How Much Do You Know About Political Theory? Trivia Quiz

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How Much Do You Know About Political Theory? Trivia Quiz - Quiz

How Much Do You Know About Political Theory? This quiz will help you revise for the Political theory final as it has an in-depth analysis of politics, which is necessary actually some of the basic knowledge to all political science students and those interested in politics in one way or the other. Take it up and see just how much you remember and all the best.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Why does Strauss characterize social science positivism as theoretically weak?

    • A.

      It doesn't have enough numbers

    • B.

      It does not generalize enough

    • C.

      It pretends to be value-free

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. It pretends to be value-free
    Explanation
    Strauss characterizes social science positivism as theoretically weak because it pretends to be value-free. This means that positivism claims to be objective and unbiased, but in reality, it cannot completely separate itself from values and biases. Positivism fails to acknowledge that researchers' values and beliefs can influence the design, interpretation, and presentation of their findings. Therefore, it is considered theoretically weak as it overlooks the subjective nature of social science research.

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  • 2. 

    Why does Eisenberg argue for the idea of political pluralism?

    • A.

      It supports the personal development of individuals

    • B.

      Individuals are best suited to isolation

    • C.

      Community health should prevail over individual liberties

    • D.

      All of the Above

    Correct Answer
    A. It supports the personal development of individuals
    Explanation
    Eisenberg argues for the idea of political pluralism because it supports the personal development of individuals. This means that allowing multiple political parties and ideologies to coexist allows individuals to have a wider range of choices and opportunities to express their own beliefs and values. Political pluralism promotes diversity, freedom of expression, and the ability for individuals to participate in the political process, all of which contribute to personal growth and development.

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  • 3. 

    True or false: Shklar defines ideology as a "form of untruth.'

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Shklar defines ideology as a "form of untruth" because she argues that ideologies are often used to manipulate and deceive people. According to Shklar, ideologies present a distorted view of reality and promote false beliefs or values that serve the interests of those in power. She believes that ideologies are dangerous because they can be used to justify oppressive policies and suppress dissenting voices. Therefore, Shklar views ideology as a form of untruth that perpetuates inequality and injustice.

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  • 4. 

    True or false: For Connolly, pluralism describes a political philosophy in which diverse individuals in a society agree on one homogenous identity.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Connolly does not describe pluralism as a political philosophy where diverse individuals agree on one homogenous identity. Instead, Connolly's understanding of pluralism emphasizes the coexistence of different identities, perspectives, and interests within a society. Pluralism, according to Connolly, recognizes and values the diversity of individuals and allows for the expression of multiple identities and viewpoints.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following values is NOT characteristic of liberalism as a political philosophy?

    • A.

      Individual liberty

    • B.

      Economic equality

    • C.

      Rule of Law

    • D.

      None of the Above

    Correct Answer
    B. Economic equality
    Explanation
    Economic equality is not characteristic of liberalism as a political philosophy. Liberalism emphasizes individual liberty and the rule of law, but it does not advocate for economic equality. Instead, liberalism supports free markets and believes that individuals should have the freedom to pursue their own economic interests without government interference. This approach values individual initiative and competition, which can lead to economic inequality.

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  • 6. 

    The state of nature is a central concept in which of the following ideologies?

    • A.

      Conservatism

    • B.

      Anarchism

    • C.

      Socialism

    • D.

      None of the Above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the Above
    Explanation
    The state of nature is a central concept in political philosophy, particularly in the works of thinkers like Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. It refers to the hypothetical condition of human beings before the establishment of social and political institutions. In this state, individuals are believed to be in a state of complete freedom and equality, but also face the challenges of scarcity and potential conflicts. However, none of the listed ideologies (Conservatism, Anarchism, Socialism) specifically focus on or incorporate the state of nature as a central concept. Therefore, the correct answer is "None of the Above".

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  • 7. 

    Locke was influenced by which of the following revolutions?

    • A.

      The Glorious Revolution

    • B.

      The French Revolution

    • C.

      The American Revolution

    • D.

      All of the Above

    Correct Answer
    A. The Glorious Revolution
    Explanation
    Locke was influenced by the Glorious Revolution because it had a significant impact on his political philosophy. The Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 in England led to the overthrow of King James II and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy. This event emphasized the importance of limited government, individual rights, and the consent of the governed. Locke's ideas on natural rights, social contract, and the right to rebel against unjust rulers were influenced by the principles and outcomes of the Glorious Revolution.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following best describes the bourgeoisie class?

