1.
The price relative is a price index that is determined by
Correct Answer
A. (price in period t/base period price)(100)
Explanation
The correct answer is (price in period t/base period price)(100). This formula is used to calculate the price relative, which is a price index. The price relative compares the price of a good or service in a specific period (t) to the price of the same good or service in a base period. By dividing the price in period t by the base period price and multiplying by 100, we can determine the price relative. This index is useful for comparing price changes over time and analyzing inflation or deflation trends.
2.
A composite price index based on the prices of a group of items is known as the
Correct Answer
C. Aggregate price index
Explanation
An aggregate price index is a composite price index that is calculated based on the prices of a group of items. It takes into account the prices of multiple items and calculates an average, providing a general measure of price changes for the entire group. This index is useful for analyzing overall price trends and inflation rates in an economy. The Laspeyres index and the Paasche index are also composite price indices, but they have different calculation methods and focus on different aspects of price changes. The Consumer Price Index, on the other hand, specifically measures the average change in prices over time for a basket of goods and services commonly consumed by households.
3.
A weighted aggregate price index where the weight for each item is its base period quantity is known as the
Correct Answer
D. Laspeyres index
Explanation
The Laspeyres index is a weighted aggregate price index where the weight for each item is its base period quantity. This means that the index is calculated based on the prices of goods and services in a specific base period, and the quantities consumed in that same base period. The Laspeyres index is commonly used to measure changes in prices over time and is particularly useful for comparing the cost of living between different periods.
4.
A monthly price index that uses the price changes in consumer goods and services for measuring the changes in consumer prices over time is known as the
Correct Answer
B. Consumer Price Index
Explanation
The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a monthly price index that measures the changes in consumer prices over time. It uses the price changes in consumer goods and services to calculate the index. The CPI is widely used to track inflation and to adjust wages, pensions, and other payments for changes in the cost of living. It is considered a reliable indicator of the average price changes faced by urban consumers for a fixed basket of goods and services. The other options, such as the Paasche Index, Producer Price Index, and Laspeyres Index, are different types of price indices that focus on different aspects of the economy.
5.
A group of observations measured at successive time intervals is known as
Correct Answer
B. A time series
Explanation
A group of observations measured at successive time intervals is known as a time series. In a time series, data is collected and recorded over time, allowing for the analysis of patterns, trends, and other characteristics that may emerge. Time series analysis is often used in various fields such as economics, finance, and weather forecasting to make predictions and understand the behavior of data over time.
6.
A component of the time series model that results in the multi-period above-trend and below-trend behavior of a time series is
Correct Answer
B. A cyclical component
Explanation
A cyclical component refers to the recurring patterns or fluctuations in a time series that are longer than a year but shorter than the overall trend. These cycles can result in periods of above-trend and below-trend behavior in the time series. Unlike seasonal patterns, which repeat within a year, cyclical patterns are not fixed and can vary in duration. The presence of a cyclical component in a time series indicates the existence of longer-term economic or business cycles that can impact the overall trend of the series.
7.
The model which assumes that the actual time series value is the product of its components is the
Correct Answer
B. Multicative ime series model
Explanation
The multiplicative time series model assumes that the actual time series value is the product of its components. This means that the components of the time series, such as trend, seasonality, and error, are multiplied together to obtain the actual value. This model is commonly used when the magnitude of the components varies with the level of the time series.
8.
A method that uses a weighted average of past values for arriving at smoothed time series values is known as
Correct Answer
D. Exponential smoothing
Explanation
Exponential smoothing is a method that uses a weighted average of past values to calculate smoothed time series values. It assigns more weight to recent data points, resulting in a more responsive and accurate forecast. This technique is commonly used in forecasting and time series analysis to remove noise and seasonality from data, providing a more reliable trend estimation.
9.
In the linear trend equation T = b0 + b1t, b1 represents the
Correct Answer
C. Slope of the trend line
Explanation
In the linear trend equation T = b0 + b1t, b1 represents the slope of the trend line. The slope represents the rate at which the dependent variable (T) changes with respect to the independent variable (t). It indicates the direction and steepness of the trend line. A positive slope indicates an increasing trend, while a negative slope indicates a decreasing trend. Therefore, b1 in the equation represents the slope of the trend line.
10.
