Thl 110 - Spring 2011 Final Exam Quiz Questions (Mueting)

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Thl 110 - Spring 2011 Final Exam Quiz Questions (Mueting) - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Write a thorough response, one page two sides (20 points each). Compare and contrast the theologies of Martin Luther and John Calvin. Be sure to focus on their main themes.You may skip this question if you would like, or you may practice your essay in the textbox below. This essay is limited to 500 words, which should be approximately one page.

  • 2. 

    Write a thorough response, one page two sides (20 points each).Comare and contrast the Benedictine and Jesuit religious orders. Be sure to include the charisms and places in Catholic history. You may skip this if you would like, or you may practice your essay in the textbox below. This essay is limited to 500 words, which should be approximately one page.

  • 3. 

    Short answer, one paragraph, one-half page (5 points each). ​Summarize Anselm's theology of salvation from Cur Deus Homo.You may skip this if you would like, or you may practice your essay in the textbox below. This essay is limited to 250 words, which should be approximately one-half page.

  • 4. 

    Short answer, one paragraph, one-half page (5 points each). ​What was the purpose and impact of Vatican II?You may skip this if you would like, or you may practice your essay in the textbox below. This essay is limited to 250 words, which should be approximately one-half page.

  • 5. 

    Which was a problem in the Church during the early Middle Ages?

    • A. 

      Concubinage

    • B. 

      Lay Investiture

    • C. 

      Simony

    • D. 

      All of the answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the answers are correct
    Explanation
    During the early Middle Ages, the Church faced several problems. Concubinage refers to the practice of priests having sexual relationships and families, which went against the Church's teachings of celibacy. Lay investiture was another issue, where secular rulers appointed bishops and other church officials, interfering with the Church's authority. Simony was the act of buying or selling church offices or positions, which undermined the spiritual integrity of the Church. Therefore, all of these answers are correct as they represent significant problems that the Church faced during the early Middle Ages.

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  • 6. 

    Who was the first emperor of the Carolingians?

    • A. 

      Charlemagne

    • B. 

      Charles Martel

    • C. 

      Louis the Pious

    • D. 

      Pippin III

    Correct Answer
    A. Charlemagne
    Explanation
    Charlemagne is the correct answer because he was indeed the first emperor of the Carolingians. He ruled from 800 AD until his death in 814 AD. Charlemagne expanded the Frankish kingdom and established the Carolingian Empire, which became the largest empire in Western Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire. He is known for his military campaigns, political reforms, and promotion of education and culture, earning him the title "Father of Europe."

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  • 7. 

    What was the economic and political system of Western Europe called?

    • A. 

      Fuedalism

    • B. 

      Monarchism

    • C. 

      Monasticism

    • D. 

      Mysticism

    Correct Answer
    A. Fuedalism
    Explanation
    Feudalism was the economic and political system of Western Europe during the Middle Ages. It was characterized by a hierarchical structure in which land was owned by the king and granted to nobles and vassals in exchange for military service and loyalty. The nobles, in turn, granted land to peasants who worked the land and provided labor and goods to the nobles. This system provided stability and security during a time of political instability and invasions, but it also led to social inequality and limited mobility for the lower classes.

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  • 8. 

    Who opposed Emperor Henvry IV, excommunicating him for his support of lay investiture?

    • A. 

      Basil of Caesarea

    • B. 

      Benedict of Nursia

    • C. 

      Gregory I

    • D. 

      Gregory VII

    Correct Answer
    D. Gregory VII
    Explanation
    Gregory VII opposed Emperor Henry IV and excommunicated him for his support of lay investiture. Lay investiture was a practice where secular rulers appointed bishops and other church officials, which Gregory VII believed undermined the authority of the Church. In response to Gregory VII's actions, Emperor Henry IV sought forgiveness and reconciliation with the Church, leading to the famous incident of the Walk to Canossa. This conflict between the Pope and the Emperor was a significant event in the Investiture Controversy, a power struggle between the papacy and secular rulers over the appointment of church officials.

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  • 9. 

    Which contribution to the culture of the time involved the use of Roman music in the liturgy?

    • A. 

