Urinary System Disorders | NCLEX Quiz 111

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Urinary System Disorders | NCLEX Quiz 111 - Quiz

All questions are shown, but the results will only be given after you’ve finished the quiz. You are given 1 minute per question, a total of 10 minutes in this quiz.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The nurse suspects that a client with polyuria is experiencing water diuresis. Which laboratory value suggests water diuresis?

    • A.

      High urine specific gravity

    • B.

      High urine osmolarity

    • C.

      Normal to low urine specific gravity

    • D.

      Elevated urine pH

    Correct Answer
    C. Normal to low urine specific gravity
    Explanation
    Water diuresis causes low urine specific gravity. low urine osmolarity. and a normal to elevated serum sodium level.Option A: High specific gravity indicates dehydration. Hypernatremia signals acidosis and shock.Option D: Elevated urine pH can result from potassium deficiency. a high-protein diet. or uncontrolled diabetes.

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  • 2. 

    A client is diagnosed with prostate cancer. Which test is used to monitor progression of this disease?

    • A.

      Serum creatinine

    • B.

      Complete blood cell count (CBC)

    • C.

      Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

    • D.

      Serum potassium

    Correct Answer
    C. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
    Explanation
    The PSA test is used to monitor prostate cancer progression; higher PSA levels indicate a greater tumor burden.Option A: Serum creatinine levels may suggest blockage from an enlarged prostate.Option B: CBC is used to diagnose anemia and polycythemia.Option D: Serum potassium levels identify hypokalemia and hyperkalemia.

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  • 3. 

    A 27-year old client. who became paraplegic after a swimming accident. is experiencing autonomic dysreflexia. Which condition is the most common cause of autonomic dysreflexia?

    • A.

      Upper respiratory infection

    • B.

      Incontinence

    • C.

      Bladder distention

    • D.

      Diarrhea

    Correct Answer
    C. Bladder distention
    Explanation
    Autonomic dysreflexia is a potentially life-threatening complication of spinal cord injury. occurring from obstruction of the urinary system or bowel.Option A: An URI could obstruct the respiratory system. but not the urinary or bowel system.Options B and D: Incontinence and diarrhea don’t result in obstruction of the urinary system or bowel. respectively.

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  • 4. 

    When providing discharge teaching for a client with uric acid calculi. the nurse should an instruction to avoid which type of diet?

    • A.

      Low-calcium

    • B.

      Low-oxalate

    • C.

      High-oxalate

    • D.

      High-purine

    Correct Answer
    D. High-purine
    Explanation
    To control uric acid calculi. the client should follow a low-purine diet. which excludes high-purine foods such as organ meats.Option A: A low-calcium diet decreases the risk for oxalate renal calculi.Options B and C: Oxalate is an essential amino acid and must be included in the diet. A low-oxalate diet is used to control calcium or oxalate calculi.

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  • 5. 

    The client with urolithiasis has a history of chronic urinary tract infections. The nurse concludes that this client most likely has which of the following types of urinary stones?

    • A.

      Calcium oxalate

    • B.

      Uric acid

    • C.

      Struvite

    • D.

      Cystine

    Correct Answer
    C. Struvite
    Explanation
    Struvite stones commonly are referred to as infection stones because they form in urine that is alkaline and rich in ammonia. such as with a urinary tract infection.Option A: Calcium oxalate stones result from increased calcium intake or conditions that raise serum calcium concentrations.Option B: Uric acid stones occur in clients with gout.Option D: Cystine stones are rare and occur in clients with a genetic defect that results in decreased renal absorption of the amino acid cystine.

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  • 6. 

    The nurse is receiving in transfer from the postanesthesia care unit a client who has had a percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy for calculuses in the renal pelvis. The nurse anticipates that the client’s care will involve monitoring which of the following?

    • A.

      Suprapubic tube

    • B.

      Urethral stent

    • C.

      Nephrostomy tube

    • D.

      Jackson-Pratt drain

    Correct Answer
    C. Nephrostomy tube
    Explanation
    A nephrostomy tube is put in place after a percutaneous ultrasonic lithotripsy to treat calculuses in the renal pelvis. The client may also have a Foley catheter to drain urine produced by the other kidney. The nurse monitors the drainage from each of these tubes and strains the urine to detect elimination of the calculus fragments.

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  • 7. 

    The client is admitted to the ER following a MVA. The client was wearing a lap seat belt when the accident occurred. The client has hematuria and lower abdominal pain. To determine further whether the pain is due to bladder trauma. the nurse asks the client if the pain is referred to which of the following areas?

    • A.

      Shoulder

    • B.

      Umbilicus

    • C.

      Costovertebral angle

    • D.

      Hip

    Correct Answer
    A. Shoulder
    Explanation
    Bladder trauma or injury is characterized by lower abdominal pain that may radiate to one of the shoulders. Bladder injury pain does not radiate to the umbilicus. CV angle. or hip.Options B. C. and D: Bladder injury pain do not radiate to the umbilicus. CV angle. or hip.

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  • 8. 

    The client complains of fever. perineal pain. and urinary urgency. frequency. and dysuria. To assess whether the client’s problem is related to bacterial prostatitis. the nurse would look at the results of the prostate examination. which should reveal that the prostate gland is:

    • A.

      Tender. indurated. and warm to the touch

    • B.

      Soft and swollen

    • C.

      Tender and edematous with ecchymosis

    • D.

      Reddened. swollen. and boggy.

    Correct Answer
    A. Tender. indurated. and warm to the touch
    Explanation
    The client with prostatitis has a prostate gland that is swollen and tender. but that is also warm to the touch. firm. and indurated. Systemic symptoms include fever with chills. perineal and low back pain. and signs of urinary tract infection (which often accompany the disorder).

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  • 9. 

    The nurse is taking the history of a client who has had benign prostatic hyperplasia in the past. To determine whether the client currently is experiencing difficulty. the nurse asks the client about the presence of which of the following early symptoms?

    • A.

      Urge incontinence

    • B.

      Nocturia

    • C.

      Decreased force in the stream of urine

    • D.

      Urinary retention

    Correct Answer
    C. Decreased force in the stream of urine
    Explanation
    Decreased force in the stream of urine is an early sign of BPH. The stream later becomes weak and dribbling. The client then may develop hematuria. frequency. urgency. urge incontinence. and nocturia. If untreated. complete obstruction and urinary retention can occur.

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  • 10. 

    The client who has a cold is seen in the emergency room with inability to void. Because the client has a history of BpH. the nurse determines that the client should be questioned about the use of which of the following medications?

    • A.

      Diuretics

    • B.

      Antibiotics

    • C.

      Antitussives

    • D.

      Decongestants

    Correct Answer
    D. Decongestants
    Explanation
    In the client with BPH. episodes of urinary retention can be triggered by certain medications. such as decongestants. anticholinergics. and antidepressants. The client should be questioned about the use of these medications if the client has urinary retention. Retention can also be precipitated by other factors. such as alcoholic beverages. infection. bedrest. and becoming chilled.

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  • Current Version
  • Aug 18, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Oct 09, 2017
    Quiz Created by
    Santepro
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