In the linear trend equation T = b0 + b1t, b0 represents the
Correct Answer
D. The Y intercept
Explanation
In the linear trend equation T = b0 + b1t, b0 represents the Y intercept. The Y intercept is the point where the trend line intersects the y-axis. It represents the initial value of the dependent variable (T) when the independent variable (t) is equal to zero. In other words, b0 is the value of T when there is no change in t.
11.
A parameter of the exponential smoothing model that provides the weight given to the most recent time series value in the calculation of the forecast value is known as the
Correct Answer
C. Smoothing constant
Explanation
The smoothing constant is a parameter in the exponential smoothing model that determines the weight given to the most recent time series value when calculating the forecast value. It controls the rate at which the forecast adjusts to new data. A higher smoothing constant gives more weight to recent observations, resulting in a forecast that reacts quickly to changes in the data. Conversely, a lower smoothing constant gives less weight to recent observations, resulting in a forecast that is more stable and less responsive to short-term fluctuations. Therefore, the smoothing constant is the correct answer in this case.
12.
One measure of the accuracy of a forecasting model is
Correct Answer
C. The mean square error
Explanation
The mean square error is a commonly used measure of accuracy for forecasting models. It calculates the average squared difference between the predicted values and the actual values. A lower mean square error indicates a more accurate model, as it means the predicted values are closer to the actual values. The smoothing constant and deseasonalized time series are not measures of accuracy, so they are not the correct answer.
13.
The trend component must be linear
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The trend component does not necessarily have to be linear. In time series analysis, the trend component represents the long-term movement or direction of the data. It can be linear, but it can also be non-linear, such as exponential or quadratic. Therefore, the statement that the trend component must be linear is false.
14.
If historical data are not available, one would forecast using a qualitative approach
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
When historical data is not available, forecasting using a qualitative approach is a suitable method. Qualitative forecasting relies on expert opinions, market research, surveys, and other subjective factors to make predictions. This approach is commonly used when there is a lack of quantitative data or when the future is uncertain. By considering qualitative factors such as market trends, customer preferences, and expert insights, one can make informed forecasts even without historical data. Therefore, the statement "If historical data are not available, one would forecast using a qualitative approach" is true.
15.
The price of an item is graphed. Over time, there has been a general increase in price, possibly due to inflation. The time series component used to explain the long term increase is the
Correct Answer
D. Trend component
Explanation
The trend component is used to explain the long-term increase in price over time. It represents the overall direction and pattern of the data, indicating whether there is a general increase or decrease in the variable being measured. In this case, the general increase in price can be attributed to factors such as inflation, economic growth, or changes in market conditions. The trend component helps to identify and analyze the underlying long-term pattern in the data, allowing for a better understanding of the price behavior over time.
16.
The sales of appliance manufacturers are tied closely to the status of the economy. If the economy is doing well, in general, sales are better. The sales for an appliance manufacturer time series would show a significant
Correct Answer
A. Cyclical component
Explanation
The sales of appliance manufacturers are influenced by the overall state of the economy. When the economy is performing well, people tend to have more disposable income and are more likely to purchase appliances, leading to higher sales. On the other hand, during economic downturns, sales may decline as people prioritize essential expenses over buying appliances. This pattern of fluctuation in sales over time, which is tied to the economic cycle, is known as the cyclical component.
17.
The electricity use in Wisconsin time series peaks in July and August as the use of air conditioning increases. The increase at approximately the same time every summer is best explained by the
Correct Answer
C. Seasonal componen
Explanation
The correct answer is seasonal component. The explanation for this is that the electricity use in Wisconsin shows a consistent pattern of peaking in July and August every summer. This pattern is likely due to the increased use of air conditioning during the hot summer months. Therefore, the increase in electricity use at approximately the same time every summer can be best explained by the seasonal component, which represents the regular and predictable fluctuations in the data.
18.
The components that are usually considered predictable are the
Correct Answer
C. Trend and seasonal componens
Explanation
The correct answer is trend and seasonal components. These components are typically considered predictable because they exhibit certain patterns over time. The trend component represents the long-term direction or trend of the data, while the seasonal component represents regular, repeating patterns that occur within shorter time frames. By identifying and understanding these components, analysts can make more accurate predictions and forecasts about future trends and patterns in the data.
19.
The component that must be in every time series is the
Correct Answer
B. Irregular component
Explanation
The irregular component is the correct answer because it represents the random fluctuations or unpredictable variations in a time series. It is the component that cannot be attributed to any specific pattern or trend and is often caused by external factors or random events. Including the irregular component is important in time series analysis as it helps to capture the noise or randomness in the data, allowing for a more accurate understanding and forecasting of the underlying patterns.
