Exam Review: Muscles (Chapters 9 & 10)

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| By Jennie.mcdonald
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Exam Review: Muscles (Chapters 9 & 10) - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Given these structures: 1. Whole muscle 2. Muscle fibers  3. Myofilaments 4. Myofibrils 5. Muscle Fascicles Choose the correct order from largest to smallest.

    • A.

      1, 2, 5, 3, 4

    • B.

      1, 2, 5, 4, 3

    • C.

      1, 5, 2, 3, 4

    • D.

      1, 5, 2, 4, 3

    Correct Answer
    D. 1, 5, 2, 4, 3
    Explanation
    The correct order from largest to smallest is 1, 5, 2, 4, 3. This is because the whole muscle is the largest structure, followed by muscle fascicles, muscle fibers, myofibrils, and finally myofilaments, which are the smallest structures.

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  • 2. 

    Given these events: 1) Calcium ions combine with tropomyosin 2) Calcium ions combine with troponin 3) Tropomyosin pulls away from actin 4) Troponin pulls away from actin 5) Tropomyosin pulls away from myosin 6) Troponin pulls away from myosin 7) Myosin binds to actin Choose the arrangement that lists the correct events in the order they occur in muscle contraction.

    • A.

      1, 4, 7

    • B.

      2, 5, 6

    • C.

      2, 3, 7

    • D.

      1, 3, 7

    Correct Answer
    C. 2, 3, 7
    Explanation
    In muscle contraction, the correct sequence of events is as follows:
    1) Calcium ions combine with troponin (event 2)
    2) Tropomyosin pulls away from actin (event 3)
    3) Myosin binds to actin (event 7)
    Therefore, the correct arrangement is 2, 3, 7.

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  • 3. 

    During the depolarization phase of an action potential, the permeability of the plasma membrane to

    • A.

      Ca2+ increases

    • B.

      Na+ increases

    • C.

      K+ increases

    • D.

      Na+ decreases

    Correct Answer
    B. Na+ increases
    Explanation
    During the depolarization phase of an action potential, the permeability of the plasma membrane to Na+ increases. This is because depolarization is the process in which the membrane potential becomes less negative or even positive, and it is mainly driven by the influx of Na+ ions into the cell. This increase in Na+ permeability allows more Na+ ions to enter the cell, leading to depolarization and the generation of an action potential.

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  • 4. 

    Calcium binds on troponin on the ________ myofilaments

    Correct Answer
    actin, g-actin
    Explanation
    Calcium binds to the troponin complex, which is located on the actin myofilaments. The troponin complex consists of three subunits: troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T. Troponin C specifically binds to calcium ions. When calcium binds to troponin C, it causes a conformational change in the troponin complex, which allows the myosin heads to bind to the exposed binding sites on the actin filaments. This interaction between actin and myosin is essential for muscle contraction. G-actin refers to the globular form of actin, which is the monomeric subunit that polymerizes to form the filamentous actin (F-actin).

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  • 5. 

    A weightlifter attempts to lift a weight from the floor, but the weight is so heavy that he is unable to move it. The type of muscle contraction the weightlifter is using is mostly

    • A.

      Concentric

    • B.

      Isometric

    • C.

      Isotonic

    • D.

      Isokinetic

    Correct Answer
    B. Isometric
    Explanation
    The weightlifter is using isometric muscle contraction. Isometric contraction occurs when the muscle generates tension but does not change in length. In this case, the weightlifter is unable to move the heavy weight, so the muscles are contracting and generating tension, but there is no change in the length of the muscle fibers.

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  • 6. 

    Which statement about muscles and muscle contraction is false?

    • A.

      ATP is required for the cycle of cross-bridge formation, movement, and release.

    • B.

      Muscle tissue shortens forcefully but lengthens passively.

    • C.

      The H zone contains only actin myofilaments

    • D.

      Type II muscle fibers respond rapidly to nervous stimulation.

    Correct Answer
    C. The H zone contains only actin myofilaments
    Explanation
    The H zone contains both actin and myosin myofilaments, not only actin myofilaments.

