    • B.

      Ice cream store owners would be better off carrying only low-fat ice cream.

    • C.

      Ice cream store owners no longer think that low-fat ice cream is an unpopular item.

    • D.

      Low-fat ice cream is more popular than other kinds of ice cream.

    Correct Answer
    C. Ice cream store owners no longer think that low-fat ice cream is an unpopular item.
    Explanation
    The paragraph explains that in the past, consumers did not frequently order low-fat ice cream, but now it has become a profitable item for ice cream store owners. This suggests that ice cream store owners no longer consider low-fat ice cream to be an unpopular item, as it is now generating more revenue.

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  • 14. 

    Today's high school students spend too much time thinking about trivial and distracting matters such as fashion. Additionally, they often dress inappropriately on school grounds. Rather than spending time writing another detailed dress policy, we should make school uniforms mandatory. If students were required to wear uniforms, it would increase a sense of community and harmony in our schools and it would instill a sense of discipline in our students. Another positive effect would be that teachers and administrators would no longer have to act as clothing police, freeing them up to focus on more important issues.This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      Inappropriate clothing leads to failing grades.

    • B.

      Students who wear school uniforms get into better colleges.

    • C.

      Students are not interested in being part of a community

    • D.

      School uniforms should be compulsory for high school students.

    Correct Answer
    D. School uniforms should be compulsory for high school students.
    Explanation
    The paragraph discusses how high school students spend too much time thinking about trivial matters such as fashion and often dress inappropriately on school grounds. It suggests that instead of creating another detailed dress policy, school uniforms should be made mandatory. The author argues that this would increase a sense of community and harmony in schools, instill discipline in students, and free up teachers and administrators to focus on more important issues. Therefore, the paragraph best supports the statement that school uniforms should be compulsory for high school students.

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  • 15. 

    The criminal justice system needs to change. The system could be more just if it allowed victims the opportunity to confront the person who has harmed them. Also, mediation between victims and their offenders would give the offenders a chance to apologize for the harm they have done.This paragraph best supports the statement that victims of a crime should

    • A.

      Learn to forgive their offenders.

    • B.

      Have the right to confront their offenders.

    • C.

      Learn the art of mediation.

    • D.

      Insist that their offenders be punished.

    Correct Answer
    B. Have the right to confront their offenders.
    Explanation
    The paragraph suggests that the criminal justice system could be more just if it allowed victims the opportunity to confront the person who has harmed them. This implies that victims should have the right to confront their offenders, as it would provide them with a chance to address the harm done to them directly. The paragraph does not mention forgiveness, learning the art of mediation, or insisting on punishment, so these options can be ruled out.

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  • 16. 

    A few states in this country are considering legislation that would prohibit schools from using calculators before the sixth grade. Other states take a different position. Some states are insisting on the purchase of graphing calculators for every student in middle school.This paragraph best supports the statement that in this country

    • A.

      There are at least two opinions about the use of calculators in schools.

    • B.

      Calculators are frequently a detriment to learning math

    • C.

      State legislators are more involved in education than ever before.

    • D.

      The argument against calculators in schools is unfounded.

    Correct Answer
    A. There are at least two opinions about the use of calculators in schools.
    Explanation
    The paragraph mentions that some states are considering legislation to prohibit the use of calculators before the sixth grade, while other states are insisting on the purchase of graphing calculators for every student in middle school. This indicates that there are at least two opinions about the use of calculators in schools, supporting the statement that there are at least two opinions about the use of calculators in schools.

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  • 17. 

    Today's workforce has a new set of social values. Ten years ago, a manager who was offered a promotion in a distant city would not have questioned the move. Today, a manager in that same situation might choose family happiness instead of career advancement.This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      Most managers are not loyal to the corporations for which they work.

    • B.

      Businesses today do not understand their employees needs.

    • C.

      Employees social values have changed over the past ten years.

    • D.

      Career advancement is not important to today's business managers.

    Correct Answer
    C. Employees social values have changed over the past ten years.
    Explanation
    The paragraph states that today's workforce has a new set of social values and gives an example of how a manager might prioritize family happiness over career advancement. This suggests that employees' social values have changed over the past ten years, as they now prioritize personal happiness and family over professional success.

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  • 18. 

    It is well known that the world urgently needs adequate distribution of food, so that everyone gets enough. Adequate distribution of medicine is just as urgent. Medical expertise and medical supplies need to be redistributed throughout the world so that people in emerging nations will have proper medical care.This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      The majority of the people in the world have never been seen by a doctor.

    • B.

      Food production in emerging nations has slowed during the past several years.

    • C.

      The medical-supply industry should step up production of its products.

    • D.

      Many people who live in emerging nations are not receiving proper medical care

    Correct Answer
    D. Many people who live in emerging nations are not receiving proper medical care
    Explanation
    The paragraph discusses the urgent need for adequate distribution of medicine throughout the world, particularly in emerging nations, in order to provide proper medical care to people. This supports the statement that many people who live in emerging nations are not receiving proper medical care.

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  • 19. 

    . In the 1966 Supreme Court decision Miranda v. Arizona, the court held that before the police can obtain statements from a person subjected to an interrogation, the person must be given a Miranda warning. This warning means that a person must be told that he or she has the right to remain silent during the police interrogation. Violation of this right means that any statement that the person makes is not admissible in a court hearing. This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      Police who do not warn persons of their Miranda rights are guilty of a crime.

    • B.

      A Miranda warning must be given before a police interrogation can begin

    • C.

      The police may no longer interrogate persons suspected of a crime unless a lawyer is present.

    • D.

      The 1966 Supreme Court decision in Miranda should be reversed.

    Correct Answer
    B. A Miranda warning must be given before a police interrogation can begin
    Explanation
    The paragraph states that in the 1966 Supreme Court decision Miranda v. Arizona, it was held that before the police can obtain statements from a person subjected to an interrogation, the person must be given a Miranda warning. This warning includes informing the person of their right to remain silent. It also mentions that any statement made without the Miranda warning is not admissible in court. Therefore, the paragraph best supports the statement that a Miranda warning must be given before a police interrogation can begin.

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  • 20. 

    There are no effective boundaries when it comes to pollutants. Studies have shown that toxic insecticides that have been banned in many countries are riding the wind from countries where they remain legal. Compounds such as DDT and toxaphene have been found in remote places like the Yukon and other Arctic regions. This paragraph best supports the statement that

    • A.

      Toxic insecticides such as DDT have not been banned throughout the world

    • B.

      More pollutants find their way into polar climates than they do into warmer areas.

    • C.

      Studies have proven that many countries have ignored their own antipollution laws

    • D.

      DDT and toxaphene are the two most toxic insecticides in the world.

    Correct Answer
    A. Toxic insecticides such as DDT have not been banned throughout the world
    Explanation
    The paragraph states that toxic insecticides like DDT have been found in remote places like the Yukon and Arctic regions, indicating that these insecticides have not been banned throughout the world. This supports the statement that toxic insecticides such as DDT have not been banned throughout the world.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
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