Cell Cycle, Mitosis, And Meiosis

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Cell Cycle, Mitosis, And Meiosis - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    During which phase of mitosis do the chromosomes line up along the middle of the dividing cell?

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Metaphase

    • C.

      Anaphase

    • D.

      Telophase

    Correct Answer
    B. Metaphase
    Explanation
    During metaphase, the chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell, forming a single line called the metaphase plate. This alignment ensures that each daughter cell will receive the correct number and type of chromosomes during cell division. The chromosomes are attached to spindle fibers, which help to guide their movement and ensure proper distribution. Once the chromosomes are aligned in metaphase, they are ready to be separated and pulled towards opposite ends of the cell during anaphase.

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  • 2. 

    The two main stages of the cell cycle are called

    • A.

      Cell division and interphase

    • B.

      Telophase and cytokinesis

    • C.

      Interphase and anaphase

    • D.

      Cytokinesis and mitosis

    Correct Answer
    A. Cell division and interphase
    Explanation
    The cell cycle consists of two main stages: cell division and interphase. Cell division is the process in which a single cell divides into two daughter cells, each with the same genetic material as the parent cell. Interphase is the period between cell divisions, during which the cell grows, carries out its normal functions, and replicates its DNA in preparation for cell division. Therefore, the correct answer is cell division and interphase.

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  • 3. 

    The first phase of mitosis is called

    • A.

      Prophase

    • B.

      Anaphase

    • C.

      Metaphase

    • D.

      Interphase

    Correct Answer
    A. Prophase
    Explanation
    The first phase of mitosis is called prophase. During prophase, the chromosomes condense and become visible, the nuclear membrane starts to break down, and the spindle fibers begin to form. This is the initial stage of mitosis where the cell prepares for division by organizing its genetic material and getting ready to separate the duplicated chromosomes.

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  • 4. 

    Sea stars are genetically different from each other and from their parents. These genetic differences are the result of

    • A.

      Mitosis

    • B.

      Cloning

    • C.

      Sexual reproduction

    • D.

      Asexual reproduction

    Correct Answer
    C. Sexual reproduction
    Explanation
    Sea stars are genetically different from each other and from their parents because of sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of genetic material from two parent organisms, resulting in offspring with a unique combination of genes. This process introduces genetic variation, allowing for the development of new traits and adaptations in sea stars. Mitosis, cloning, and asexual reproduction do not involve the combination of genetic material from two parents, so they would not result in genetic differences between individuals or their parents.

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  • 5. 

    A protein called p53 can keep cells from dividing. To prevent cell division, this protein most likely stops

    • A.

      Interphase

    • B.

      Mitosis

    • C.

      Respiration

    • D.

      Mutation

    Correct Answer
    B. Mitosis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is mitosis. Mitosis is the process of cell division where a cell divides into two identical daughter cells. The protein p53 is known as a tumor suppressor protein and plays a crucial role in regulating the cell cycle. It acts as a checkpoint to ensure that cells do not divide when there is DNA damage or other abnormalities. p53 halts the cell cycle at the G1 phase, preventing the cell from entering mitosis until the damage is repaired or the abnormality is resolved. This helps to maintain genomic stability and prevent the proliferation of damaged or abnormal cells.

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  • 6. 

    DNA in a cell is copied during

    • A.

      G1 phase

    • B.

      G2 phase

    • C.

      Cytokinesis

    • D.

      S phase

    Correct Answer
    D. S phase
    Explanation
    During the S phase of the cell cycle, DNA replication occurs. This is the phase where the DNA in a cell is copied. The S phase follows the G1 phase, where the cell prepares for DNA replication, and precedes the G2 phase, where the cell prepares for cell division. Cytokinesis, on the other hand, is the process of dividing the cytoplasm and organelles between two daughter cells, and does not involve DNA replication. Therefore, the correct answer is S phase.

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  • 7. 

    Cleavage furrows form in which type of cells?

    • A.

      Plants

    • B.

      Bacteria and plants

    • C.

      Animal

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Animal
    Explanation
    Cleavage furrows are a characteristic feature of animal cells during cell division. They are formed during cytokinesis, the final stage of cell division, where the cytoplasm of the parent cell is divided into two daughter cells. In animal cells, a contractile ring composed of actin and myosin filaments forms around the equator of the cell, gradually constricting to create a furrow that deepens until the cell is completely divided. This process is specific to animal cells and is not observed in plant cells or bacteria. Therefore, the correct answer is animal.

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  • 8. 

    Cells spend most of their time in what phase?

    • A.

      Cytokinesis

    • B.

      Prophase

    • C.

      Mitosis

    • D.