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  • 7. 

    What are the main contributors of negative charges within a muscle cell?

    • A.

      Sodium Ions

    • B.

      Chloride Ions

    • C.

      Proteins

    • D.

      Potassium Ions

    Correct Answer
    C. Proteins
    Explanation
    Proteins are the main contributors of negative charges within a muscle cell. Proteins contain negatively charged amino acids, which help to maintain the negative charge inside the cell. This negative charge is important for various cellular processes, including muscle contraction. Sodium ions, chloride ions, and potassium ions also play important roles in muscle cell function, but proteins are specifically responsible for the negative charges.

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  • 8. 

    If a muscle is stretched too far, fewer cross-bridges can form.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    When a muscle is stretched too far, the sarcomeres within the muscle fibers are also stretched. This causes the actin and myosin filaments to move further apart, reducing the overlap between them. As a result, fewer cross-bridges can form between the actin and myosin, which are necessary for muscle contraction. Therefore, the statement that fewer cross-bridges can form when a muscle is stretched too far is true.

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  • 9. 

    Head movement at the atlantooccipital joint is an example of a Class ________ lever.

    Correct Answer
    I, one
    Explanation
    What are examples of Class II and Class III levers?

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  • 10. 

    Factors that increase the number of cross-bridges and therefore increase the force of muscle contraction. (Multiple answers; select all that apply).

    • A.

      Larger muscle fiber diameter

    • B.

      Increased number of muscle fibers

    • C.

      More myofibrils

    • D.

      Frequency of stimulation

    • E.

      Muscle length at time of contraction

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Larger muscle fiber diameter
    C. More myofibrils
    D. Frequency of stimulation
    E. Muscle length at time of contraction
    Explanation
    The factors that increase the number of cross-bridges and therefore increase the force of muscle contraction are larger muscle fiber diameter, more myofibrils, frequency of stimulation, and muscle length at the time of contraction. These factors contribute to a greater number of cross-bridges formed between the actin and myosin filaments, leading to a stronger muscle contraction.

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  • 11. 

    Given these events: (1) The sarcoplasm reticulum releases Ca+ (2) The sarcoplasm reticulum takes up Ca+ (3) Ca+ ions diffuse into the sarcoplasm (4) An AP moves down the T-tubule (5) The sarcomere shortens (6) The muscle relaxes Choose the arrangement that lists the events in the order they occur following a single stimulation.

    • A.

      1, 3, 4, 5, 2, 6

    • B.

      2, 3, 5, 4, 6, 1

    • C.

      4, 1, 3, 5, 2, 6

    • D.

      4, 2, 3, 5, 1, 6

    Correct Answer
    C. 4, 1, 3, 5, 2, 6
    Explanation
    The correct order of events following a single stimulation in muscle contraction is as follows: (1) An AP moves down the T-tubule, (2) The sarcoplasm reticulum releases Ca+, (3) Ca+ ions diffuse into the sarcoplasm, (4) The sarcomere shortens, (5) The sarcoplasm reticulum takes up Ca+, and (6) The muscle relaxes. This order ensures that the necessary calcium ions are present in the sarcoplasm for muscle contraction to occur, and then the calcium ions are removed to allow the muscle to relax.

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  • 12. 

    Of these, which is the greatest source of ATP?

    • A.

      Creatine kinase

    • B.

      Anaerobic respiration

    • C.

      Aerobic Respiration

    • D.

      Myokinase

    Correct Answer
    C. Aerobic Respiration
    Explanation
    How much ATP does each pathway produce?

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  • 13. 

    The part of the sarcomere that A (green) refers to is the _______________.

    • A.

      M line

    • B.

      A band

    • C.

      I band

    • D.

      Z disk

    Correct Answer
    D. Z disk
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Z disk. The Z disk is a protein structure that anchors the thin filaments of the sarcomere and defines its boundaries. It is located in the middle of the I band and separates the sarcomere into two halves. The Z disk provides structural support and helps in the contraction and relaxation of the muscle fibers.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 17, 2020
    Quiz Created by
    Jennie.mcdonald
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