      Benedictine chant

    • B. 

      Byzantine chant

    • C. 

      Gregorian chant

    • D. 

      Romanesque chant

    Correct Answer
    C. Gregorian chant
    Explanation
    Gregorian chant refers to the music that was used in the liturgy during the time of the Roman culture. This style of chant was developed and named after Pope Gregory I, who played a significant role in organizing and codifying the music used in the Roman Catholic Church. Gregorian chant is characterized by its monophonic texture, free rhythm, and modal melodies. It was widely used in religious ceremonies and played a crucial role in shaping the musical culture of the time.

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  • 10. 

    Who was the theologian who proposed a "debt-satisfaction" theory of atonement?

    • A. 

      Anselm of Canterbury

    • B. 

      Gregory I

    • C. 

      Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite

    • D. 

      Symeon the New Theologian

    Correct Answer
    A. Anselm of Canterbury
    Explanation
    Anselm of Canterbury is the correct answer because he was the theologian who proposed the "debt-satisfaction" theory of atonement. This theory suggests that humanity owes a debt to God due to sin, and Jesus' sacrifice on the cross was necessary to satisfy this debt and restore the relationship between God and humanity. Anselm's work "Cur Deus Homo" outlines this theory in detail, making him a significant figure in the development of atonement theology.

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  • 11. 

    What institution within the Church developed due to its dependence on Western European secular leaders and nobility?

    • A. 

      Monasticism

    • B. 

      Mysticism

    • C. 

      Papacy

    • D. 

      Theology

    Correct Answer
    C. Papacy
    Explanation
    The papacy developed within the Church due to its dependence on Western European secular leaders and nobility. The papacy refers to the office of the Pope, who is the head of the Roman Catholic Church. During the medieval period, the Church relied on the support and patronage of secular leaders and nobility, particularly in Western Europe. This led to the development of the papacy as a powerful institution within the Church, with the Pope acting as a spiritual and political leader. The papacy's close relationship with secular leaders helped to solidify its authority and influence in both religious and political matters.

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  • 12. 

    Which doctrine teaches that there is a place or state in which the soul is purified before going to heaven?

    • A. 

      Heaven

    • B. 

      Hell

    • C. 

      Limbo

    • D. 

      Purgatory

    Correct Answer
    D. Purgatory
    Explanation
    Purgatory is a doctrine that teaches the existence of a place or state where the soul undergoes purification before entering heaven. It is believed to be a temporary state where the soul is cleansed of its sins and prepared for the divine presence. This concept is often associated with the Catholic Church, which teaches that prayers and offerings can help expedite the process of purification for souls in purgatory.

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  • 13. 

    Which religious orders preached to people in the cities and begged for their livelihood instead of living in monasteries?

    • A. 

      Benedictines

    • B. 

      Cistercians

    • C. 

      Mendicants

    • D. 

      Monastics

    Correct Answer
    C. Mendicants
    Explanation
    Mendicants were religious orders that preached to people in the cities and relied on begging for their livelihood instead of living in monasteries. They would travel from place to place, spreading their teachings and relying on the generosity of the people they encountered for their basic needs. This lifestyle allowed them to be more accessible to the general population and actively engage with the communities they served. Unlike the Benedictines and Cistercians, who lived in monasteries and followed a more secluded and contemplative way of life, the mendicants chose to live among the people they ministered to.

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  • 14. 

    What were the military efforts to reclaim the Holy Land from the Muslims called?

    • A. 

      The Councils

    • B. 

      The Curia

    • C. 

      The Crusades

    • D. 

      The Inquisitions

    Correct Answer
    C. The Crusades
    Explanation
    The military efforts to reclaim the Holy Land from the Muslims were called the Crusades. These were a series of religious wars that took place between the 11th and 13th centuries, initiated by Western European Christians. The Crusades were aimed at regaining control of Jerusalem and other holy sites in the region, which had been under Muslim rule. The Crusades had a significant impact on European society, politics, and culture, and resulted in the establishment of Crusader states in the Eastern Mediterranean for a period of time.

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  • 15. 

    What term described the merging of Christian and culture in the High Middle Ages?

    • A. 