20.
The moving average forecasting model presented in the text is appropriate for a time series with the following component(s)
Correct Answer
A. Irregular
Explanation
The moving average forecasting model is appropriate for a time series with the irregular component. This is because the moving average model calculates the average of a fixed number of past observations, which helps to smooth out random fluctuations or irregularities in the data. It is not specifically designed to capture trends, cycles, or seasonal patterns in the data. Therefore, it is only suitable for time series with irregular components.
21.
The exponential forecasting model presented in the text is appropriate for a time series with the following component(s)
Correct Answer
A. Irregular
Explanation
The exponential forecasting model is appropriate for a time series with the irregular component. This is because the exponential model assumes that the future values of the time series are influenced by the most recent observations, giving more weight to recent data points. The model does not consider trend, cyclical, or seasonal components in the time series. Therefore, it is suitable for time series data that only exhibits irregular fluctuations without any discernible patterns or trends.
22.
N forecasting, the purpose of the mean squared error is to
Correct Answer
C. Choose between two or more models
Explanation
The purpose of the mean squared error in forecasting is to choose between two or more models. It is a statistical measure that quantifies the average squared difference between the observed and predicted values. By comparing the mean squared errors of different models, one can determine which model provides the best fit to the data and is therefore the most accurate for making predictions.
23.
A collection of statistical methods that generally requires very few, if any assumptions about the population distribution is known as
Correct Answer
B. Nonparametric methods
Explanation
Nonparametric methods are a collection of statistical methods that do not rely on assumptions about the population distribution. Unlike parametric methods, which require specific assumptions such as normality or linearity, nonparametric methods are more flexible and can be used when little or no information about the population distribution is available. These methods are particularly useful when dealing with non-normal or skewed data, or when the sample size is small. Therefore, the correct answer is nonparametric methods.
24.
Which of the following tests would be an example of a nonparametric method
Correct Answer
C. Sign test
Explanation
The sign test would be an example of a nonparametric method because it does not make any assumptions about the distribution of the data. It is used when the data is ordinal or when the sample size is small. The sign test compares the medians of two related samples by counting the number of positive and negative differences between the pairs of observations. It is a nonparametric alternative to the paired t-test, which assumes that the data is normally distributed.
25.
A nonparametric method for determining the differences between two populations based on two matched samples where only preference data is required is the
Correct Answer
C. Sign test
Explanation
The sign test is a nonparametric method that can be used to determine the differences between two populations based on two matched samples where only preference data is required. This test is appropriate when the data is ordinal or when the assumptions of other parametric tests are not met. The sign test compares the number of positive and negative differences between pairs of observations and uses the binomial distribution to calculate the probability of observing the observed number of positive or negative differences.
26.
When ranking combined data in a Wilcoxon signed rank test, the data that receives a rank of 1 is the
Correct Answer
A. Lowest value
Explanation
In a Wilcoxon signed rank test, the data is ranked based on their magnitudes. The data point that receives a rank of 1 is the lowest value among all the data points. This is because the ranks are assigned in ascending order, with the lowest value receiving the lowest rank. Therefore, the data that receives a rank of 1 is the lowest value.
27.
The collection of statistical methods that require assumptions about the population is known as
Correct Answer
D. Parametric methods
Explanation
Parametric methods refer to statistical techniques that make assumptions about the population being studied. These assumptions include the shape of the distribution and the parameters that define it. By making these assumptions, parametric methods can provide more precise and accurate estimates of population characteristics. In contrast, nonparametric methods, also known as distribution-free methods, do not rely on these assumptions and are more flexible but may result in less precise estimates. Therefore, the correct answer is parametric methods.
28.
The Spearman rank-correlation coefficient is
Correct Answer
B. A correlation measure based on rank-ordered data for two variable
Explanation
The Spearman rank-correlation coefficient is a correlation measure based on rank-ordered data for two variables. It is used to assess the strength and direction of the monotonic relationship between two variables, where the data is ranked rather than using the actual values. This coefficient is appropriate when the relationship between variables is not linear and can be used to determine if there is a consistent trend between the ranks of the variables.
29.
Which one do you like?
Correct Answer
A. Option 1
30.
