Environmental Science Mid Term

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Environmental Science Mid Term - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is the difference between science and pseudoscience? Give an example of each

  • 2. 

    What are the three different types of mining, and how do they work?

  • 3. 

    What are two different types of modern extraction process, and what sort of pollution can they cause?

  • 4. 

    Describe the rock cycle. Explain how each rock type can turn into another. You may draw a diagram to help with you explanation 

  • 5. 

    At what rate is the population rate increasing?

    • A.

      Exponentially

    • B.

      Logistically

    • C.

      Ecstatically

    • D.

      Logarithmically

    Correct Answer
    A. Exponentially
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Exponentially." This means that the population is increasing at an accelerating rate. In exponential growth, the population size multiplies by a constant factor over a constant time period. This implies that as time goes on, the rate of increase becomes larger and larger.

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  • 6. 

    What is a change performed by an individual organism in response to the environment?

    • A.

      Speciation

    • B.

      Adaption

    • C.

      Acclamation

    • D.

      Evolution

    Correct Answer
    C. Acclamation
  • 7. 

    What is a long term change performed by a species in response to its environment?

    • A.

      Speciation

    • B.

      Evolution

    • C.

      Adaption

    • D.

      Speciation

    Correct Answer
    B. Evolution
    Explanation
    Evolution is the correct answer because it refers to the long-term change that occurs in a species over time in response to its environment. This change can involve genetic variations, natural selection, and adaptation to better suit the species' survival and reproduction needs. Speciation, on the other hand, refers to the formation of new species through the evolutionary process.

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  • 8. 

    What islands did Charles Darwin observe to create his theory of evolution?

    • A.

      Caribbean

    • B.

      Hawaii

    • C.

      Galapagos

    • D.

      Aleutian

    Correct Answer
    C. Galapagos
    Explanation
    Charles Darwin observed the Galapagos Islands to create his theory of evolution. These islands are located in the Pacific Ocean and are known for their unique and diverse range of plant and animal species. Darwin's observations of the different species on the Galapagos Islands, particularly the variations in finches and tortoises, led him to develop his theory of natural selection and evolution. The Galapagos Islands played a crucial role in shaping Darwin's understanding of the mechanisms behind the diversity of life on Earth.

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  • 9. 

    What is the zone of tolerance where species can live but with difficulty?

    • A.

      Zone of Physical Stress

    • B.

      Zone of Psychological Stress

    • C.

      Zone of Periodical Stress

    • D.

      Zone of Physiological Stress

    Correct Answer
    D. Zone of Physiological Stress
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Zone of Physiological Stress." The zone of physiological stress refers to the range of environmental conditions in which a species can survive but with difficulty. These conditions may include extreme temperatures, limited resources, or high levels of pollution. Within this zone, individuals may experience reduced growth, reproduction, or increased susceptibility to diseases. It represents the threshold beyond which the species may struggle to adapt and survive in its habitat.

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  • 10. 

    What happens when two different species occupy the same niche?

    • A.

      The equally share resources

    • B.

      They will directly compete with each other

    • C.

      They leave each other alone

    • D.

      One tries to costume the other

    Correct Answer
    B. They will directly compete with each other
    Explanation
    When two different species occupy the same niche, they will directly compete with each other. This is because they both require the same resources and have similar ecological roles in the ecosystem. As a result, they will compete for food, territory, mates, and other essential resources, leading to a struggle for survival. This competition can have various outcomes, such as one species outcompeting the other, both species coexisting but with reduced population sizes, or one species adapting and evolving to occupy a slightly different niche.

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  • 11. 

    What is the highest level of taxonomy?

    • A.

      Phylum

    • B.

      Kingdom

    • C.

      Family

    • D.

      Domain

    Correct Answer
    D. Domain
    Explanation
    Domain is the highest level of taxonomy. Taxonomy is the science of classification, and it categorizes organisms into different levels based on their characteristics and evolutionary relationships. The highest level is the domain, followed by kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species. The domain is broader and encompasses multiple kingdoms, while the other options (phylum, kingdom, and family) are lower levels in the hierarchy.

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  • 12. 

    When predator and prey evolve and change at the same rate, it is known as...