    • A.

      Factory Workers

    • B.

      The Homeless

    • C.

      Factory Owners

    • D.

      None of the Above

    Correct Answer
    C. Factory Owners
    Explanation
    The bourgeoisie class refers to the social class that owns and controls the means of production, including factories. They are typically associated with the capitalist system and are known for their ownership of capital and wealth. Therefore, the answer "Factory Owners" best describes the bourgeoisie class.

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  • 9. 

    True or False: Conservatism favors rapid over gradual political change.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Conservatism is a political ideology that typically advocates for maintaining traditional institutions and values, and resisting rapid or radical change. Therefore, it does not favor rapid over gradual political change. Instead, conservatism promotes a cautious and incremental approach to political reform, emphasizing stability and continuity.

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  • 10. 

    True or false: According to Locke, individuals have more freedom in the state of nature than in political society.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Locke believed that individuals have more freedom in the state of nature than in political society. In the state of nature, individuals are free to do as they please and are not bound by any laws or government authority. However, in political society, individuals enter into a social contract and agree to give up some of their freedom in exchange for protection and the benefits of living in a society governed by laws. Therefore, according to Locke, individuals have more freedom in the state of nature than in political society.

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  • 11. 

    True or false: For socialists, political equality is more important than economic equality.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "For socialists, political equality is more important than economic equality" is false. Socialists prioritize economic equality over political equality. They believe that a fair and just society can only be achieved by ensuring equal distribution of wealth and resources among all individuals. Economic equality is seen as a means to achieve social justice and eliminate the class divisions that exist in capitalist societies. Political equality, although important, is considered secondary to economic equality in the socialist ideology.

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  • 12. 

    True or false: Anarchists believe that governments are necessary only for war and public safety purposes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Anarchists believe that governments are not necessary, even for war and public safety purposes. They argue that governments are inherently oppressive and that individuals can self-govern and organize society without the need for a centralized authority. Anarchists advocate for a society based on voluntary cooperation, mutual aid, and decentralized decision-making. They believe that people can collectively address issues of war and public safety through grassroots movements, community organizing, and non-hierarchical structures. Therefore, the statement that anarchists believe governments are necessary for war and public safety purposes is false.

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  • 13. 

    In "Racial Liberalism," Mills argues that the "social contract" is an example of

    • A.

      Non-ideal Theory

    • B.

      Positivism

    • C.

      Ideal Theory

    • D.

      None of the Above

    Correct Answer
    C. Ideal Theory
    Explanation
    In "Racial Liberalism," Mills argues that the "social contract" is an example of ideal theory. Ideal theory refers to a theoretical framework that envisions an ideal society or political system based on principles of justice, equality, and fairness. Mills suggests that the social contract, which is often used to justify the legitimacy of political authority, is based on idealized assumptions about human nature and social relations. He argues that this idealized view overlooks the racial and social inequalities that exist in the real world, making it an example of ideal theory rather than a reflection of the actual non-ideal conditions.

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  • 14. 

    For Mills, what is the major difference between the social contract and the domination contract?

    • A.

      The social contract is for whites, while that domination contract is for non-whites

    • B.

      The domination contract is new, while the social contract is old

    • C.

      The social contract ignores race while the domination contract foregrounds it

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. The social contract ignores race while the domination contract foregrounds it
    Explanation
    The major difference between the social contract and the domination contract is that the social contract ignores race, while the domination contract foregrounds it. The social contract is a concept that focuses on the agreement between individuals and the state, emphasizing the rights and responsibilities of citizens. In contrast, the domination contract highlights the power dynamics and systemic inequalities based on race, acknowledging the oppressive structures that exist in society. This highlights a fundamental distinction in how these two contracts perceive and address the issue of race.

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  • 15. 

    True/False: According to Lenin, democracy does not exist under capitalism.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Lenin, democracy does not exist under capitalism. This is because capitalism is based on the exploitation of the working class by the bourgeoisie, who hold the economic and political power. In this system, the ruling class manipulates the democratic institutions to serve their own interests, suppressing the voice and power of the majority. Therefore, Lenin argues that true democracy can only be achieved through the overthrow of capitalism and the establishment of a socialist society.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is one way in which communism and fascism differ?

