Biology: The Kidney And Osmoregulatory Organs Trivia Quiz!

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Biology: The Kidney And Osmoregulatory Organs Trivia Quiz! - Quiz


Do you know anything about kidneys and the osmoregulatory organs? Kidneys are the foremost osmoregulatory organ. The skin and lungs also play a part in the process. Water and electrolytes are lost through sweat glands in the skin, which moisturize and cool the skin surface. If you are interested in learning about these organs, you should try this quiz.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The functional unit of the kidney is the:

    • A. 

      Nephron

    • B. 

      Glomerulus

    • C. 

      Medulla

    Correct Answer
    A. Nephron
    Explanation
    The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney. It is responsible for filtering the blood, reabsorbing essential substances, and excreting waste products in the form of urine. Each kidney contains millions of nephrons, which consist of a glomerulus and a tubule. The glomerulus filters blood, while the tubule reabsorbs water, electrolytes, and other valuable substances back into the bloodstream. The nephron plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's fluid balance, regulating electrolyte levels, and removing waste products from the body.

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  • 2. 

    The specialized nephron capillary bed where filtration occurs is the 

    • A. 

      Afferent arteriole 

    • B. 

      Glomerulus

    • C. 

      Efferent arteriole 

    Correct Answer
    B. Glomerulus
    Explanation
    The glomerulus is the specialized nephron capillary bed where filtration occurs. It is a network of tiny blood vessels located within the Bowman's capsule in the kidney. Blood is brought to the glomerulus through the afferent arteriole, which branches into a tuft of capillaries within the glomerulus. Filtration of waste products, excess water, and small molecules from the blood occurs here. The filtered fluid then passes into the renal tubules for further processing. The efferent arteriole carries the blood away from the glomerulus.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is not a function of the kidneys

    • A. 

      Excreting metabolic wastes

    • B. 

      Secreting aldosterone to regulate sodium

    • C. 

      Maintaining proper osmolarity of body fluids

    Correct Answer
    B. Secreting aldosterone to regulate sodium
    Explanation
    The kidneys perform various functions to maintain the body's homeostasis. They excrete metabolic wastes, such as urea and ammonia, through the production of urine. They also play a crucial role in maintaining the proper osmolarity of body fluids by regulating the concentration of water and electrolytes. However, the secretion of aldosterone to regulate sodium is primarily controlled by the adrenal glands, not the kidneys. Aldosterone is a hormone that helps regulate sodium levels in the body by influencing its reabsorption in the kidneys.

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  • 4. 

    Vasa recta are associated with

    • A. 

      Renal papillae

    • B. 

      Cortical nephrons

    • C. 

      Juxtamedullary nephron

    Correct Answer
    C. Juxtamedullary nephron
    Explanation
    The vasa recta are associated with juxtamedullary nephrons. These nephrons are located close to the medulla of the kidney and play a crucial role in the concentration of urine. The vasa recta are specialized capillaries that run parallel to the loop of Henle in the juxtamedullary nephrons. They help in maintaining the concentration gradient in the medulla by absorbing water and solutes from the surrounding interstitial fluid. This allows for the reabsorption of water and further concentration of urine, ensuring efficient water conservation in the body.

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  • 5. 

    The renal process whereby substances are selectively transferred from the peritubular blood into the renal tubule is:  

    • A. 

      Filtration 

    • B. 

      Excretion

    • C. 

      Secretion

    Correct Answer
    C. Secretion
    Explanation
    Secretion is the correct answer because it refers to the process in which substances are selectively transferred from the peritubular blood into the renal tubule. This process involves the active transport of certain substances, such as drugs, toxins, and ions, from the blood into the renal tubules. It is an important mechanism for the elimination of waste products and the regulation of electrolyte balance in the body. Filtration, on the other hand, refers to the initial step in urine formation where substances are filtered from the blood into the renal tubules, while excretion refers to the elimination of waste products from the body through urine.

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  • 6. 

    Filtrate passes through all of these except

    • A. 

      Filtration site 

    • B. 

      Podocytes 

    • C. 

      Basement membrane

    Correct Answer
    B. Podocytes 
    Explanation
    Filtration is the process by which substances are separated based on their size as a liquid passes through a filter. In the context of the question, the filtrate refers to the liquid that has passed through the filtration site, basement membrane, and podocytes. Podocytes are specialized cells in the kidneys that form filtration slits and help in the selective filtration of substances. Therefore, the filtrate does not pass through podocytes.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following is not part of nephrone

    • A. 