    • A.

      Competive Speciation

    • B.

      Competitive Evolution

    • C.

      Co-evolution

    • D.

      Co-speciation

    Correct Answer
    C. Co-evolution
    Explanation
    Co-evolution occurs when two or more species influence each other's evolution over time. In the case of predators and prey, they constantly adapt and counter-adapt to each other's strategies, resulting in a reciprocal evolutionary relationship. This process can lead to the development of specialized adaptations and behaviors in both predator and prey species, ultimately shaping their survival and reproductive success. Co-evolution is a dynamic and ongoing process that occurs when there is a strong selective pressure between interacting species.

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  • 13. 

    What type of relationship has one species benefiting and other unaffected?

    • A.

      Commensalism

    • B.

      Mutualism

    • C.

      Symbiotic

    • D.

      Parasitism

    Correct Answer
    A. Commensalism
    Explanation
    Commensalism is a type of relationship where one species benefits while the other remains unaffected. In this relationship, the benefiting species gains an advantage, such as shelter or food, without causing harm or benefit to the other species. This is different from mutualism, where both species benefit, symbiotic relationships, where both species depend on each other, and parasitism, where one species benefits at the expense of the other.

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  • 14. 

    What separates secondary succession from primary succesion?

    • A.

      Organisms are already in place

    • B.

      Microbes and Bacteria are already in place

    • C.

      There is no difference

    • D.

      Soil levels are already in place

    Correct Answer
    D. Soil levels are already in place
    Explanation
    Secondary succession differs from primary succession because in secondary succession, the soil levels are already in place. This means that the area where secondary succession occurs already has a layer of soil that contains nutrients and microorganisms, which can support the growth of new plant life. In contrast, primary succession starts from bare rock or soil with very little organic matter, and organisms must gradually establish the soil and nutrient levels over time.

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  • 15. 

    What term describes the limit of a species population?

    • A.

      Limiting Factors

    • B.

      S curve

    • C.

      Carrying Capacity

    • D.

      Logistic Growth

    Correct Answer
    C. Carrying Capacity
    Explanation
    Carrying capacity refers to the maximum number of individuals of a species that can be sustained in a given habitat without depleting the available resources. It represents the limit of a species population that can be supported by the environment. When a population reaches its carrying capacity, the birth rate equals the death rate, resulting in a stable population size. This term is commonly used in ecology to understand the dynamics of population growth and the factors that influence it.

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  • 16. 

    What species would be an example of K-selected species? 

    • A.

      Houseflies

    • B.

      Whales

    • C.

      Turtles

    • D.

      Salmon

    Correct Answer
    B. Whales
    Explanation
    Whales would be an example of K-selected species because they have a long lifespan, a low reproductive rate, and invest a lot of time and energy into raising their offspring. K-selected species typically have few offspring but provide extensive parental care, ensuring the survival and success of each individual. Whales exhibit these characteristics, making them a suitable example of a K-selected species.

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  • 17. 

    What biome has high precipitation, a low range of temperature, and high average temperatures?

    • A.

      Temperate Forest

    • B.

      Tundra

    • C.

      Desert

    • D.

      Tropical Rainforest

    Correct Answer
    D. Tropical Rainforest
    Explanation
    Tropical rainforests have high precipitation, with an average annual rainfall of 80 to 400 inches. They also have high average temperatures, usually ranging from 70 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit. Although they have a high average temperature, they have a low temperature range, with minimal seasonal variations. This makes the tropical rainforest the correct answer as it fulfills all the given criteria.

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  • 18. 

    Rapidly changing biomes over altitude rather than longitude is known as what?

    • A.

      Elevation Change

    • B.

      Vertical Alignment

    • C.

      Vertical Zonation

    • D.

      Elevated Ecosystems

    Correct Answer
    C. Vertical Zonation
    Explanation
    Vertical zonation refers to the pattern of rapidly changing biomes over altitude rather than longitude. This means that as you move up or down in elevation, you will encounter different ecosystems and biomes. This is due to the fact that altitude affects temperature, precipitation, and other environmental factors, leading to distinct vegetation and animal communities at different elevations. Therefore, vertical zonation is the correct term to describe this phenomenon.

