Health Policy First Exam

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| By Shahemalbone6
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Shahemalbone6
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Quizzes Created: 4 | Total Attempts: 101,035
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Health Policy First Exam - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    "A group of individuals or items that share one or more characteristics" is the definition of:

    • A.

      Demographics

    • B.

      Population

    • C.

      Community health

    • D.

      Health transition

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Population
    Explanation
    The term "population" refers to a group of individuals or items that share one or more characteristics. This can include people, animals, or even objects. Demographics refers specifically to the statistical data of a population, while community health and health transition are more specific terms related to the health of a population. Therefore, the correct answer is population.

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  • 2. 

    To understand the health needs of the community we must address several components,such as:

    • A.

      External factors

    • B.

      Enabling factors

    • C.

      Health transition

    • D.

      Two of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Two of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Two of the above." This is because to understand the health needs of a community, we need to consider both external factors and enabling factors. External factors refer to the social, economic, and environmental conditions that can impact health, such as poverty, pollution, and access to healthcare. Enabling factors include resources, services, and policies that can support health, such as education, transportation, and healthcare facilities. By addressing both external and enabling factors, we can have a comprehensive understanding of the health needs of the community.

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  • 3. 

    "Disease" is :

    • A.

      Successful adaptation of an organism to stress and stimuli to which is exposed

    • B.

      Mortality

    • C.

      Results from healthy lifestyles

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
  • 4. 

    A country of 4000 population has a 1000 deaths, with 500 of these deaths caused by "diabetes", which of these are correct :

    • A.

      Crude rate: 1000/4000, PMR: 500/4000

    • B.

      Crude rate:4000/1000, Cause specific: 500/1000

    • C.

      Case fatility: 500/2000,PMR:500/1000

    • D.

      PMR:500/1000,Crude rate:1000/4000

    Correct Answer
    D. PMR:500/1000,Crude rate:1000/4000
    Explanation
    The answer is PMR: 500/1000, Crude rate: 1000/4000. PMR stands for Proportional Mortality Ratio, which is the number of deaths due to a specific cause (in this case, diabetes) divided by the total number of deaths in the population. In this case, there were 500 deaths due to diabetes out of a total of 1000 deaths, resulting in a PMR of 500/1000. Crude rate, on the other hand, is the total number of deaths in the population divided by the total population. In this case, there were 1000 deaths out of a population of 4000, resulting in a crude rate of 1000/4000.

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  • 5. 

    All of these are NCDS except:

    • A.

      Asthma

    • B.

      Measles

    • C.

      Obesity

    • D.

      Stroke

    Correct Answer
    B. Measles
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Measles. Measles is an infectious disease caused by a virus, whereas asthma, obesity, and stroke are non-communicable diseases (NCDS). NCDS are typically chronic conditions that are not caused by infectious agents and cannot be transmitted from person to person. Measles, on the other hand, is a highly contagious viral infection that spreads through respiratory droplets.

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  • 6. 

    A women is in the hospital to make screening tests for breast cancer, she is already in:

    • A.

      Primary prevention

    • B.

      Secondary prevention

    • C.

      Tertiary prevention

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Secondary prevention
    Explanation
    The woman being in the hospital for screening tests indicates that she is already taking steps to detect breast cancer at an early stage, before any symptoms appear. This aligns with the concept of secondary prevention, which focuses on early detection and intervention to prevent the progression of a disease. Primary prevention refers to actions taken to prevent the onset of a disease, while tertiary prevention involves managing and reducing the impact of a disease that has already occurred. None of the above does not apply in this case.

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  • 7. 

    Stage 2 of the DTM is characterized by:

    • A.

      Rapidly population growth

    • B.

      Stabilized stage

    • C.

      High infant mortality

    • D.

      Two of above

    Correct Answer
    A. Rapidly population growth
    Explanation
    Stage 2 of the Demographic Transition Model (DTM) is characterized by rapidly population growth. This stage occurs as a result of declining death rates due to improvements in healthcare and sanitation, while birth rates remain high. As a result, the population experiences a rapid increase. This stage is typically associated with developing countries where there is a transition from agricultural to industrial economies. The high population growth in stage 2 can put pressure on resources and infrastructure, leading to challenges in providing basic services and sustaining economic development.

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  • 8. 

    When public health professionals Identify problems related to public health they are achieving one of these concepts:

    • A.

      Evaluation

    • B.

      Assurance

    • C.