      Collecting duct

    • B. 

      Bowman's capsule

    • C. 

      Ureter

    Correct Answer
    C. Ureter
    Explanation
    The ureter is not part of the nephron. The nephron is the functional unit of the kidney responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine. It consists of several components, including the renal corpuscle (which includes the Bowman's capsule) and the renal tubule (which includes the collecting duct). The ureter, on the other hand, is a tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder. It is not directly involved in the filtration and reabsorption processes that occur within the nephron.

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  • 8. 

    Indicate the correct flow of filtrate through these structure: 

    • A. 

      4,6,5,3,2,1.

    • B. 

      2,6,1,4,5,3.

    • C. 

      2,1,4,3,5,6

    Correct Answer
    B. 2,6,1,4,5,3.
    Explanation
    The correct flow of filtrate through the given structures is 2,6,1,4,5,3. This means that the filtrate first passes through structure 2, then moves to structure 6, followed by structure 1, then structure 4, then structure 5, and finally, it passes through structure 3.

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  • 9. 

    The glomerular filtration rate

    • A. 

      Averages 125 ml/min

    • B. 

      Averages 75 liters/day

    • C. 

      Both (a) and (b)

    Correct Answer
    A. Averages 125 ml/min
    Explanation
    The glomerular filtration rate refers to the amount of fluid filtered by the glomeruli in the kidneys per unit of time. The average glomerular filtration rate is 125 ml/min, which means that approximately 125 milliliters of fluid are filtered by the kidneys every minute. This rate is important in assessing kidney function and determining the overall health of the kidneys. The answer "averages 125 ml/min" accurately reflects this information.

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  • 10. 

    The glomerular capillary blood pressure in the nephron is 78 mm Hg . the bowman's capsular hydrostatic pressure is 24 mm Hg. the colloidal osmotic pressure is 18 mm Hg. the net filtration pressure is------ mm Hg.

    • A. 

      42

    • B. 

      18

    • C. 

      36

    Correct Answer
    A. 42
    Explanation
    The net filtration pressure is calculated by subtracting the sum of the Bowman's capsular hydrostatic pressure and the colloidal osmotic pressure from the glomerular capillary blood pressure. In this case, the calculation would be: 78 mm Hg - (24 mm Hg + 18 mm Hg) = 36 mm Hg. Therefore, the correct answer is 36 mm Hg.

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  • 11. 

    Into which structure does most reabsorption occur?

    • A. 

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    • B. 

      Loop of Henle

    • C. 

      Glomerulus

    Correct Answer
    A. Proximal convoluted tubule
    Explanation
    Most reabsorption occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule. This structure is responsible for reabsorbing the majority of filtered substances, such as glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes, back into the bloodstream. It has a highly convoluted shape and is lined with specialized cells that actively transport these substances from the tubule lumen back into the surrounding blood vessels. The loop of Henle and glomerulus also play important roles in the renal filtration process, but they are not primarily involved in reabsorption.

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  • 12. 

    The proximal tubule 

    • A. 

      Is the site of action of renin

    • B. 

      Reabsorbs about 65% of the filtration water

    • C. 

      Is not the location where glucose is reabsorbed

    Correct Answer
    B. Reabsorbs about 65% of the filtration water
    Explanation
    The proximal tubule is responsible for reabsorbing about 65% of the filtration water. This means that as the filtrate passes through the proximal tubule, a significant amount of water is reabsorbed back into the bloodstream. This process helps to maintain the balance of fluids in the body and prevent excessive water loss. The proximal tubule is also involved in the reabsorption of various other substances, such as electrolytes and nutrients, but glucose reabsorption primarily occurs in the later parts of the nephron.

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  • 13. 

    Tubular reabsorption involves

    • A. 

      Active transport

    • B. 

      Countertransport 

    • C. 

      Cotransport

    • D. 

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    D. All of these
    Explanation
    Tubular reabsorption involves the movement of substances from the renal tubules back into the bloodstream. This process can occur through active transport, which requires energy to move substances against their concentration gradient. It can also occur through countertransport, where one substance moves in the opposite direction of another substance. Additionally, tubular reabsorption can involve cotransport, where two substances are transported together across the tubular cells. Therefore, all of these mechanisms are involved in tubular reabsorption.

