Biomed II Exam II Lecture 1

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Biomed II Exam II Lecture 1 - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which Statement is TRUE?

    • A. 

      Hemocytoblasts are multipotent hematopoietic stem cells

    • B. 

      A blastocyst is the ultimate stem cell

    • C. 

      Telomeres extend for 20,000 bases in humans

    • D. 

      Telomeres lose 700 bases with each cell division

    Correct Answer
    A. Hemocytoblasts are multipotent hematopoietic stem cells
    Explanation
    Hemocytoblasts are multipotent hematopoietic stem cells, meaning they have the ability to differentiate into multiple types of blood cells. This statement is true because hemocytoblasts are the precursor cells for all blood cells and can give rise to red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They are responsible for the continuous production of new blood cells in the body.

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  • 2. 

    What percent of tumors have telomerase?

    • A. 

      75%

    • B. 

      60%

    • C. 

      80%

    • D. 

      85%

    Correct Answer
    D. 85%
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 85%. This means that 85% of tumors have telomerase. Telomerase is an enzyme that helps maintain the length of telomeres, which are protective caps on the ends of chromosomes. Telomerase is often found to be active in cancer cells, allowing them to divide and replicate indefinitely. This high percentage suggests that telomerase is a common feature in tumor cells, making it a potential target for cancer treatments.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is FALSE?

    • A. 

      Telomerase can replenish telomeres to allow for continued replication of special cells (this is seen in germ cells and stem cells)

    • B. 

      As we age, telomeres get longer, sending cells into senescence

    • C. 

      Stem cells can not migrate which is a key trait of cancer

    • D. 

      Stem cells are in almost all tissue

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. As we age, telomeres get longer, sending cells into senescence
    C. Stem cells can not migrate which is a key trait of cancer
  • 4. 

    Benign tumor=cancer

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Malignant tumor=cancer

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is TRUE?

    • A. 

      Inherited mutations are less likely the sole cause of cancer

    • B. 

      Acquired mutations are less likely the sole cause of cancer

    • C. 

      The cause of a tumor is 75% inherited

    • D. 

      Epstein-barr is a liver cancer

    Correct Answer
    A. Inherited mutations are less likely the sole cause of cancer
    Explanation
    Inherited mutations are less likely the sole cause of cancer. This means that while inherited mutations can increase the risk of developing cancer, they are not the only factor responsible for causing cancer. Other factors such as acquired mutations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices also play a significant role in the development of cancer. Therefore, it is important to understand that cancer is a complex disease with multiple contributing factors.

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  • 6. 

    The causes of tumors are _____% Environmental

    • A. 

      25

    • B. 

      85

    • C. 

      75

    • D. 

      65

    Correct Answer
    C. 75
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 75. This means that 75% of tumors are caused by environmental factors. This suggests that the majority of tumors are influenced by external factors such as exposure to certain chemicals, pollutants, radiation, or lifestyle choices. It implies that reducing exposure to these environmental factors could potentially lower the risk of developing tumors.

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  • 7. 

    Select the FALSE statements:

    • A. 

      Smoking causes lung cancer

    • B. 

      Carcinogens in food causes lung cancer

    • C. 

      Radon causes colon cancer

    • D. 

      Asbestos causes lung cancer

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Carcinogens in food causes lung cancer
    C. Radon causes colon cancer
    Explanation
    The false statements in the given options are "carcinogens in food causes lung cancer" and "Radon causes colon cancer". While smoking and asbestos are known to be risk factors for lung cancer, and radon is a known cause of lung cancer, there is no evidence to suggest that carcinogens in food cause lung cancer or that radon causes colon cancer.

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  • 8. 

    Which cells replicate a lot?

    • A. 

      Cells lining the colon

    • B. 

      Skin cells

    • C. 

      Muscle cells

    • D. 

      Neurons

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Cells lining the colon
    B. Skin cells
    Explanation
    Cells lining the colon and skin cells replicate a lot because they are constantly being shed and replaced. The cells lining the colon are responsible for absorbing nutrients and water from digested food, and the constant replication ensures that this process can continue efficiently. Similarly, skin cells are constantly being shed and replaced to maintain the integrity and functionality of the skin barrier. On the other hand, muscle cells and neurons have limited ability to replicate, as their primary function is not to undergo rapid replication but rather to perform specialized functions such as contraction or transmission of signals.

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  • 9. 

    Brain cancer is cancer of ____cells

    Correct Answer(s)
    glial
    Explanation
    Brain cancer is cancer that originates in the cells of the brain. Glial cells, also known as neuroglia, are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for neurons in the brain. They play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the nervous system. When these glial cells become cancerous, it results in brain cancer. Therefore, the correct answer is "glial" as it accurately identifies the type of cells affected by brain cancer.