      Assessment

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Assessment
    Explanation
    Public health professionals identify problems related to public health through the process of assessment. Assessment involves collecting and analyzing data to understand the health needs and concerns of a population. It helps in identifying health problems, determining their magnitude and impact, and prioritizing interventions. Evaluation, on the other hand, involves assessing the effectiveness of interventions, while assurance refers to the responsibility of public health agencies to ensure that essential services are available to everyone. Therefore, the correct concept achieved when public health professionals identify problems related to public health is assessment.

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  • 9. 

    When people don't have money to get a specific drug or treatment,this is considered a:

    • A.

      Internal factor

    • B.

      Enabling factor

    • C.

      Healthy lifestyle

    • D.

      Two of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Enabling factor
    Explanation
    When people don't have money to get a specific drug or treatment, this is considered an enabling factor. An enabling factor refers to a circumstance or condition that allows or facilitates a certain outcome or behavior. In this case, the lack of financial resources enables or contributes to the inability of individuals to access the necessary drug or treatment.

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  • 10. 

    The estimated global mortality rate for  NCDS is:

    • A.

      20%

    • B.

      23,4%

    • C.

      40%

    • D.

      50%

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. 50%
    Explanation
    The estimated global mortality rate for NCDs is 50%. This means that 50% of deaths worldwide are attributed to non-communicable diseases. NCDs include conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, chronic respiratory diseases, and diabetes. This high mortality rate highlights the significant impact of NCDs on global health and emphasizes the need for effective prevention and management strategies to reduce the burden of these diseases.

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  • 11. 

    The main factors contribute to NCDS are:

    • A.

      Infections

    • B.

      Hereditary factors

    • C.

      Pathogens

    • D.

      Way of living

    • E.

      Two of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. Two of the above
    Explanation
    The main factors that contribute to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are infections, hereditary factors, pathogens, and way of living. This means that at least two of these factors play a role in the development of NCDs. Infections can lead to chronic diseases, hereditary factors can increase the risk of certain conditions, pathogens can cause diseases, and unhealthy lifestyle choices can also contribute to the development of NCDs. Therefore, it is likely that a combination of these factors is responsible for the occurrence of NCDs.

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  • 12. 

    "A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of individual within the home environment and in the community" is the definition of:

    • A.

      Public health

    • B.

      Morbidity

    • C.

      Community medicine

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Community medicine
    Explanation
    Community medicine is the correct answer because it refers to a branch of medicine that focuses on the overall health and well-being of individuals in their home environment and within the community. It involves the study and application of preventive medicine, health promotion, and healthcare delivery to the population at large. This field aims to improve the health outcomes of communities by addressing various factors that influence health, such as social, economic, and environmental determinants.

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  • 13. 

    In USA It's more accurate to use:

    • A.

      Fertility rate

    • B.

      General fertility rate

    • C.

      Maternal fertility rate

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. General fertility rate
    Explanation
    The general fertility rate is the most accurate measure to use in the USA because it provides information on the number of live births per 1,000 women of reproductive age (usually between 15 and 44 years old). This rate takes into account all women in the reproductive age group, regardless of their maternal status or specific circumstances. It provides a comprehensive picture of fertility patterns in the population and is commonly used for policy planning and demographic analysis. The other options, such as fertility rate or maternal fertility rate, may be more specific measures that focus on certain subsets of the population and may not provide a complete representation of fertility trends in the country.

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  • 14. 

    One of these factors isn't attributed to CVD in the region:

    • A.

      Obesity

    • B.

      Poor diet

    • C.

      Lack of hygiene

    • D.

      High blood pressure

    • E.

      Two of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Lack of hygiene
    Explanation
    The correct answer is lack of hygiene. Lack of hygiene is not typically attributed to cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the region. CVD is more commonly associated with factors such as obesity, poor diet, and high blood pressure. However, lack of hygiene can contribute to other health issues, such as infectious diseases, but it is not directly linked to the development of CVD.

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  • 15. 

    One of these leading causes of death in jordan is a non-communicable disease which is increasing:

    • A.

      Road injuries

    • B.

      Chronic kidney disease

    • C.

      Ischemic heart disease

    • D.

      Low respiratory infections

    • E.

      Two of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Chronic kidney disease
    Explanation
    Chronic kidney disease is identified as one of the leading causes of death in Jordan that is on the rise. This indicates that the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the country is increasing and it is becoming a significant health concern. The other options, such as road injuries, ischemic heart disease, and low respiratory infections, may also be causes of death in Jordan, but the question specifically states that chronic kidney disease is one of the leading causes and is increasing, making it the correct answer.

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  • 16. 

    The leading risk factor for men in jordan:

    • A.

      Metabolic syndrome

    • B.

      Tobacco

    • C.

      Diabetes

    • D.