The level of measurement that allows for the rank ordering of data items is
Correct Answer
D. Ordinal measurement
Explanation
Ordinal measurement is the level of measurement that allows for the rank ordering of data items. In this type of measurement, the data can be categorized and ranked based on a certain characteristic or attribute, but the differences between the categories or rankings may not be equal or measurable. It provides a relative order or position of the data, but does not provide information about the magnitude of the differences between the data points. This makes it different from ratio and interval measurement, which involve equal intervals and a meaningful zero point, respectively. Nominal measurement does not involve any ranking or ordering of data items.
31.
The level of measurement that is simply a label for the purpose of identifying an item is
Correct Answer
C. Nominal measuremen
Explanation
Nominal measurement is the level of measurement that is simply a label for the purpose of identifying an item. It does not have any inherent order or numerical value associated with it. It is used to categorize or classify data into distinct groups or categories. In this case, since the level of measurement is only used for identification purposes, the correct answer is nominal measurement.
32.
The labeling of parts as "defective" or "nondefective" is an example of
Correct Answer
D. Nominal data
Explanation
The labeling of parts as "defective" or "nondefective" is an example of nominal data because it represents categories or names that do not have any inherent order or numerical value. Nominal data is used to classify or categorize data into distinct groups without any quantitative value attached to them. In this case, the labels "defective" and "nondefective" are simply used to identify the different categories of parts without any specific order or numerical value assigned to them.
33.
Nonparametric methods are often referred to as distribution-free methods.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
Nonparametric methods are often referred to as distribution-free methods because they do not make any assumptions about the underlying distribution of the data. Unlike parametric methods, which assume a specific distribution, nonparametric methods use statistical techniques that are based on ranking or other order-based measures. These methods are useful when the data does not meet the assumptions of parametric methods or when the distribution is unknown. Therefore, the statement that nonparametric methods are often referred to as distribution-free methods is true.
34.
Nonparametric statistical methods are not applicable to ordinal data.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
Nonparametric statistical methods are applicable to ordinal data. Nonparametric methods do not rely on specific assumptions about the distribution of the data and can be used with any type of data, including ordinal data. These methods do not require the data to be normally distributed or have equal variances. Instead, they focus on ranking or ordering the data, making them suitable for analyzing ordinal data where the variables have a natural order or hierarchy. Therefore, the given statement is false.
35.
The sign test can be used to test whether individuals prefer one item over another.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The sign test is a non-parametric statistical test that can be used to compare two related samples and determine if there is a preference for one item over another. It does not require any assumptions about the distribution of the data and is particularly useful when the data is ordinal or skewed. Therefore, the statement that the sign test can be used to test whether individuals prefer one item over another is true.
36.
With the sign test, if the null hypothesis is true, the number of successes follows the
Correct Answer
A. Bionomial distribution
Explanation
The sign test is a non-parametric statistical test used to determine whether the median of a distribution differs significantly from a hypothesized value. In this case, if the null hypothesis is true, it means that there is no difference between the observed data and the hypothesized value. The sign test compares the number of successes (observations that are greater than the hypothesized value) to the number of failures (observations that are less than the hypothesized value). Since the number of successes and failures follows a binomial distribution, the correct answer is binomial distribution.
37.
With the sign test, if the null hypothesis is true and the sample size is large, the number of successes may be approximated by the
Correct Answer
C. Normal distribution
Explanation
The sign test is used to determine if there is a significant difference between two related samples. When the null hypothesis is true and the sample size is large, the number of successes (or positive signs) follows a normal distribution. This is because the sample size is large enough for the central limit theorem to apply, which states that the distribution of sample means approaches a normal distribution as the sample size increases. Therefore, in this scenario, the number of successes in the sign test can be approximated by a normal distribution.
38.
With the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, we must assume the populations sampled from are normally distributed.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The explanation for the answer "False" is that the Wilcoxon signed-rank test is a non-parametric test, meaning it does not assume any specific distribution of the populations sampled from. Instead, it compares the ranks of the paired observations, making it suitable for non-normally distributed data. Therefore, the assumption of normal distribution is not required for the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
39.
The Wilcoxon signed-rank test uses paired differences to test whether two populations are identical.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The Wilcoxon signed-rank test is a non-parametric statistical test used to compare two related samples. It is based on the differences between paired observations from the two populations. By comparing the ranks of these differences, the test determines whether the two populations are identical or not. Therefore, the statement that the Wilcoxon signed-rank test uses paired differences to test whether two populations are identical is true.
40.