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  • 19. 

    What biomes have large range of temperatures, little precipitation, and extreme seasons?

    • A.

      Boreal Forest

    • B.

      Desert

    • C.

      Tundra

    • D.

      Temperate Grassland

    Correct Answer
    A. Boreal Forest
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Boreal Forest. Boreal forests, also known as taiga, are characterized by their large temperature range, little precipitation, and extreme seasons. They are found in high-latitude regions, such as Canada, Scandinavia, and Russia, where the winters are long and cold, and the summers are short and cool. These forests experience low amounts of rainfall and have a wide temperature range, with temperatures dropping below freezing in winter and rising above freezing in summer. This combination of factors creates a challenging environment for plant and animal life.

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  • 20. 

    If an area receives less than 10 inches of precipitation in a year, what type of biome is it?

    • A.

      Tundra

    • B.

      Tropical Savanah

    • C.

      Desert

    • D.

      Temperate Grassland

    Correct Answer
    C. Desert
    Explanation
    If an area receives less than 10 inches of precipitation in a year, it is classified as a desert biome. Deserts are characterized by their extremely dry conditions and lack of water, making them inhospitable for most forms of life. The limited amount of rainfall in these areas prevents the growth of vegetation and contributes to the arid climate.

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  • 21. 

    Which area would not be best represented by a temperate grassland?

    • A.

      Mongolian Steppes

    • B.

      The Kalahari

    • C.

      The Great Plains

    • D.

      Patagonia

    Correct Answer
    B. The Kalahari
    Explanation
    The Kalahari would not be best represented by a temperate grassland because it is a semi-arid desert region located in southern Africa. Temperate grasslands are characterized by moderate temperatures and abundant grasses, while the Kalahari is known for its arid climate and sparse vegetation. Therefore, the Kalahari does not fit the criteria for a temperate grassland ecosystem.

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  • 22. 

    Which is only continent to not contain a desert?

    • A.

      Asia

    • B.

      South America

    • C.

      Australia

    • D.

      Europe

    Correct Answer
    D. Europe
    Explanation
    Europe is the only continent that does not contain a desert. This is because Europe's climate is mostly temperate, with a mix of maritime and continental influences, which prevents the formation of deserts. The other continents, Asia, South America, and Australia, have regions that are arid and have deserts such as the Gobi Desert in Asia, the Atacama Desert in South America, and the Great Victoria Desert in Australia.

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  • 23. 

    What is the driest desert in the world?

    • A.

      The Gobi (China/Mongolia)

    • B.

      The Atacama (Chile)

    • C.

      The Sonoran (American Southwest)

    • D.

      The Sahara (Africa)

    Correct Answer
    B. The Atacama (Chile)
    Explanation
    The Atacama Desert in Chile is considered the driest desert in the world. It receives very little rainfall and has extremely low humidity levels. The combination of its location near the Pacific Ocean, the presence of the Andes Mountains, and the cold Humboldt Current contribute to the desert's aridity. The Atacama Desert is characterized by vast stretches of barren land, salt flats, and unique rock formations. Its extreme dryness and lack of vegetation make it one of the most inhospitable places on Earth.

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  • 24. 

    Which area is not best represented by a tropical rainforest?

    • A.

      The Yucatan Peninsula

    • B.

      The Amazon Basin

    • C.

      The Congo

    • D.

      Indonesia

    Correct Answer
    A. The Yucatan Peninsula
    Explanation
    The Yucatan Peninsula is not best represented by a tropical rainforest because it is mainly characterized by a tropical savanna climate, with a mixture of grasslands and shrublands, rather than dense rainforests. The region experiences a distinct dry season, which is not typical of tropical rainforest areas. In contrast, the Amazon Basin, the Congo, and Indonesia are well-known for their extensive tropical rainforests and high levels of rainfall throughout the year.

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  • 25. 

    What is another name (or another type) of tundra? 

    • A.

      Alpine

    • B.

      Charric

    • C.

      Polar

    • D.