      Cancer

    Correct Answer
    B. Tobacco
    Explanation
    Tobacco is the leading risk factor for men in Jordan because it is a well-known cause of various health issues, including lung cancer, heart disease, and respiratory problems. Smoking tobacco increases the risk of developing these diseases significantly. Additionally, tobacco use is also associated with other health problems such as stroke, high blood pressure, and diabetes. Therefore, tobacco poses a significant risk to men's health in Jordan, making it the leading risk factor among the given options.

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  • 17. 

    The risk of premature death in men&woman for NCDS in jordan is:

    • A.

      50%

    • B.

      20%

    • C.

      17.4%

    • D.

      36%

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. 20%
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 20%. This suggests that the risk of premature death for men and women with non-communicable diseases (NCDS) in Jordan is 20%. This indicates that a significant proportion of individuals with NCDS in Jordan are at risk of dying prematurely. It is important for healthcare providers and policymakers to address this risk and implement appropriate interventions to reduce premature mortality among individuals with NCDS in the country.

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  • 18. 

    It's important to consider age&gender composition when looking at health issues because it results in:

    • A.

      Different proportion of the people in labor force

    • B.

      Different health proplems and different health needs

    • C.

      Unequally

    • D.

      Two of the above

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. Two of the above
    Explanation
    Considering age and gender composition when looking at health issues is important because it results in different proportions of people in the labor force and different health problems and needs. By understanding the age and gender distribution, policymakers and healthcare providers can tailor their strategies and services accordingly. This approach acknowledges that different age groups and genders may have varying health risks and requirements. Therefore, considering age and gender composition helps ensure that resources are allocated effectively and equitably, addressing the diverse needs of the population.

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  • 19. 

    Which of these countries is already in stage 5 of the DTM?

    • A.

      Sweden

    • B.

      USA

    • C.

      UK

    • D.

      Jordan

    Correct Answer
    A. Sweden
    Explanation
    Sweden is already in stage 5 of the DTM because it has a very low birth rate and a very low death rate, resulting in a low rate of natural increase. Additionally, Sweden has a high life expectancy and a high level of economic development, which are characteristic of stage 5 countries.

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  • 20. 

    We might need to adopt new health policies for diabetes because of:

    • A.

      Diabetes has rapidly increasing ratio as a one of the leading causes of death

    • B.

      Current policies are ineffective

    • C.

      Elderly age group are getting larger

    • D.

      Two of the above

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "all of the above". This means that we might need to adopt new health policies for diabetes because of all the reasons mentioned in the question. Firstly, diabetes has a rapidly increasing ratio as one of the leading causes of death, indicating the need for new policies to address this issue. Secondly, the current policies are ineffective, which further emphasizes the need for new approaches. Lastly, the fact that the elderly age group is getting larger suggests that there will be a greater demand for diabetes-related healthcare in the future, necessitating new policies to accommodate this demographic shift.

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  • 21. 

    If we want to develop a health policy our first consideration should be:

    • A.

      The needs of the population

    • B.

      Community support

    • C.

      Flexibility to change

    • D.

      A+B

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    When developing a health policy, it is important to consider the needs of the population as this will ensure that the policy addresses the specific health issues and concerns of the people. Community support is also crucial as it ensures that the policy is accepted and implemented effectively. Additionally, flexibility to change is necessary as health needs and circumstances may evolve over time, and the policy should be adaptable to accommodate these changes. Therefore, considering all of these factors (the needs of the population, community support, and flexibility to change) is essential for developing an effective health policy.

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  • 22. 

    Life expectancy is used to calculate Human Growth Index (HGI) from some factors,Such As:

    • A.

      Standards(quality) of living

    • B.

      Education

    • C.

      SES

    • D.

      Two of the above

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Life expectancy is a key factor in calculating the Human Growth Index (HGI) as it reflects the overall health and well-being of a population. Standards of living play a crucial role in determining life expectancy, as better living conditions, access to healthcare, and sanitation facilities contribute to longer life spans. Education also influences life expectancy, as it empowers individuals to make informed decisions about their health and adopt healthier lifestyles. Socioeconomic status (SES) is another determinant of life expectancy, as individuals with higher SES generally have better access to healthcare, nutrition, and other resources that promote longevity. Therefore, all of the mentioned factors - standards of living, education, and SES - contribute to life expectancy and are used in calculating the HGI.

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  • 23. 

    Driving safely with seat belt is considered:

    • A.

      Secondary prevention

    • B.

      Tertiary prevention

    • C.