      Christendom

    • B. 

      Christianity

    • C. 

      Fuedalism

    • D. 

      Monasticism

    Correct Answer
    A. Christendom
    Explanation
    Christendom refers to the merging of Christian beliefs and values with the broader culture during the High Middle Ages. It represents the idea of a Christian society where the Church played a central role in both spiritual and secular matters. This concept encompassed various aspects of life, including politics, law, education, and social norms. Christendom was characterized by the influence of Christianity on all aspects of medieval society and the close relationship between the Church and the ruling powers.

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  • 16. 

    Who wrote Cur Deus Homo?

    • A. 

      Anselm of Canterbury

    • B. 

      Francis of Assisi

    • C. 

      Innocent III

    • D. 

      Urban II

    Correct Answer
    A. Anselm of Canterbury
    Explanation
    Anselm of Canterbury wrote Cur Deus Homo. He was a medieval theologian and philosopher who served as the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. Cur Deus Homo, which translates to "Why God Became Man," is one of Anselm's most famous works. In this book, Anselm explores the theological concept of the incarnation and provides a rational argument for why it was necessary for God to become human in order to save humanity. Anselm's writings had a significant influence on medieval theology and continue to be studied and debated by scholars today.

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  • 17. 

    Who called for the first military effort to reclaim the Holy Land from the Muslims?

    • A. 

      Anselm of Canterbury

    • B. 

      Francis of Assisi

    • C. 

      Innocent III

    • D. 

      Urban II

    Correct Answer
    D. Urban II
    Explanation
    Urban II is the correct answer because he was the Pope who called for the First Crusade in 1095. He delivered a speech at the Council of Clermont, urging Christians to take up arms and reclaim the Holy Land from the Muslims. This marked the beginning of a series of military campaigns known as the Crusades, which lasted for several centuries. Anselm of Canterbury, Francis of Assisi, and Innocent III were all significant figures in Christian history, but they did not specifically call for a military effort to reclaim the Holy Land.

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  • 18. 

    Who was the most powerful pope of his time due to his involvement in politics and religion?

    • A. 

      Anselm of Canterbury

    • B. 

      Francis of Assisi

    • C. 

      Innocent III

    • D. 

      Urban II

    Correct Answer
    C. Innocent III
    Explanation
    Innocent III was the most powerful pope of his time due to his involvement in both politics and religion. He was known for his strong leadership and influence over both secular and religious matters. He played a significant role in shaping the political landscape of Europe during the Middle Ages, asserting papal authority over kings and emperors. He also called for the Fourth Crusade and initiated reforms within the Catholic Church. His reign marked a period of great power and influence for the papacy.

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  • 19. 

    Who founded the Order of Friars Minor?

    • A. 

      Anselm of Canterbury

    • B. 

      Francis of Assisi

    • C. 

      Innocent III

    • D. 

      Urban II

    Correct Answer
    B. Francis of Assisi
    Explanation
    Francis of Assisi is the correct answer because he is widely recognized as the founder of the Order of Friars Minor. He established this religious order in the early 13th century with the aim of promoting poverty, humility, and preaching the Gospel. Francis of Assisi is renowned for his devotion to nature and his compassion towards the poor, and his teachings and example continue to inspire followers today.

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  • 20. 

    What style of Church architecture had high buildings, thin walls, and lots of stained glass windows?

    • A. 

      Cistercian

    • B. 

      Gothic

    • C. 

      Romanesque

    • D. 

      Waldensian

    Correct Answer
    B. Gothic
    Explanation
    Gothic architecture is characterized by high buildings, thin walls, and lots of stained glass windows. This style emerged in the 12th century and was popular throughout Europe until the 16th century. Gothic churches were known for their soaring height, achieved through the use of pointed arches and ribbed vaults. The thin walls were made possible by the use of flying buttresses, which provided external support. Stained glass windows were a prominent feature, allowing for the infusion of colorful light into the interior spaces. The Gothic style represented a departure from the earlier Romanesque style, which had thicker walls and smaller windows.

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  • 21. 

    How many sacraments did the Church decide there were?

    • A. 

      Two

    • B. 