    • A.

      In fascism, the state disappears and in communism the state gets stronger.

    • B.

      In communism, the state disappears and in fascism the state gets stronger.

    • C.

      There are no differences.

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. In communism, the state disappears and in fascism the state gets stronger.
    Explanation
    In communism, the state disappears because it is believed that a classless society will eventually be achieved where the state is no longer necessary. On the other hand, in fascism, the state gets stronger as it aims to have complete control over all aspects of society, including the economy and individual freedoms. This fundamental difference in the role and power of the state is what sets communism and fascism apart from each other.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following is a key theme of liberalism according to Starr?

    • A.

      Egalitarianism

    • B.

      Individual Freedom

    • C.

      Strong State

    • D.

      All of the Above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the Above
    Explanation
    The key theme of liberalism, according to Starr, encompasses all of the above options. Egalitarianism emphasizes equality among individuals, individual freedom emphasizes the importance of personal liberty and autonomy, and a strong state implies the need for a government that actively protects and promotes these liberal values. Therefore, all three options are key themes that define liberalism.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is not a key belief of conservatism according to Kekes?

    • A.

      Skepticism

    • B.

      Pluralism

    • C.

      Traditionalism

    • D.

      Socialism

    Correct Answer
    D. Socialism
    Explanation
    According to Kekes, socialism is not a key belief of conservatism. Conservatism is typically associated with beliefs such as skepticism, pluralism, and traditionalism. Socialism, on the other hand, is a political and economic ideology that advocates for collective ownership and control of the means of production, which goes against the principles of conservatism. Therefore, socialism is not considered a key belief of conservatism according to Kekes.

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  • 19. 

    True/False: According to Chandra, using European historical experience as a blue print for the political future of countries outside of Europe is a good idea.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    According to the given answer, using European historical experience as a blueprint for the political future of countries outside of Europe is not a good idea. This implies that Chandra does not support the notion of replicating European history in non-European countries' political systems.

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  • 20. 

    True or False: According to Sandel, politics can strive to be neutral with respect to the actions/ decisions of individuals; politics does not need a normative direction.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    According to Sandel, politics cannot strive to be neutral with respect to the actions and decisions of individuals. Sandel argues that politics inherently involves making normative judgments about what is right and wrong, just and unjust. Politics cannot be value-neutral because it involves making choices that reflect certain moral and ethical values. Therefore, politics does need a normative direction.

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  • 21. 

    What was the old republicanism's main goal?

    • A.

      To produce well informed citizens that know right from wrong.

    • B.

      To cultivate strong leaders

    • C.

      To cultivate virtues of self-rule through citizenship

    • D.

      A & C only

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. A & C only
    Explanation
    The main goal of old republicanism was to produce well-informed citizens who have a clear understanding of right and wrong, as well as to cultivate virtues of self-rule through citizenship. This means that the focus was on educating individuals about their rights and responsibilities as citizens, and fostering a sense of civic duty and participation. By doing so, the old republicanism aimed to create a society in which citizens were actively engaged in the decision-making process and were able to govern themselves effectively.

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  • 22. 

    In his work, “Public Religion and Public Reason”, Richard Neuhaus supports what?

    • A.

      Secular Humanism

    • B.

      Religious Fundamentalism

    • C.

      Religiously grounded values

    Correct Answer
    C. Religiously grounded values
    Explanation
    In his work, "Public Religion and Public Reason", Richard Neuhaus supports the idea of religiously grounded values. He argues that these values should be an important part of public discourse and decision-making processes. Neuhaus believes that religious beliefs and moral principles can provide a solid foundation for ethical decision-making in the public sphere. He advocates for the inclusion of religious perspectives in public debates and policymaking, highlighting the importance of religiously grounded values in shaping a just and moral society.

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  • 23. 

    Why, according to Okin, do theories of justice often neglect gender inequalities?

    • A.

      Because family structure does not matter when talking about justice.

    • B.

      Theorists assume a traditional gender structured family.

    • C.

      Theorists use gender-neutral language in a false way.

    • D.

      B & C only

    Correct Answer
    D. B & C only
    Explanation
    According to Okin, theories of justice often neglect gender inequalities because theorists assume a traditional gender structured family and use gender-neutral language in a false way. This means that they fail to consider the specific ways in which gender inequalities manifest in society and how they intersect with issues of justice.