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  • 14. 

    Into which structure does most reabsorptin occur?

    • A. 

      Loop of henle

    • B. 

      Distal convoluted tubule

    • C. 

      Proximal convoluted tubule

    Correct Answer
    C. Proximal convoluted tubule
    Explanation
    Most reabsorption of substances, such as water, glucose, and ions, occurs in the proximal convoluted tubule of the nephron. This structure is located in the renal cortex and has a high surface area due to its convoluted shape and presence of microvilli. The proximal convoluted tubule actively reabsorbs essential substances from the filtrate back into the bloodstream, ensuring their retention within the body. This process is crucial for maintaining water balance, regulating electrolyte levels, and preventing the loss of valuable nutrients.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following plasma constituent is not regulated by the kidneys?

    • A. 

      Glucose

    • B. 

      Na+

    • C. 

      Water

    • D. 

      H+

    Correct Answer
    A. Glucose
    Explanation
    Glucose is the correct answer because it is not regulated by the kidneys. The kidneys play a crucial role in maintaining the body's fluid and electrolyte balance, including regulating the levels of sodium (Na+), water, and hydrogen ions (H+). However, glucose regulation is primarily controlled by the pancreas and liver, not the kidneys. The pancreas produces insulin, which helps regulate glucose levels in the blood, while the liver stores and releases glucose as needed.

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  • 16. 

    Reabsorption of chloride is 

    • A. 

      Active 

    • B. 

      Passive

    • C. 

      Passive and dependent on the amount of sodium reabsorbed

    Correct Answer
    C. Passive and dependent on the amount of sodium reabsorbed
    Explanation
    The reabsorption of chloride is passive, meaning it does not require energy. However, it is also dependent on the amount of sodium reabsorbed. This is because sodium and chloride ions are often transported together across cell membranes. As sodium is actively reabsorbed, it creates an electrical gradient that drives the passive reabsorption of chloride ions. Therefore, the reabsorption of chloride is both passive and dependent on the amount of sodium reabsorbed.

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  • 17. 

    Select the major waste product of nitrogen metabolism 

    • A. 

      PO4

    • B. 

      Amino acids

    • C. 

      Urea

    Correct Answer
    C. Urea
    Explanation
    Urea is the major waste product of nitrogen metabolism in mammals. It is formed in the liver through a series of reactions called the urea cycle. Nitrogenous waste, in the form of ammonia, is converted to urea, which is less toxic and can be safely excreted by the kidneys. Urea is soluble in water and can be easily eliminated from the body through urine. Therefore, urea is the correct answer as it is the main waste product that results from the breakdown of amino acids and other nitrogen-containing compounds.

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  • 18. 

    The maximum normal glucose concentration in the plasma is about ------- mg per 100 ml

    • A. 

      30

    • B. 

      60

    • C. 

      100

    Correct Answer
    C. 100
    Explanation
    The maximum normal glucose concentration in the plasma is about 100 mg per 100 ml. This means that under normal conditions, the highest amount of glucose that can be found in the blood plasma is around 100 milligrams for every 100 milliliters of blood. This measurement is used to assess the levels of glucose in the bloodstream and can be an indicator of overall health and potential issues such as diabetes.

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  • 19. 

    Aldosterone secretion

    • A. 

      Occur in the kidney

    • B. 

      Is stimulated by angiotensin  II

    • C. 

      All of these

    Correct Answer
    B. Is stimulated by angiotensin  II
    Explanation
    Aldosterone secretion occurs in the kidney and is stimulated by angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a hormone that is released in response to low blood pressure or low blood volume. It acts on the adrenal glands to stimulate the release of aldosterone, which helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body. This hormone plays a crucial role in maintaining blood pressure and fluid balance.

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  • 20. 

    The greatest percentage of Na+ reabsorptin takes place in the : 

    • A. 

      Proximal tubule 

    • B. 

      Collecting tubule  

    • C. 

      Distal tubule

    Correct Answer
    A. Proximal tubule 
    Explanation
    The correct answer is proximal tubule. The proximal tubule is responsible for reabsorbing the majority of Na+ ions in the kidney. It is the first segment of the renal tubule and is highly permeable to water and solutes. This allows for the reabsorption of Na+ ions, along with other ions and nutrients, back into the bloodstream. The proximal tubule plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's electrolyte balance and regulating blood pressure.

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