      Five

    • C. 

      Six

    • D. 

      Seven

    Correct Answer
    D. Seven
    Explanation
    The Church decided that there were seven sacraments. This decision was made based on the teachings and traditions of the Church. These seven sacraments are considered essential for the spiritual journey and growth of individuals within the Church. They include Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Reconciliation, Anointing of the Sick, Holy Orders, and Matrimony. Each sacrament holds a significant role in the life of a Catholic, and they are seen as powerful signs of God's grace and presence in the world.

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  • 22. 

    What was a literary and historical movement to recover the Latin and Greek classics?

    • A. 

      Anthropocentrism

    • B. 

      Humanism

    • C. 

      Iconoclasm

    • D. 

      Theocentrism

    Correct Answer
    B. Humanism
    Explanation
    Humanism was a literary and historical movement that aimed to recover the Latin and Greek classics. It emphasized the value and potential of human beings, focusing on their abilities, achievements, and potential for growth. Humanism sought to revive and study the works of ancient Greek and Roman writers, philosophers, and artists, which had been largely neglected during the Middle Ages. This movement played a crucial role in the Renaissance, as it sparked a renewed interest in ancient knowledge, culture, and literature, leading to significant advancements in various fields.

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  • 23. 

    What was the outlook of Renaissance writers, artists, and explorers?

    • A. 

      Anthropocentric

    • B. 

      Humanistic

    • C. 

      Iconoclastic

    • D. 

      Theocentric

    Correct Answer
    A. Anthropocentric
    Explanation
    During the Renaissance, there was a shift in focus from religious and divine matters to the potential and capabilities of human beings. Renaissance writers, artists, and explorers embraced the concept of anthropocentrism, which placed human beings at the center of the universe and emphasized their importance and potential. This outlook celebrated human achievements, creativity, and individualism, and it led to a flourishing of humanistic ideas and artistic expression during this period.

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  • 24. 

    Who published a new edition of the Bible in Greek along with a Latin translation?

    • A. 

      Desiderius Erasmus

    • B. 

      Pope Leo X

    • C. 

      Martin Luther

    • D. 

      Johann Tetzel

    Correct Answer
    A. Desiderius Erasmus
    Explanation
    Desiderius Erasmus published a new edition of the Bible in Greek along with a Latin translation. Erasmus was a Dutch humanist and theologian who played a significant role in the Renaissance and Reformation periods. His edition of the Bible, known as the "Erasmus Bible" or the "Textus Receptus," was a critical and influential work in biblical scholarship. It aimed to provide a more accurate and accessible version of the Bible by comparing different manuscripts and translating them into Latin. Erasmus' edition had a profound impact on the Protestant Reformation and subsequent translations of the Bible into vernacular languages.

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  • 25. 

    What did Martin Luther object to in his Ninety-Five Theses?

    • A. 

      Indulgences

    • B. 

      Papal authority

    • C. 

      Passive justification

    • D. 

      Transubstantiation

    Correct Answer
    A. Indulgences
    Explanation
    Martin Luther objected to indulgences in his Ninety-Five Theses. Indulgences were a practice in the Catholic Church where people could pay money to have their sins forgiven or reduce their time in purgatory. Luther believed that this practice was corrupt and went against the true teachings of Christianity. He argued that salvation was a matter of faith and grace, not something that could be bought or earned through monetary transactions. This objection to indulgences was one of the key factors that led to the Protestant Reformation.

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  • 26. 

    What did Martin Luther say was a gift God gives in order to save people?

    • A. 

      Indulgences

    • B. 

      Papal Authority

    • C. 

      Passive Justification

    • D. 

      Transubstantiation

    Correct Answer
    C. Passive Justification
    Explanation
    Passive justification is the correct answer because Martin Luther believed that it was a gift from God that saves people. According to Luther, passive justification is the concept that salvation comes solely through faith in God's grace, rather than through any actions or efforts of individuals. This belief was a central tenet of Luther's theology and a key aspect of the Protestant Reformation.

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  • 27. 

    What did Luther eventually come to deny when he engaged in the Leipzig Debate with John Eck?

    • A. 