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  • 24. 

    According to Naess, why is science inadequate to assess the deterioration of nature?

    • A.

      Science is imperfect.

    • B.

      It only focuses on facts, not values.

    • C.

      It does not acknowledge negative changes.

    • D.

      Science is concerned with deep ecology rather than shallow ecology.

    Correct Answer
    B. It only focuses on facts, not values.
    Explanation
    Naess believes that science is inadequate to assess the deterioration of nature because it only focuses on facts and does not consider values. Science is objective and relies on empirical evidence, but it does not take into account the subjective and ethical aspects of nature's deterioration. Naess argues that understanding the value and importance of nature requires a broader perspective that goes beyond scientific analysis.

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  • 25. 

    What is the difference between sex and gender?

    • A.

      Sex is biologically determined and gender is socially constructed.

    • B.

      Sex is socially constructed and gender is biologically determined.

    Correct Answer
    A. Sex is biologically determined and gender is socially constructed.
    Explanation
    Sex refers to the biological characteristics that distinguish males from females, such as reproductive organs and chromosomes. It is determined by factors such as genetics and hormones. On the other hand, gender refers to the roles, behaviors, activities, and expectations that society considers appropriate for males and females. It is a social construct that varies across cultures and time periods. This means that while sex is based on biological factors, gender is influenced by societal norms and expectations.

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  • 26. 

    According to Tsing, which food(s) are responsible for the rise of social hierarchies and thus the state?

    • A.

      Corn

    • B.

      Wheat

    • C.

      Barley

    • D.

      A & B

    • E.

      B & C

    • F.

      None of the Above

    Correct Answer
    E. B & C
    Explanation
    According to Tsing, both wheat and barley are responsible for the rise of social hierarchies and the development of the state. These crops played a crucial role in the transition from foraging to agriculture, which led to the accumulation of surplus resources and the emergence of social inequality. The cultivation and control of these crops allowed certain groups to amass wealth and power, leading to the formation of social hierarchies and eventually the establishment of centralized states. Corn, on the other hand, is not mentioned as a significant factor in this process.

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  • 27. 

    True/False: According to Tsing's article, plantations were the engine of European expansion.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Tsing's article, plantations played a crucial role in driving European expansion. These large-scale agricultural estates, typically established in colonies, were primarily focused on cash crop production and relied heavily on slave labor. Plantations provided immense wealth to European powers, fueling their economic growth, and played a significant role in shaping colonial societies and economies. Therefore, it can be concluded that plantations were indeed the engine of European expansion, making the answer "True" accurate.

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  • 28. 

    According to the introduction of Chapter 5, which of the following is not among the four philosophical assumptions about foundational bases for political principles?

    • A.

      Human Nature

    • B.

      The Nature of Society

    • C.

      Epistemological Foundations

    • D.

      Ultimate Reality

    • E.

      All of the above are correct

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above are correct
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above are correct" because the question asks for the option that is not among the four philosophical assumptions about foundational bases for political principles. Since all of the options listed (Human Nature, The Nature of Society, Epistemological Foundations, Ultimate Reality) are actually among the four assumptions, none of them can be considered as the correct answer.

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  • 29. 

    For Lowi, which of the following explains the rise of interest-groups in the twentieth-century American-Politics?

    • A.

      Increasing political demands from different groups in society

    • B.

      Divergence between expectations of equity and realities of unequal economic growth

    • C.

      The decline of capitalism as the major ideology and public philosophy in America

    • D.

      All of the Above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the Above
    Explanation
    The rise of interest-groups in twentieth-century American politics can be explained by all of the above reasons. Increasing political demands from different groups in society means that various groups started to organize and advocate for their interests, leading to the formation of interest-groups. The divergence between expectations of equity and realities of unequal economic growth also contributed to the rise of interest-groups as people sought to address these inequalities. Additionally, the decline of capitalism as the major ideology and public philosophy in America created space for the emergence of alternative ideologies and interest-groups.

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  • 30. 

    According to Plato in “The Theory of Forms”, there are four processes in the soul. Which of the following is not a process?

    • A.

      Understanding

    • B.

      Reasoning

    • C.

      Greed

    • D.