      Physical prevention

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    Driving safely with a seat belt is not considered secondary prevention, which typically involves early detection and intervention to prevent the progression of a disease or injury. It is also not considered tertiary prevention, which focuses on reducing the impact of an already established disease or injury. Instead, driving safely with a seat belt can be seen as a form of primary prevention, as it aims to prevent accidents and injuries from occurring in the first place.

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  • 24. 

    Health transition(as it undergoes "westernization") is marked by all of these except:

    • A.

      An increase in NCDS mortality rates

    • B.

      Reduction of death due to infection

    • C.

      Increased life quality

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Increased life quality
    Explanation
    The health transition, as it undergoes "westernization," is marked by several changes. These include an increase in non-communicable diseases (NCDs) mortality rates and a reduction in death due to infection. However, it does not necessarily guarantee an increase in life quality. While the transition may bring advancements in healthcare and access to better treatments, it does not automatically guarantee an improvement in overall quality of life. Other factors such as socioeconomic conditions, lifestyle choices, and environmental factors also play a significant role in determining life quality.

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  • 25. 

    Disease characteristics include:

    • A.

      Cannot be measured

    • B.

      Distinct from other conditions by it's clinical prevention

    • C.

      Successful adaptation to stimuli

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. None of the above
    Explanation
    The given answer "none of the above" is correct because disease characteristics can be measured. They can be identified and evaluated based on various factors such as symptoms, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and patient history. Disease characteristics are also not necessarily distinct from other conditions by clinical prevention, as different diseases can have similar prevention methods. Successful adaptation to stimuli is not a characteristic of diseases, as diseases typically involve abnormal responses or dysfunctions in the body.

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  • 26. 

    "Assuring the conditions in which people can be healthy" is the mission of:

    • A.

      Community Health

    • B.

      Public Health

    • C.

      Social Health

    • D.

      Population

    Correct Answer
    B. Public Health
    Explanation
    Public Health is the correct answer because it focuses on the overall health and well-being of the population as a whole. It involves promoting and protecting the health of communities through various interventions such as disease prevention, health education, and policy development. Public Health aims to create conditions in which people can be healthy by addressing social, environmental, and behavioral factors that influence health outcomes. It emphasizes the importance of prevention and population-level interventions to improve the health of individuals and communities.

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  • 27. 

    Elderly impact health services because:

    • A.

      They are more prone to NCDs so that less expenditure on health services will be needed

    • B.

      They increase the economical burden on the country

    • C.

      They decrease the dependency ratio

    • D.

      Two of the above

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. They increase the economical burden on the country
    Explanation
    The elderly increase the economical burden on the country because as they age, they require more healthcare services and resources. This includes medical treatments, medications, and long-term care facilities. The cost of providing these services and resources to a growing elderly population puts a strain on the country's economy. As a result, more funds need to be allocated towards healthcare for the elderly, which can have a negative impact on the overall financial stability of the country.

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  • 28. 

    One of these fertility rates has the formula (number of live births/number of married women between age 15-44):

    • A.

      Fertility rate

    • B.

      General Fertility rate

    • C.

      Crude rate

    • D.

      Case fatality

    • E.

      Martial Fertility rate

    Correct Answer
    E. Martial Fertility rate
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Martial Fertility rate. This fertility rate specifically focuses on the number of live births in relation to the number of married women between the ages of 15-44. It provides a measure of fertility specifically within the context of married women, rather than the general population.

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  • 29. 

    Relating to health transition, there is now evidence that the poorest in developing countries face a burden of:

    • A.

      NCDS

    • B.

      Infectious disease

    • C.

      Socio-behavioural illness

    • D.

      Two of the above

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above". This means that in relation to health transition, the poorest in developing countries face a burden of NCDS (non-communicable diseases), infectious diseases, and socio-behavioural illnesses. This suggests that individuals in these countries who are in poverty not only struggle with diseases caused by lifestyle factors (NCDS) and infectious diseases, but also face additional challenges related to socio-behavioural factors that impact their health.

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  • 30. 

    One of these factors contribute to good health:

    • A.

      Sedentary life

    • B.

      Adequate sleep

    • C.

      Tobacco

    • D.

      Physical inactivity

    Correct Answer
    B. Adequate sleep
    Explanation
    Adequate sleep is a factor that contributes to good health. Getting enough sleep is essential for the proper functioning of the body and mind. During sleep, the body repairs and rejuvenates itself, strengthening the immune system and promoting overall well-being. Lack of sleep can lead to various health issues, such as weakened immune system, increased risk of chronic diseases, impaired cognitive function, and mood disorders. Therefore, ensuring adequate sleep is crucial for maintaining good health.

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