      Indulgences

    • B. 

      Papal Authority

    • C. 

      Passive Justification

    • D. 

      Transubstantiation

    Correct Answer
    B. Papal Authority
    Explanation
    During the Leipzig Debate with John Eck, Luther eventually came to deny Papal Authority. This means that Luther rejected the idea that the Pope had supreme authority over the Church and that his decisions and teachings were infallible. Luther believed in the priesthood of all believers and that individuals should have direct access to God without the need for intermediaries such as the Pope. This rejection of Papal Authority was one of the key factors that led to the Protestant Reformation and the establishment of the Lutheran Church.

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  • 28. 

    What teaching of the Catholic Church regarding the real presence of Jesus in the sacrament of the Eucharist did Luther deny?

    • A. 

      Indulgences

    • B. 

      Papal Authority

    • C. 

      Passive Justification

    • D. 

      Transubstantiation

    Correct Answer
    D. Transubstantiation
    Explanation
    Luther denied the teaching of transubstantiation, which is the belief that during the sacrament of the Eucharist, the bread and wine actually transform into the body and blood of Jesus Christ. Luther instead believed in the concept of consubstantiation, which suggests that the body and blood of Christ are present alongside the bread and wine, rather than a complete transformation. This was one of the key points of disagreement between Luther and the Catholic Church during the Protestant Reformation.

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  • 29. 

    What element of the sacrament of Penance involved removing the penalty of sin?

    • A. 

      Absolution

    • B. 

      Confession

    • C. 

      Contrition

    • D. 

      Satisfaction

    Correct Answer
    D. Satisfaction
    Explanation
    Satisfaction is the element of the sacrament of Penance that involves removing the penalty of sin. In the context of the sacrament, satisfaction refers to the penitent's act of making amends or performing acts of reparation for their sins. This may involve prayers, fasting, or other forms of self-denial as a way to demonstrate genuine repentance and make up for the harm caused by their actions. By engaging in acts of satisfaction, the penitent seeks to restore their relationship with God and the community, and ultimately, obtain forgiveness and absolution for their sins.

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  • 30. 

    Which document, written to reconcile Protestants and Catholics, is an important statement of Lutheran doctrine?

    • A. 

      Augsburg Confession

    • B. 

      Latin translation of the Bible

    • C. 

      Medium Catechism

    • D. 

      Small Catechism

    Correct Answer
    A. Augsburg Confession
    Explanation
    The Augsburg Confession is an important document that was written to reconcile Protestants and Catholics. It is considered a significant statement of Lutheran doctrine. It was presented to the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1530 and outlined the key beliefs and teachings of the Lutheran faith. The Augsburg Confession sought to find common ground between the two religious groups and promote unity. It is still considered a foundational document in the Lutheran tradition today.

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  • 31. 

    Which event showed that Luther's reformation did not carry over into social, political, or economic reforms?

    • A. 

      The Diet of Worms

    • B. 

      The Edict of Worms

    • C. 

      The Exile to Wartburg Castle

    • D. 

      The Peasant's Revolt

    Correct Answer
    D. The Peasant's Revolt
    Explanation
    The correct answer is The Peasant's Revolt. This event demonstrated that Luther's reformation did not lead to social, political, or economic reforms because the revolt was primarily driven by the peasants' grievances against their feudal lords and oppressive social conditions, rather than religious motivations. The revolt was brutally suppressed by the ruling classes, indicating that the existing power structures remained intact despite Luther's religious reforms.

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  • 32. 

    Who began the Swiss Reformation?

    • A. 

      John Calvin

    • B. 

      Henry VIII

    • C. 

      John Wesley

    • D. 

      Ulrich Zwingli

    Correct Answer
    D. Ulrich Zwingli
    Explanation
    Ulrich Zwingli is the correct answer to the question "Who began the Swiss Reformation?" Zwingli was a Swiss theologian and pastor who played a significant role in the Reformation movement in Switzerland during the 16th century. He challenged the Catholic Church's teachings and practices, advocating for a more simplified and biblical approach to Christianity. Zwingli's ideas and reforms had a profound impact on the religious and political landscape of Switzerland, making him a key figure in the Swiss Reformation.

