Evolution - Natural Selection Notes Review

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Evolution - Natural Selection Notes Review - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which choices are mechanisms of evolution?

    • A.

      Natural selection

    • B.

      Migration

    • C.

      Mutation

    • D.

      Genetic drift

    • E.

      Fossil evidence

    • F.

      Analogous structures

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Natural selection
    B. Migration
    C. Mutation
    D. Genetic drift
    Explanation
    The correct answer choices, natural selection, migration, mutation, and genetic drift, are all mechanisms of evolution. Natural selection refers to the process where certain traits become more or less common in a population based on their ability to survive and reproduce. Migration involves the movement of individuals from one population to another, which can introduce new genetic variations. Mutation is the spontaneous change in DNA that can lead to new variations in a population. Genetic drift refers to the random changes in allele frequencies that occur in small populations. These mechanisms contribute to the changes in genetic makeup and diversity within populations over time.

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  • 2. 

    What are the 3 conditions for natural selection to occur?

    • A.

      More organisms are produced than can survive and reproduce.

    • B.

      The fittest individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce.

    • C.

      Humans must be able to control breeding practices.

    • D.

      There must be variation within a species, and some of those variations must be better adapted to a particular environment.

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. More organisms are produced than can survive and reproduce.
    B. The fittest individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce.
    D. There must be variation within a species, and some of those variations must be better adapted to a particular environment.
    Explanation
    The three conditions for natural selection to occur are: more organisms are produced than can survive and reproduce, the fittest individuals are more likely to survive and reproduce, and there must be variation within a species, with some variations being better adapted to a particular environment.

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  • 3. 

    What is an adaptation?

    • A.

      A heritable trait that increases the ability to survive and reproduce in an environment

    • B.

      A heritable trait that does not affect the ability to survive and reproduce in an environment

    • C.

      A heritable trait that increases the ability to survive and reproduce in ALL environments

    Correct Answer
    A. A heritable trait that increases the ability to survive and reproduce in an environment
    Explanation
    An adaptation is a heritable trait that increases an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a specific environment. This trait gives the organism an advantage over others in its population, allowing it to better adapt to its surroundings and increase its chances of passing on its genes to the next generation.

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  • 4. 

    Mimicry is an adaptation where

    • A.

      An organism imitates the environment in an effort to blend in and hide

    • B.

      One organism imitates a more dangerous organism

    • C.

      An organism has a behavior that allows it to better survive

    Correct Answer
    B. One organism imitates a more dangerous organism
    Explanation
    Mimicry is an adaptation where one organism imitates a more dangerous organism. This is a survival strategy used by certain species to protect themselves from predators. By imitating a more dangerous or toxic organism, they are able to deter potential predators from attacking them. This form of mimicry is known as Batesian mimicry, where a harmless organism mimics the appearance or behavior of a harmful or poisonous organism to avoid being preyed upon. This adaptation allows the organism to blend in and avoid detection, increasing its chances of survival.

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  • 5. 

    Camouflage is an adaptation where

    • A.

      An organism imitates the environment in an effort to blend in and hide

    • B.

      One organism imitates a more dangerous organism

    • C.

      An organism has a behavior that allows it to better survive

    • D.

      Animals bury their heads in sand

    Correct Answer
    A. An organism imitates the environment in an effort to blend in and hide
    Explanation
    Camouflage is an adaptation where an organism imitates the environment in an effort to blend in and hide. This allows the organism to remain unnoticed by predators or prey, increasing its chances of survival. By imitating the colors, patterns, and textures of its surroundings, the organism can effectively camouflage itself and avoid detection. This adaptation is beneficial as it helps the organism to avoid predation and increases its chances of successfully hunting for food.

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  • 6. 

    Some behaviors are inherited and are more or less likely to help an organism survive.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    This statement is true because certain behaviors can be inherited from parents and passed on to offspring through genetics. These inherited behaviors, also known as instincts, are often beneficial for the survival of an organism. For example, animals have innate behaviors such as hunting, mating, and migrating that are crucial for their survival. These behaviors have evolved over time and are more or less likely to help an organism adapt to its environment and increase its chances of survival.

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  • 7. 

    What is fitness?

    • A.

      Ability to survive and reproduce in a given environment

    • B.

      Ability to survive in a given environment - reproduction is not a part of the definition

    • C.

      Ability to survive and reproduce in all environments

    Correct Answer
    A. Ability to survive and reproduce in a given environment
    Explanation
    Fitness refers to an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a specific environment. This definition emphasizes the importance of both survival and reproduction for an organism to be considered fit. It implies that an organism must possess traits and adaptations that allow it to successfully navigate its environment, find resources, avoid predators, and produce viable offspring. The concept of fitness is essential in understanding natural selection and the evolutionary process, as individuals with higher fitness are more likely to pass on their genes to future generations.

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  • 8. 

    Which organisms will be survive and reproduce if natural selection is working?

    • A.

      Organisms with variations that farmers choose as most desirable

    • B.

      Organisms with variations most suited to their environment

    • C.

      Organisms who are biggest

    Correct Answer
    B. Organisms with variations most suited to their environment
    Explanation
    Organisms with variations most suited to their environment will survive and reproduce if natural selection is working. This is because natural selection favors traits and characteristics that allow organisms to better adapt and thrive in their specific environment. These organisms are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on their advantageous traits to future generations, ensuring the continuation of their species.

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  • 9. 

    What is the difference between artificial selection and natural selection?

    • A.

      The difference is who chooses which organisms reproduce: in artificial, it is a person, in natural, it is the environment.

    • B.

      One occurs only in laboratories, although it mimics what happens in the natural world

    • C.

      Artificial selection is fake and natural selection is real

    Correct Answer
    A. The difference is who chooses which organisms reproduce: in artificial, it is a person, in natural, it is the environment.
    Explanation
    Artificial selection and natural selection differ in terms of who determines which organisms reproduce. In artificial selection, it is a person who chooses which organisms will reproduce based on desired traits. On the other hand, in natural selection, the environment plays a role in determining which organisms are better suited for survival and reproduction. While artificial selection can occur in laboratories, it aims to mimic the processes of natural selection that happen in the natural world. Therefore, artificial selection is a human-driven process, while natural selection is driven by the environment.

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  • 10. 

    Natural selection works on both inherited and acquired (non-inherited) traits.  

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Natural selection only works on inherited traits, not acquired traits. Inherited traits are passed down from parents to offspring through genes, while acquired traits are developed or learned during an organism's lifetime and cannot be passed on to future generations. Natural selection acts on inherited traits because these traits can be passed on to the next generation, allowing the individuals with beneficial traits to survive and reproduce, while those with less advantageous traits are less likely to pass on their genes.

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  • 11. 

    What is fit never changes.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The statement "What is fit never changes" is incorrect. Fitness is not a static state and can change over time. People's level of fitness can be influenced by various factors such as exercise, diet, and lifestyle choices. Therefore, the correct answer is False.

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