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  • 10. 

    Which is TRUE?

    • A. 

      Ras stimulates cell death

    • B. 

      EGF binds to EGFR

    • C. 

      EGF binds to Ras

    • D. 

      ETFR activates ras protein

    Correct Answer
    B. EGF binds to EGFR
    Explanation
    EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) is a signaling molecule that binds to EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor). This binding activates EGFR, leading to various cellular responses such as cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, the statement "EGF binds to EGFR" is true.

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  • 11. 

    Overstimulation of ras causes cancers of:

    • A. 

      Breast

    • B. 

      Liver

    • C. 

      Ovary

    • D. 

      Stomach

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Breast
    C. Ovary
    D. Stomach
    Explanation
    Overstimulation of the ras gene can lead to the development of cancer in various organs, including the breast, ovaries, and stomach. Ras is a proto-oncogene that regulates cell growth and division. When it becomes mutated or overactive, it can promote uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation. Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in women, while ovarian cancer affects the ovaries, and stomach cancer affects the stomach lining. These cancers can occur when ras signaling pathways are dysregulated, leading to abnormal cell proliferation and tumor growth in these organs.

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  • 12. 

    Large amounts of unrepairable DNA damage activates:

    • A. 

      P16

    • B. 

      BRCA1/BRCA2

    • C. 

      P53

    • D. 

      BRCA1/BRCA2/BRCA3

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. P16
    B. BRCA1/BRCA2
    Explanation
    Large amounts of unrepairable DNA damage can activate p16 and BRCA1/BRCA2. p16 is a tumor suppressor gene that plays a role in cell cycle regulation and prevents the progression of damaged cells into cancerous cells. BRCA1 and BRCA2 are also tumor suppressor genes that are involved in DNA repair. When there is extensive DNA damage that cannot be repaired, these genes are activated to halt cell division and initiate repair mechanisms. Therefore, the correct answer is p16 and BRCA1/BRCA2.

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  • 13. 

    Activation of normal p53 leads to cell cycle arrest in G1 and induction of DNA repair by transcriptional up-regulation of: 

    • A. 

      GADD45

    • B. 

      P16

    • C. 

      CDKN1A (p21)

    • D. 

      Cb3

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. GADD45
    C. CDKN1A (p21)
    Explanation
    Activation of normal p53 leads to cell cycle arrest in G1 and induction of DNA repair by transcriptional up-regulation of GADD45 and CDKN1A (p21). GADD45 is involved in DNA damage repair and is up-regulated by p53 to promote DNA repair. CDKN1A (p21) is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that inhibits cell cycle progression and is also up-regulated by p53 to induce cell cycle arrest in G1 phase, allowing time for DNA repair to occur.

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  • 14. 

    P53 is most frequently mutated gene in human cancer

    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because p53 is indeed the most frequently mutated gene in human cancer. The p53 gene is responsible for regulating cell division and preventing the formation of tumors. However, when the p53 gene is mutated, it loses its ability to control cell growth and can lead to the development of cancer. Mutations in the p53 gene have been found in a wide range of human cancers, making it the most commonly mutated gene in cancer cases.

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  • 15. 

    Which statement is TRUE?

    • A. 

      Humans have the most apoptotic cells in vitro in response to radiation

    • B. 

      Elephants have 2 copies of p53 gene

    • C. 

      Humans missing p53 copy have over 90% lifetime risk of cancer

    • D. 

      Elephants have fewest apoptotic cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Humans missing p53 copy have over 90% lifetime risk of cancer
  • 16. 

    Cells without nuclei and DNA are removed by the:

    • A. 

      Kidneys

    • B. 

      Liver

    • C. 

      Small intestines

    • D. 

      Lungs

    Correct Answer
    B. Liver
    Explanation
    The liver is responsible for removing cells without nuclei and DNA from the body. It performs various functions, including detoxification and filtering of blood. As part of its role in detoxification, the liver eliminates waste products, toxins, and old or damaged cells from the bloodstream. This includes cells without nuclei and DNA, which are likely to be old or damaged. Therefore, the liver is the correct answer for removing such cells from the body.

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  • 17. 

    What is true of necrosis:

    • A. 

      Blobs fuse and become larger

    • B. 

      Organelles located in the blobs

    • C. 

      Organelles are not functional

    • D. 

      Organelles are functional

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Blobs fuse and become larger
    C. Organelles are not functional
    Explanation
    Necrosis is a type of cell death that occurs due to injury or disease. During necrosis, the affected cells undergo structural changes, including the fusion of cytoplasmic blobs, which causes them to become larger. Additionally, necrotic cells have dysfunctional organelles, meaning that the organelles are not able to perform their normal functions.

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