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  • 33. 

    What was a major characteristic of the Swiss Reformation?

    • A. 

      Believer's Baptism

    • B. 

      Double predestination

    • C. 

      Iconoclasm

    • D. 

      Transubstantiation

    Correct Answer
    C. Iconoclasm
    Explanation
    Iconoclasm refers to the rejection or destruction of religious images or icons. During the Swiss Reformation, there was a strong emphasis on removing religious images from churches and public spaces. This was seen as a way to purify the worship of God and eliminate what was considered idolatry. Iconoclasm was a major characteristic of the Swiss Reformation, as it represented a break from the traditional Catholic practices of using images in worship.

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  • 34. 

    Who began the Genevan Reformation?

    • A. 

      John Calvin

    • B. 

      Henry VIII

    • C. 

      John Wesley

    • D. 

      Ulrich Zwingli

    Correct Answer
    A. John Calvin
    Explanation
    John Calvin began the Genevan Reformation. He was a French theologian and pastor who played a significant role in the Protestant Reformation. Calvin's teachings and writings had a profound impact on the development of Protestantism, particularly in Geneva, Switzerland. He emphasized the sovereignty of God, predestination, and the authority of scripture. Calvin's ideas and reforms had a lasting influence on the religious and social landscape of Europe and beyond.

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  • 35. 

    Who began the English Reformation?

    • A. 

      John Calvin

    • B. 

      Henry VIII

    • C. 

      John Wesley

    • D. 

      Ulrich Zwingli

    Correct Answer
    B. Henry VIII
    Explanation
    Henry VIII began the English Reformation. He broke away from the Catholic Church in the 16th century, primarily because he wanted to annul his marriage to Catherine of Aragon. This led to the establishment of the Church of England, with Henry VIII as the head of the church. The English Reformation had significant political and religious implications, as it resulted in the separation of England from the authority of the Pope and the Catholic Church, and the rise of Protestantism in the country.

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  • 36. 

    What was a major characteristic of the Radical Reformation?

    • A. 

      Believer's Baptism

    • B. 

      Double predestination

    • C. 

      Iconoclasm

    • D. 

      Transubstantiation

    Correct Answer
    A. Believer's Baptism
    Explanation
    A major characteristic of the Radical Reformation was the practice of Believer's Baptism. Unlike infant baptism, which was common in mainstream Christianity, the Radical Reformers believed that baptism should be reserved for adults who have made a conscious decision to follow Christ. This practice was seen as a symbol of personal faith and commitment to the Christian faith. Believer's Baptism was an important aspect of the Radical Reformation's rejection of traditional religious practices and emphasis on individual interpretation of scripture.

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  • 37. 

    Which began first?

    • A. 

      Catholic Reformation

    • B. 

      Genevan Reformation

    • C. 

      Lutheran Reformation

    • D. 

      Radical Reformation

    Correct Answer
    A. Catholic Reformation
    Explanation
    The Catholic Reformation, also known as the Counter-Reformation, began first. It was a movement within the Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation. The Catholic Church implemented various reforms to address the criticisms raised by the Protestant Reformers and to strengthen its authority. The Council of Trent, held between 1545 and 1563, played a significant role in shaping the Catholic Reformation. It clarified Catholic doctrine, addressed issues of corruption and indulgences, and emphasized the importance of education and discipline within the Church. The Catholic Reformation aimed to revive and renew the Catholic Church in the face of the growing Protestant movement.

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  • 38. 

    Who founded the Society of Jesus?

    • A. 

      St. Francis Xavier

    • B. 

      St. Ignatius of Loyola

    • C. 

      St. John of the Cross

    • D. 

      St. Teresa of Avila

    Correct Answer
    B. St. Ignatius of Loyola
    Explanation
    St. Ignatius of Loyola is the correct answer because he was the founder of the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits. Ignatius of Loyola was a Spanish priest and theologian who founded the Jesuits in 1540. The Jesuits became known for their educational and missionary work, and played a significant role in the Counter-Reformation. St. Francis Xavier, St. John of the Cross, and St. Teresa of Avila were all important figures in the Catholic Church, but they did not found the Society of Jesus.