With the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the expected value of the sum of signed ranks is equal to the sample size.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The expected value of the sum of signed ranks with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test is not equal to the sample size. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test calculates the sum of the ranks of the positive and negative differences between paired observations, and then compares it to the expected value under the null hypothesis. The expected value of the sum of signed ranks is actually equal to the product of the sample size and the average rank. Therefore, the correct answer is False.
41.
In a Wilcoxon signed-rank test, the two samples each have n =17. The expected value of is t
Correct Answer
A. 0
42.
With the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, we need to know only the two sample sizes to compute the standard deviation of the rank sum.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test is a nonparametric test used to compare two independent groups. It does not assume that the data is normally distributed and is based on the ranks of the observations. The test statistic used in this test is the rank sum, which is the sum of the ranks of one group. The standard deviation of the rank sum can be computed using only the two sample sizes. Therefore, the statement that we only need to know the two sample sizes to compute the standard deviation of the rank sum is true.
43.
With the Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, we need to know only the two sample sizes to compute the expected value of the rank sum.
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test is a nonparametric test used to compare two independent groups. It is based on the ranks of the observations and does not require any assumptions about the distribution of the data. In this test, the expected value of the rank sum can be computed using only the two sample sizes. This means that we do not need any other information about the data, such as the actual values or variances, to calculate the expected rank sum. Therefore, the statement is true.
44.
Is [your statement here] true or false?
Correct Answer
A. True
Explanation
The given answer is "True" because it directly matches with the statement provided in the question. The question asks whether the statement is true or false, and the given answer confirms that the statement is indeed true.
45.
For a Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test, the first and second samples have sizes 15 and 24, respectively. The expected value of T is
Correct Answer
B. 300
Explanation
The Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon test is used to compare two independent samples. The expected value of T in this test is calculated by multiplying the sample sizes of the two groups together and dividing by 2. In this case, the first sample has a size of 15 and the second sample has a size of 24. Multiplying these together and dividing by 2 gives us an expected value of 180. Therefore, the correct answer is 180.
46.
The Spearman rank-correlation coefficient can be computed only if quantitative data are available for the variables.
Correct Answer
B. False
Explanation
The statement is false because the Spearman rank-correlation coefficient can be computed for both quantitative and ordinal data. It measures the strength and direction of the monotonic relationship between two variables, regardless of the specific values or units of measurement. Therefore, it can be used when only ordinal data are available, where the data are ranked or ordered but do not have a specific numerical value.
47.
The population from which the sample is actually selected is
Correct Answer
D. The sampled population
Explanation
The correct answer is "the sampled population." This means that the population from which the sample is actually selected is the group of individuals or elements that are included in the sample. It is not necessarily the same as the target population or the census, as the sample may not include all individuals or elements in the target population or census. The sampled population refers specifically to the group that is included in the sample for the purpose of data collection and analysis.
48.
The target population and the sampled population
Correct Answer
B. Not always the same
Explanation
The target population and the sampled population are not always the same because in some cases, it may be difficult or impractical to survey the entire target population. Instead, a smaller sample is taken from the target population, which is assumed to be representative of the larger group. However, there is always a chance of sampling error, where the characteristics of the sample differ from the target population, leading to potentially inaccurate results. Therefore, the two populations are not always the same.
49.
The error that occurs because a sample, and not the entire population, is used to estimate a population parameter is a
Correct Answer
B. Sampling error
Explanation
The error that occurs because a sample, and not the entire population, is used to estimate a population parameter is called a sampling error. This error arises due to the inherent variability in the population and the fact that the sample may not perfectly represent the entire population. Sampling error can be minimized by using random and representative sampling techniques and increasing the sample size. Other types of errors, such as nonsampling errors and judgment errors, are not specifically related to the use of a sample for estimation. Standard error, on the other hand, is a measure of the variability of sample estimates around the true population parameter.
50.
Stratified random sampling is a method of selecting a sample in which
Correct Answer
C. The population is first divided into strata, and then random samples are drawn from each stratum
Explanation
Stratified random sampling is a method of selecting a sample in which the population is first divided into strata, and then random samples are drawn from each stratum. This approach ensures that the sample represents the different subgroups or strata within the population, allowing for more accurate and precise estimates of the population parameters. By dividing the population into strata based on certain characteristics or variables, the stratified random sampling technique helps to capture the variability within each subgroup and reduce the potential bias that may arise from selecting a simple random sample.