      Taiga

    Correct Answer
    A. Alpine
    Explanation
    Alpine is another name or type of tundra. The term "alpine" refers to high-altitude areas, typically above the tree line, where the climate is cold and harsh, similar to tundra regions. These areas are characterized by low temperatures, short growing seasons, and a lack of trees. The vegetation in alpine regions consists of low-lying plants, shrubs, and grasses that are adapted to survive in the harsh conditions. Therefore, alpine is a suitable alternative term for tundra.

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  • 26. 

    What is another name for a boreal forest?

    • A.

      Alpine

    • B.

      Charric

    • C.

      Taiga

    • D.

      Polar

    Correct Answer
    C. Taiga
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Taiga." The taiga is another name for a boreal forest. It is characterized by its cold climate and dominated by coniferous trees such as spruce, fir, and pine. The taiga is found in high-latitude regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. It plays a crucial role in the global carbon cycle and is home to a diverse range of plant and animal species adapted to the harsh conditions of the boreal ecosystem.

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  • 27. 

    Which type of forest is the most widespread in the entire world?

    • A.

      Boreal Forest

    • B.

      Tropical Seasonal Forest

    • C.

      Temperate Forest

    • D.

      Tropical Rainforest

    Correct Answer
    A. Boreal Forest
    Explanation
    The boreal forest is the most widespread type of forest in the entire world. It covers a vast area across the northern regions of North America, Europe, and Asia. This forest is characterized by its cold climate and consists mainly of coniferous trees such as spruce, pine, and fir. The boreal forest plays a crucial role in global carbon storage and is home to numerous species of plants and animals adapted to survive in harsh conditions. Its extensive distribution and ecological importance make it the most widespread forest type globally.

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  • 28. 

    What is the difference savannah's and grassland?

    • A.

      Precipitation

    • B.

      Elevation

    • C.

      Temperature Range

    • D.

      Latitudinal Zones

    Correct Answer
    D. Latitudinal Zones
    Explanation
    The difference between savannahs and grasslands lies in the latitudinal zones they are found in. Savannahs are typically found in tropical latitudes, while grasslands can be found in a variety of latitudinal zones, ranging from temperate to tropical. This difference in latitudinal zones affects the climate, vegetation, and animal life found in these two types of ecosystems. Savannahs are characterized by a mix of grasses and scattered trees, while grasslands are dominated by grasses with few or no trees.

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  • 29. 

    Where is the most widespread example of temperate shrublands?

    • A.

      California

    • B.

      Southern Australia

    • C.

      Mediterranean

    • D.

      Eastern Africa

    Correct Answer
    C. Mediterranean
    Explanation
    The Mediterranean region is the most widespread example of temperate shrublands. This region is characterized by a Mediterranean climate, which consists of hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. The vegetation in this area is adapted to these conditions, with shrubs being the dominant plant type. The Mediterranean shrublands are known for their biodiversity and unique plant species, such as the maquis and garrigue formations. This region includes countries like Spain, Italy, Greece, and parts of North Africa, and is a popular tourist destination due to its scenic landscapes.

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  • 30. 

    Around which latitudinal zone will you find the greatest range of biodiversity?

    • A.

      Tropical Zones

    • B.

      Temperate zones

    • C.

      Polar zones

    • D.

      Evenly across all zones

    Correct Answer
    A. Tropical Zones
    Explanation
    Tropical zones have the greatest range of biodiversity because they are characterized by high temperatures, abundant rainfall, and consistent sunlight throughout the year. These conditions provide a favorable environment for a wide variety of plant and animal species to thrive. The combination of warm temperatures and ample moisture supports lush rainforests, which are known to be the most biodiverse ecosystems on Earth. In contrast, temperate and polar zones have harsher climates with less species diversity due to colder temperatures, shorter growing seasons, and limited resources. Therefore, the tropical zones offer the most favorable conditions for a wide range of species to coexist and flourish.

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  • 31. 

    Which is not a type of biodiversity?

    • A.

      Genetic

    • B.

      Species

    • C.

      Community

    • D.

      Ecological

    Correct Answer
    C. Community
    Explanation
    Community is not a type of biodiversity because biodiversity refers to the variety of life forms at different levels of organization, such as genetic diversity within a species, species diversity within a community, and ecological diversity within an ecosystem. Community, on the other hand, refers to the interactions and relationships between different species within a specific area or habitat. While community is an important concept in ecology, it is not considered a type of biodiversity.