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  • 39. 

    Which was crucial to the Catholic Reformation's success by initiating major disciplinary reforms and reaffirmation of doctrinal issues?

    • A. 

      College of Cardinals

    • B. 

      Council of Trent

    • C. 

      Vatican I

    • D. 

      Vatican II

    Correct Answer
    B. Council of Trent
    Explanation
    The Council of Trent was crucial to the Catholic Reformation's success because it initiated major disciplinary reforms and reaffirmed doctrinal issues. The council was called in response to the Protestant Reformation and aimed to address the challenges posed by Protestantism. It clarified Catholic teachings, reaffirmed the authority of the Pope, and addressed issues such as the sale of indulgences and the role of the clergy. The Council of Trent played a significant role in revitalizing and strengthening the Catholic Church during a time of religious turmoil.

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  • 40. 

    What was the new place of education for priests established by the Catholic Reformation?

    • A. 

      Breviary

    • B. 

      College

    • C. 

      Seminary

    • D. 

      University

    Correct Answer
    C. Seminary
    Explanation
    During the Catholic Reformation, a new place of education for priests was established called a "seminary." This was a specialized institution where aspiring priests received training and education in theology, philosophy, and other subjects necessary for their religious vocation. Seminaries played a crucial role in the reform efforts of the Catholic Church, ensuring that priests were well-educated and prepared to effectively serve the needs of the faithful.

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  • 41. 

    What was used to build a sound economic and spiritual base in the Spanish territories of the Western hemisphere?

    • A. 

      Encomienda-doctrina system

    • B. 

      Inculturation

    • C. 

      Natural selection

    • D. 

      Strict Separationism

    Correct Answer
    A. Encomienda-doctrina system
    Explanation
    The encomienda-doctrina system was used to build a sound economic and spiritual base in the Spanish territories of the Western hemisphere. This system was established by the Spanish colonizers and involved granting land and indigenous labor to Spanish settlers in exchange for their commitment to Christianize and educate the indigenous population. Through this system, the Spanish were able to exploit the labor of the indigenous people while also spreading their religion and culture. This helped create a strong economic foundation for the Spanish colonies and also facilitated the spread of Christianity in the region.

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  • 42. 

    What is the process by which a religion "learns" to live and act within a society different form the one in which it began?

    • A. 

      Encomienda-doctrina system

    • B. 

      Inculturation

    • C. 

      Natural Selection

    • D. 

      Strict Separationism

    Correct Answer
    B. Inculturation
    Explanation
    Inculturation refers to the process by which a religion adapts and integrates itself into a different society from its original one. It involves learning to live and act within the customs, traditions, and values of the new society while still maintaining the core beliefs and principles of the religion. Through inculturation, a religion seeks to establish a meaningful and relevant presence in the new society, fostering understanding, dialogue, and mutual respect between different cultural and religious groups. This process allows for the religion to evolve and grow within the context of the new society, ensuring its continued relevance and influence.

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  • 43. 

    Who challenged the morality of the laws allowing slavery of Native Americans?

    • A. 

      Bartolome de las Casas

    • B. 

      Francis Xavier

    • C. 

      Matteo Ricci

    • D. 

      Our Lady of Guadalupe

    Correct Answer
    A. Bartolome de las Casas
    Explanation
    Bartolome de las Casas challenged the morality of the laws allowing slavery of Native Americans. He was a Spanish historian, social reformer, and Dominican friar who advocated for the rights and fair treatment of indigenous peoples in the Americas. Las Casas strongly opposed the enslavement and mistreatment of Native Americans by the Spanish colonizers, and he argued for their freedom and equal rights. His writings and activism played a significant role in raising awareness about the injustices faced by Native Americans and influencing the development of international law regarding indigenous rights.

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  • 44. 

    What religious phenomenon declared that God created the world but does not thereafter intervene?

    • A. 

      Anticlericalism

    • B. 

      Deism

    • C. 

      Evolution

    • D. 