      Imagination

    Correct Answer
    C. Greed
    Explanation
    According to Plato's "The Theory of Forms", the soul consists of four processes: understanding, reasoning, imagination, and greed. However, greed is not considered a process in the soul. Plato believed that understanding allows us to comprehend the true nature of things, reasoning helps us make logical judgments, and imagination enables us to create mental images. Greed, on the other hand, is considered a negative trait driven by excessive desire for material possessions, rather than a cognitive process of the soul.

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  • 31. 

    Which of the following best describes the two realms as presented by Plato?

    • A.

      A sensory realm which is imperfect and changing and an ideal realm that is perfect and unchanging.

    • B.

      A sensory realm which is perfect and unchanging and an ideal realm that is changing and imperfect.

    Correct Answer
    A. A sensory realm which is imperfect and changing and an ideal realm that is perfect and unchanging.
    Explanation
    Plato believed in the existence of two realms: the sensory realm and the ideal realm. The sensory realm is characterized as imperfect and changing because it is the realm of the physical world that we perceive through our senses, which are limited and subject to error. On the other hand, the ideal realm is described as perfect and unchanging because it is the realm of abstract concepts and forms, which are eternal and immutable. This answer accurately captures Plato's view on the nature of these two realms.

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  • 32. 

    According to Rousseau, “On the General Will”, which of the following characteristics describe/explain the General Will?

    • A.

      The general will tends towards equality.

    • B.

      The general will is different from particular will.

    • C.

      The general will looks towards the common interest and what is best for the given polity.

    • D.

      All of the above are accurate.

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are accurate.
    Explanation
    The given answer is accurate because Rousseau argues that the general will is the collective will of the people, which is focused on the common interest and what is best for the society as a whole. It is different from the particular wills of individuals or groups, as it represents the general consensus and aims for equality among all members of the polity. Therefore, all of the characteristics mentioned in the options accurately describe and explain the concept of the general will according to Rousseau.

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  • 33. 

    True or False: According to Rousseau, the general will and the will of all describe the same thing.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    According to Rousseau, the general will and the will of all do not describe the same thing. Rousseau believed that the general will represents the collective and common interest of the entire community, while the will of all refers to the individual desires and preferences of the members of the community. Rousseau argued that the general will should always be prioritized over the will of all in order to promote the common good and maintain social harmony. Therefore, the statement that the general will and the will of all describe the same thing is false.

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  • 34. 

    True/False: According to Friedrich Engles' “Marx’s Materialist Conception of History”, the final causes of all social changes and political revolutions are changes in the modes of production and exchange.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Friedrich Engles' "Marx's Materialist Conception of History," the final causes of all social changes and political revolutions are changes in the modes of production and exchange. This means that the way goods and services are produced and traded within a society ultimately determines the social and political changes that occur. Engles' theory suggests that economic factors play a crucial role in shaping the course of history, and that changes in the modes of production and exchange are the driving forces behind societal transformations and political revolutions.

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  • 35. 

    According to Engels, revolutionary politics must focus on which of the following?

    • A.

      Superstructure

    • B.

      The general will

    • C.

      The economic/ material base

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Superstructure
    Explanation
    According to Engels, revolutionary politics must focus on the superstructure. The superstructure refers to the social, political, and cultural institutions that are built upon the economic/material base. Engels believed that these institutions, such as the government, law, and education, are shaped by the economic system and serve to maintain the existing class structure. Therefore, in order to bring about revolutionary change, Engels argued that it is necessary to challenge and transform the superstructure.

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  • 36. 

    True/False: T. H. Huxley in “Evolution and Ethics” questions the notion that, on a whole, plants and animals have sought perfection in organization by means of the struggle for existence and “survival of the fittest”, and thus men, as ethical beings, must follow the same process to help them reach perfection.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In "Evolution and Ethics," T. H. Huxley questions the idea that plants and animals have strived for perfection through the struggle for existence and survival of the fittest. He argues that humans, as ethical beings, should also follow this process to attain perfection. Therefore, the correct answer is true.

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  • 37. 

    True/ False: Fanon argues in "The Fact of Blackness" that 'blackness' is a socially constructed identity that is thrust upon people based on pre-determined images and ideas.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In "The Fact of Blackness," Fanon indeed argues that 'blackness' is a socially constructed identity imposed on individuals through predetermined images and ideas. He explores how black people are objectified and dehumanized, reduced to stereotypes and prejudices created by the dominant white society. Fanon emphasizes the need for black individuals to reclaim their own identities and resist the oppressive structures that perpetuate their marginalization. Thus, the correct answer is true.