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  • 32. 

    What is an area where freshwater meets marine ecosystems?

    • A.

      Wetlands

    • B.

      Littoral Zones

    • C.

      Tide Pools

    • D.

      Estuaries

    Correct Answer
    D. Estuaries
    Explanation
    Estuaries are areas where freshwater from rivers and streams meets and mixes with saltwater from the ocean. This mixing creates a unique and diverse ecosystem that is characterized by fluctuating salinity levels. Estuaries are home to a wide variety of plants and animals that are specially adapted to survive in this transitional zone. They provide important habitats for many species, serve as nurseries for fish and other marine organisms, and play a crucial role in filtering pollutants and protecting coastlines from erosion.

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  • 33. 

    Where in the United States are you going to see temperature broadleaf forests?

    • A.

      Appalachian Mountains

    • B.

      Southwest

    • C.

      Northwest

    • D.

      Rocky Mountains

    Correct Answer
    A. Appalachian Mountains
    Explanation
    The Appalachian Mountains in the United States are known for their temperature broadleaf forests. These forests are characterized by a variety of deciduous trees that thrive in a temperate climate with distinct seasons. The region's ample rainfall and moderate temperatures create the perfect conditions for these types of forests to flourish. The Southwest, Northwest, and Rocky Mountains have different climate and vegetation types, making them less suitable for temperature broadleaf forests.

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  • 34. 

    By the technical definition, what is the largest desert in the world?

    • A.

      Sahara

    • B.

      Antarctica

    • C.

      Kalahari

    • D.

      Atacama

    Correct Answer
    B. Antarctica
    Explanation
    Antarctica is considered the largest desert in the world based on the technical definition of a desert. Although it is covered in ice, it meets the criteria of a desert due to its extremely low precipitation levels. The continent receives less than 10 inches of precipitation annually, making it a barren and desolate region. Despite its icy appearance, Antarctica is classified as a desert because it experiences a lack of moisture rather than high temperatures commonly associated with deserts.

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  • 35. 

    Polar regions and Mountains are not considered biomes on their own. Why?

    • A.

      Too secluded

    • B.

      Temperatures are too cold

    • C.

      Not enough biodiversity

    • D.

      No soil or very little

    Correct Answer
    D. No soil or very little
    Explanation
    Polar regions and mountains are not considered biomes on their own because they lack significant amounts of soil. Soil is an essential component of a biome, as it supports the growth of plants and provides nutrients for the ecosystem. Without sufficient soil, the biodiversity and overall functioning of the biome are limited. Additionally, the extreme temperatures in these regions also contribute to the unsuitability for sustaining a diverse and self-sufficient ecosystem.

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  • 36. 

    What are the lines of latitude that separate the different zones? 

    • A.

      0 and 90

    • B.

      66 and 90

    • C.

      0 and 23.5

    • D.

      23.5 and 66

    Correct Answer
    D. 23.5 and 66
    Explanation
    The lines of latitude that separate the different zones are 23.5 and 66. These lines are known as the Tropic of Cancer (23.5 degrees north) and the Arctic Circle (66 degrees north). The Tropic of Cancer marks the northern boundary of the tropical zone, where the sun is directly overhead at least once a year. The Arctic Circle, on the other hand, marks the southern boundary of the polar zone, where the sun does not rise above the horizon during winter solstice. These lines help define the different climatic and daylight conditions in various regions of the Earth.

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  • 37. 

    Which region in the world has some of the largest issues with defrostation? 

    • A.

      Russia

    • B.

      Central Africa

    • C.

      Eastern Russia

    • D.

      North America

    Correct Answer
    B. Central Africa
    Explanation
    Central Africa is the correct answer because it is known to have some of the largest issues with deforestation. The region is home to the Congo Basin, which is the second-largest tropical rainforest in the world. However, deforestation rates in Central Africa have been alarmingly high due to factors such as logging, agriculture expansion, and infrastructure development. This has led to significant loss of biodiversity, carbon emissions, and disruption of local communities and indigenous peoples who depend on the forest for their livelihoods.