      Rationalism

    Correct Answer
    B. Deism
    Explanation
    Deism is a religious phenomenon that believes in the existence of God as the creator of the world but denies any further intervention or involvement in human affairs. Deists view God as a distant and impersonal entity who set the laws of nature in motion but does not actively intervene in the daily lives or events of individuals. This belief system emerged during the Enlightenment period as a response to traditional religious doctrines and emphasized reason and rationality over religious dogma.

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  • 45. 

    What philosophy said that reason alone can provide us with a knowledge of all reality?

    • A. 

      Anticlericalism

    • B. 

      Deism

    • C. 

      Evolution

    • D. 

      Rationalism

    Correct Answer
    D. Rationalism
    Explanation
    Rationalism is a philosophical belief that asserts reason as the primary source of knowledge and truth. It argues that through logical and deductive reasoning, humans can gain a comprehensive understanding of reality. This perspective rejects the notion of relying on faith, intuition, or religious authority to acquire knowledge. Instead, it emphasizes the importance of critical thinking and rational analysis in uncovering truths about the world. Therefore, rationalism aligns with the idea that reason alone can provide us with knowledge of all reality.

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  • 46. 

    Whose philosophy said that economic conditions determine history, which is marked by perpetual class conflict?

    • A. 

      Nicholas Copernicus

    • B. 

      Charles Darwin

    • C. 

      Rene Descartes

    • D. 

      Karl Marx

    Correct Answer
    D. Karl Marx
    Explanation
    Karl Marx's philosophy stated that economic conditions play a crucial role in shaping history. According to Marx, history is characterized by an ongoing struggle between different social classes, particularly the working class and the bourgeoisie. He believed that the working class would eventually rise up against the bourgeoisie in a revolution, leading to the establishment of a classless society. Marx's ideas laid the foundation for the development of communism and had a significant impact on political and social movements around the world.

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  • 47. 

    What was a religious revival movement that swept the American colonies in the 1740s?

    • A. 

      Denominationalism

    • B. 

      Great Awakening

    • C. 

      Holiness Movement

    • D. 

      Pentecostalism

    Correct Answer
    B. Great Awakening
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the Great Awakening. The Great Awakening was a religious revival movement that occurred in the American colonies during the 1740s. It was characterized by a renewed interest in religion and a desire for personal spiritual experiences. The movement had a significant impact on American society, leading to the growth of new denominations and influencing social and political developments.

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  • 48. 

    How did American Protestant Christianity adapt to the separation of church and state?

    • A. 

      Denominationalism

    • B. 

      Great Awakening

    • C. 

      Holiness Movement

    • D. 

      Pentecostalism

    Correct Answer
    A. Denominationalism
    Explanation
    American Protestant Christianity adapted to the separation of church and state through denominationalism. Denominationalism refers to the division of Protestant Christianity into different denominations, each with its own distinct beliefs and practices. This allowed for religious diversity and freedom, as individuals were able to choose which denomination aligned with their personal beliefs. Denominationalism also led to the decentralization of power within the church, as each denomination had its own governing body and autonomy. This adaptation helped Protestant Christianity thrive in a secular society where the government was separate from religious institutions.

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  • 49. 

    Which religion began as a result of longings for the establishment of Christ's kingdom on Earth?

    • A. 

      Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints

    • B. 

      Jehovah's Witnesses

    • C. 

      Seventh-Day Adventists

    • D. 

      All of the answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the answers are correct
    Explanation
    All of the given religions - Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, Jehovah's Witnesses, and Seventh-Day Adventists - originated as a result of longings for the establishment of Christ's kingdom on Earth. Each of these religions emerged with the belief that they were the true followers of Christ and aimed to establish his kingdom on Earth. Therefore, all of the answers are correct.

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  • 50. 

    What was the religious practice of Catholic immigrants in the United States versus their practice in the old world?

    • A. 

      They were less religious

    • B. 

      They were as religious

    • C. 

      They were more religious

    • D. 

      They abandoned their religion

    Correct Answer
    B. They were as religious
    Explanation
    The explanation for the given correct answer is that Catholic immigrants in the United States maintained the same level of religious practice as they did in the old world. This suggests that their religious beliefs and practices were important to them and they continued to uphold them even after immigrating to a new country.

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