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  • 38. 

    According to the introduction to Chapter 6, what is the main difference between Saint Augustine’s and Thomas Hobbes’s assumptions about human nature? 

    • A.

      Hobbes derived his ideas about human nature by trying to see man from a divine perspective, whereas St. Augustine derived his by trying to see man in a natural condition.

    • B.

      St. Augustine derived his ideas about human nature by trying to see man from a divine perspective, whereas Hobbes derived his by trying to see man in a natural condition.

    • C.

      All of the above

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. St. Augustine derived his ideas about human nature by trying to see man from a divine perspective, whereas Hobbes derived his by trying to see man in a natural condition.
    Explanation
    The main difference between Saint Augustine's and Thomas Hobbes's assumptions about human nature is that St. Augustine derived his ideas by trying to see man from a divine perspective, whereas Hobbes derived his by trying to see man in a natural condition. This means that St. Augustine believed that human nature is influenced by divine factors, while Hobbes believed that human nature is influenced by natural factors.

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  • 39. 

    True/False: According to Herbert Dean’s “St. Augustine’s Conception of Fallen Men, the first man was created good, but not incorruptibly good; and was given the gift of free will, in which he can chose to obey or disobey God’s command. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Herbert Dean's "St. Augustine's Conception of Fallen Men," the first man was created good, but not incorruptibly good. He was given the gift of free will, which means he had the ability to choose to obey or disobey God's command. This suggests that the statement "True" is the correct answer.

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  • 40. 

    According to Thomas Hobbes in “The Natural Condition of Mankind”, without government (civil states), and without a common power to keep men in awe, men live in a condition called what? 

    • A.

      Instability

    • B.

      Peace

    • C.

      War

    • D.

      Confusion

    Correct Answer
    C. War
    Explanation
    According to Thomas Hobbes, without government and a common power to keep men in awe, men live in a state of war. In this state, there is no stability or peace, but rather a constant state of conflict and chaos. Hobbes believed that the absence of a governing authority would lead to a "war of all against all", where individuals would constantly be in competition and conflict with each other for resources and power.

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  • 41. 

    According to Macpherson in “The Early Liberal Model of Man”, how does liberal democracy differ from earlier concepts of democracy?

    • A.

      Liberal democracy rejects class divisions

    • B.

      Liberal democracy accepts class divisions

    • C.

      Liberal democracy assumes that man will not act in accordance with his motivation to maximize his satisfaction

    • D.

      They do not differ

    Correct Answer
    B. Liberal democracy accepts class divisions
    Explanation
    In "The Early Liberal Model of Man," Macpherson explains that liberal democracy differs from earlier concepts of democracy by accepting class divisions. Unlike previous forms of democracy that aimed to eliminate or minimize class distinctions, liberal democracy acknowledges the existence of social and economic inequalities. This acceptance is based on the belief that individuals have the freedom to pursue their own interests and that these interests may lead to unequal outcomes. By recognizing class divisions, liberal democracy allows for a more realistic understanding of society and the role of individuals within it.

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  • 42. 

    In Karl Marx’s “Estranged Labor”, what does he mean by ‘the worker is related to the product of his labor as an alien object? 

    • A.

      The more (time/labor) the worker puts into the object, the more free time he has to spend doing things he enjoys.

    • B.

      The less (time/labor) the worker puts into the object, the more likely it is for him to get a promotion.

    • C.

      The more (time/labor) the worker puts into the object, the less time he has to spend doing things he enjoys, thus his life no longer belongs to him, but to the object he works on, thus alienating him from his essence..

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. The more (time/labor) the worker puts into the object, the less time he has to spend doing things he enjoys, thus his life no longer belongs to him, but to the object he works on, thus alienating him from his essence..
    Explanation
    In Karl Marx's "Estranged Labor," when he states that the worker is related to the product of his labor as an alien object, he means that the worker becomes disconnected from the fruits of his labor. The more time and effort the worker puts into the object, the less time he has for personal enjoyment and fulfillment. This results in the worker's life no longer belonging to him but to the object he works on, causing him to feel alienated from his true essence and purpose.

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  • 43. 