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  • 38. 

    Why are indigenous people "protectors of biodiversity "? 

    • A.

      They stop the advance of Western culture

    • B.

      They are widely respected

    • C.

      They're most in tune with their environment

    • D.

      They hold great influence over modern politicians

    Correct Answer
    C. They're most in tune with their environment
    Explanation
    Indigenous people are considered "protectors of biodiversity" because they are most in tune with their environment. They have a deep understanding of their surroundings, including the plants, animals, and ecosystems that exist in their territories. Their traditional knowledge and practices have been passed down through generations, allowing them to live in harmony with nature and sustainably manage their resources. By preserving their traditional ways of life, indigenous people contribute to the conservation of biodiversity and the protection of fragile ecosystems.

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  • 39. 

    Which region in the world has the lowest GDP per capita and low economic?

    • A.

      China

    • B.

      USA

    • C.

      Japan

    • D.

      Africa

    Correct Answer
    D. Africa
    Explanation
    Africa has the lowest GDP per capita and low economic development compared to the other regions mentioned. This is due to various factors such as widespread poverty, political instability, inadequate infrastructure, and limited access to education and healthcare. These challenges have hindered economic growth and development in many African countries, resulting in low GDP per capita and overall economic performance.

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  • 40. 

    What is the best indicator of quality of life?

    • A.

      GDP per capita

    • B.

      Life expectancy

    • C.

      Fertility rates

    • D.

      Rapid population growth

    Correct Answer
    A. GDP per capita
    Explanation
    GDP per capita is considered the best indicator of quality of life because it measures the average economic well-being of individuals in a country. It takes into account the total economic output (GDP) divided by the population, giving an indication of the standard of living and income distribution. A higher GDP per capita suggests a higher standard of living, better access to resources, and opportunities for individuals, which are important factors in determining the overall quality of life in a country.

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  • 41. 

    What are the two types of environment?

    • A.

      Social and Economic

    • B.

      Social and Physical

    • C.

      Economic and Cultural

    • D.

      Physical and Economic

    Correct Answer
    B. Social and Physical
    Explanation
    The two types of environment are social and physical. Social environment refers to the interactions, relationships, and behaviors of individuals within a society or community. It includes factors such as culture, social norms, and social structures. Physical environment, on the other hand, refers to the natural surroundings and conditions in which organisms live. It includes elements such as landforms, climate, natural resources, and ecosystems. These two types of environment are distinct but interconnected, as social factors can be influenced by the physical environment and vice versa.

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  • 42. 

    At what rate is the world's population increasing by?

    • A.

      Logarithmic

    • B.

      Exponential

    • C.

      Logicstic

    • D.

      Experimental

    Correct Answer
    B. Exponential
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Exponential. This is because the world's population is increasing at an exponential rate, meaning that the growth is accelerating over time. This can be observed through the fact that the population has been steadily increasing at a faster pace in recent years.

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  • 43. 

    What term describes the idea of meeting our current needs without compromising the needs of future generations?

    • A.

      Conservation

    • B.

      Sustainable Development

    • C.

      Recycling

    • D.

      Preservation

    Correct Answer
    B. Sustainable Development
    Explanation
    Sustainable development refers to the concept of meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It involves finding ways to balance economic, social, and environmental factors to ensure long-term well-being for all. Conservation focuses more on protecting and preserving natural resources, while recycling refers to the process of converting waste materials into reusable materials. Preservation, on the other hand, emphasizes the protection and maintenance of historical or cultural artifacts. Therefore, sustainable development best encompasses the idea of meeting current needs without compromising the needs of future generations.

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  • 44. 

    What branch of science is most likely to perform experiments in a closed system?

    • A.

      Astronomy

    • B.

      Geology

    • C.

      Physics

    • D.

      Ecology

    Correct Answer
    C. Physics
    Explanation
    Physics is the branch of science that is most likely to perform experiments in a closed system. In physics, closed systems are often used to study the behavior and interactions of various physical phenomena without any external influences. By isolating the system from its surroundings, physicists can control and manipulate the variables involved in the experiment, allowing for more precise measurements and observations. This approach is commonly used in areas such as thermodynamics, quantum mechanics, and fluid dynamics, where understanding the behavior of systems in controlled environments is crucial.