    True/False: According to Peter Kropotkin, the two dominant currents that must be analyzed in any review of evolution are mutual aid and mutual struggle.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Peter Kropotkin did propose that mutual aid was an important factor in evolution, but he did not argue that mutual struggle was also a dominant current. Instead, he believed that cooperation and mutual aid played a more significant role in the development and progress of species. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 44. 

    According to Bhikhu Parekh, “Conceptualizing Human Nature”, it is important to first agree on the definition of human nature, thus human nature refers to what? 

    • A.

      Permanent and universal capacities, desires and dispositions that all human beings share by virtue of belonging to a common species

    • B.

      Virtues that are universal in that human beings share them in all ages and societies.

    • C.

      The properties that are acquired by virtue of belonging to the human species and that are not socially or culturally derived.

    • D.

      Virtues that belong to human beings ‘by nature’ as part of their inherited physical and psychological constitution.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above" because Bhikhu Parekh argues that human nature encompasses permanent and universal capacities, desires, and dispositions that all human beings share by virtue of belonging to a common species. It also includes virtues that are universal and shared by human beings in all ages and societies. Additionally, human nature consists of properties that are acquired by virtue of belonging to the human species and are not socially or culturally derived. Lastly, it involves virtues that are inherent to human beings as part of their inherited physical and psychological constitution.

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  • 45. 

    True/False: According to Hajoon Chang, humans acting morality is only an optical illusion. They are only acting morally when it benefits themselves.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    According to the given answer, the statement that humans acting morally is only an optical illusion and they are only acting morally when it benefits themselves is false. This suggests that Hajoon Chang does not believe that human morality is solely based on self-interest and that humans are capable of genuine acts of morality that are not solely motivated by personal gain.

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  • 46. 

    Why do many political and social theorists continue to believe that small political communities work best as opposed to larger ones?  

    • A.

      Smaller communities promote stronger neighbor relationships.

    • B.

      Smaller communities have many advantages for business.

    • C.

      Smaller communities are more environmentally sustainable.

    • D.

      Smaller communities invite citizen participation in ways that are foreclosed to larger ones.

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Many political and social theorists continue to believe that small political communities work best as opposed to larger ones because smaller communities promote stronger neighbor relationships, have many advantages for business, are more environmentally sustainable, and invite citizen participation in ways that are foreclosed to larger ones.

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  • 47. 

    True/False: In The Federalist Paper, No. 10, Madison argues that the effects of factions cannot be controlled, but their causes can.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    In The Federalist Paper, No. 10, Madison argues that the effects of factions can be controlled, but their causes cannot. He believed that factions were a natural and inevitable part of human nature, but their harmful effects could be mitigated through a system of checks and balances. Madison proposed a large and diverse republic as a solution, where the power would be divided among different factions, preventing any one faction from dominating and causing harm to others. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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  • 48. 

    According to Rogers M. Smith, “Toward a Theory of Civic Identities”, citizenship laws emerge from which conflicting political imperatives?

    • A.

      To maintain arrangements that support a useful sense of civic identity.

    • B.

      To include political friends and exclude foes.

    • C.

      To add persons who can help promote the regime’s prosperity and power.

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    According to Rogers M. Smith, citizenship laws emerge from conflicting political imperatives, which include maintaining arrangements that support a useful sense of civic identity, including political friends and excluding foes, and adding persons who can help promote the regime's prosperity and power. All of these factors contribute to the development of citizenship laws.

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  • 49. 

    True/False: According to Arendt, the optimism that Jewish refugees display in their adopted societies is genuine.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    According to Arendt, the optimism displayed by Jewish refugees in their adopted societies is not genuine. Arendt argues that this optimism is a form of self-deception and a coping mechanism for the refugees to avoid facing the harsh reality of their situation. She believes that this false optimism ultimately hinders their ability to fully integrate into their new societies and address the challenges they face as refugees.

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  • 50. 

    True/ False: According to Patemen in "Women and Consent", the relationship between liberalism and patriarchalism affects women because it wrongly implies consent by women and creates an ambiguous status for them as individuals.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    According to Patemen in "Women and Consent", the relationship between liberalism and patriarchalism affects women because it wrongly implies consent by women and creates an ambiguous status for them as individuals. This implies that the statement is true, as it aligns with Patemen's argument that the combination of liberalism and patriarchalism leads to the mistreatment and misunderstanding of women's consent and agency.

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