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  • 45. 

    Which branch of science mostly operates in open systems?

    • A.

      Physics

    • B.

      Medicine

    • C.

      Chemistry

    • D.

      Ecology

    Correct Answer
    D. Ecology
    Explanation
    Ecology is the correct answer because it is the branch of science that primarily deals with the study of interactions between organisms and their environment. These interactions occur in open systems, which are systems that exchange matter and energy with their surroundings. Ecology focuses on understanding how organisms interact with their environment, including the flow of energy and nutrients, and the impact of human activities on ecosystems. Physics, medicine, and chemistry also operate in open systems to some extent, but ecology specifically focuses on the study of open systems and their dynamics.

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  • 46. 

    Before you release an object, it has _____ energy, after you release it and it begins to move, it gets converted into ____ energy 

    • A.

      Kinetic, Potential

    • B.

      Chemical, Thermal

    • C.

      Potential, Kinetic

    • D.

      Thermal, Chemical

    Correct Answer
    C. Potential, Kinetic
    Explanation
    When an object is held in a raised position, it possesses potential energy due to its position in a gravitational field. As soon as the object is released, it starts to move and its potential energy is converted into kinetic energy, which is the energy of motion. Therefore, before release, the object has potential energy, and after release, it gets converted into kinetic energy.

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  • 47. 

    Friction is a result of kinetic energy being turned into what type of energy?

    • A.

      Chemical

    • B.

      Light

    • C.

      Potential

    • D.

      Thermal

    Correct Answer
    D. Thermal
    Explanation
    Friction is a force that opposes the motion of an object. When two surfaces rub against each other, kinetic energy is converted into thermal energy due to the friction between them. This conversion leads to an increase in temperature, which is a characteristic of thermal energy. Therefore, the correct answer is thermal.

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  • 48. 

    For food chains that do not have access to the sun, what process do they use to obtain energy?

    • A.

      Photosynthesis

    • B.

      Chemosynthesis

    • C.

      Phototherapy

    • D.

      Chemotherapy

    Correct Answer
    B. Chemosynthesis
    Explanation
    Chemosynthesis is the process by which organisms obtain energy in the absence of sunlight. It is used by food chains that do not have access to the sun, such as deep-sea ecosystems or caves. In chemosynthesis, organisms use chemicals such as hydrogen sulfide or methane to produce energy-rich molecules, similar to how plants use sunlight in photosynthesis. This process allows these organisms to survive and thrive in environments where sunlight is not available for energy production.

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  • 49. 

    What three things are needed to start photosynthesis in plants?

    • A.

      Water, oxygen, and soil

    • B.

      Water, Carbon dioxide, and sunlight

    • C.

      Water, sunlight, and soil

    • D.

      Water, oxygen, and sunlight

    Correct Answer
    B. Water, Carbon dioxide, and sunlight
    Explanation
    Photosynthesis is the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy. Water is required for photosynthesis as it is a key component in the production of glucose. Carbon dioxide is also necessary for photosynthesis as it is used by plants to produce glucose during the process. Sunlight is needed to provide the energy required for the chemical reactions involved in photosynthesis. Therefore, the correct answer is "Water, Carbon dioxide, and sunlight."

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  • 50. 

    What is the best way to describe the Rule of 10%?

    • A.

      Only 10% of the sunlight reaches autotrophs at the surface

    • B.

      Only 10% of energy is transferred between tropic levels

    • C.

      Onky 10% of a population will survive to adulthood

    • D.

      Only 10% of a species is ever consumed

    Correct Answer
    B. Only 10% of energy is transferred between tropic levels
    Explanation
    The Rule of 10% states that only 10% of energy is transferred between trophic levels in an ecosystem. This means that as energy moves from one level to the next (such as from plants to herbivores to carnivores), only a small fraction of the energy is passed on. The rest of the energy is lost as heat or used by the organism for its own metabolic processes. This rule helps to explain why food chains and food webs in ecosystems are typically limited in length, as the energy available becomes progressively less as you move up the trophic levels.

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