      Interphase

    Correct Answer
    D. Interphase
    Explanation
    Cells spend most of their time in interphase. This is the longest phase of the cell cycle, where the cell grows, carries out its normal functions, and replicates its DNA in preparation for cell division. During interphase, the cell is not actively dividing, but rather preparing for the next stages of the cell cycle. This phase is crucial for the cell's growth and maintenance, as well as for the proper duplication of genetic material.

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  • 9. 

    What controls most of the cell processes and contains the hereditary information of DNA.

    • A.

      Mitochondria

    • B.

      Chloroplast

    • C.

      Nucleus

    • D.

      Nucleolus

    Correct Answer
    C. Nucleus
    Explanation
    The nucleus controls most of the cell processes and contains the hereditary information of DNA. It is often referred to as the "control center" of the cell because it houses the cell's DNA, which contains the instructions for making proteins and carrying out various cellular functions. The nucleus also regulates the cell's growth, reproduction, and metabolism. Mitochondria and chloroplasts are involved in energy production and photosynthesis, respectively, while the nucleolus is responsible for producing ribosomes.

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  • 10. 

    What is a Cell membrane?

    • A.

      A thin flexible barrier around the cell that regulates transport

    • B.

      A rigid cover that provides support for the cell

    • C.

      The place where light energy, water, and carbon dioxide are used

    • D.

      Convert solar energy to chemical energy

    Correct Answer
    A. A thin flexible barrier around the cell that regulates transport
    Explanation
    The cell membrane is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds the cell and regulates the transport of molecules in and out of the cell. It acts as a selective barrier, allowing certain substances to pass through while preventing others from entering or leaving the cell. This regulation of transport is crucial for maintaining the internal environment of the cell and ensuring its proper functioning.

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  • 11. 

    What is the main function of the Cell Wall?

    • A.

      To protect and provide support for the cell

    • B.

      Builds proteins

    • C.

      Convert solar energy to chemical energy

    • D.

      Takes in cardon dioxide

    Correct Answer
    A. To protect and provide support for the cell
    Explanation
    The main function of the cell wall is to protect and provide support for the cell. The cell wall is a rigid layer that surrounds the cell membrane in plant cells, fungi, and some bacteria. It provides structural support and protection against mechanical stress, preventing the cell from bursting or collapsing. The cell wall also helps maintain the shape of the cell and protects it from external factors such as pathogens and toxins.

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  • 12. 

    What regulates what enters and leaves the cell and provides protection and support?

    • A.

      Nucleus

    • B.

      Ribosomes

    • C.

      Cell Wall

    • D.

      Cell Membrane

    Correct Answer
    D. Cell Membrane
    Explanation
    The cell membrane regulates what enters and leaves the cell through its selective permeability. It acts as a barrier, controlling the movement of substances in and out of the cell. Additionally, the cell membrane provides protection to the cell by preventing the entry of harmful substances. It also provides support to the cell by maintaining its shape and structure. The nucleus is responsible for controlling the cell's activities and contains the cell's genetic material. Ribosomes are involved in protein synthesis. The cell wall is a rigid structure found in plant cells that provides support and protection, but it does not regulate what enters and leaves the cell.

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  • 13. 

    Which organelle would you expect to find in a plant cell but not a animal cell?

    • A.

      Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

    • B.

      Mitochondria

    • C.

      Ribosome

    • D.

      Chloroplast

    Correct Answer
    D. Chloroplast
    Explanation
    Chloroplasts are the organelles responsible for photosynthesis in plant cells. They contain chlorophyll, which allows plants to convert sunlight into energy. Animal cells do not have chloroplasts because they do not undergo photosynthesis. Instead, animal cells obtain energy through other means such as cellular respiration, which occurs in the mitochondria. Therefore, chloroplasts are only found in plant cells and not in animal cells.

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  • 14. 

    What part of the cell is identified with the arrow?

    • A.

      The nucleus

    • B.

      The ribosome

    • C.

      The vacuole

    • D.

      The chloroplast

    Correct Answer
    A. The nucleus
    Explanation
    The arrow is pointing to the nucleus. The nucleus is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It contains the cell's genetic material, DNA, and is responsible for controlling the cell's activities and reproduction. It acts as the control center of the cell, regulating gene expression and directing cellular processes. The nucleus is easily identifiable due to its distinct structure and location within the cell.

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  • 15. 

    Which organelles helps provide cells with energy?

    • A.

      Rough endoplasmic reticulum

    • B.

      Golgi apparatus and ribosomes

    • C.

      Mitochondria and chloroplasts

    • D.

      Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

    Correct Answer
    C. Mitochondria and chloroplasts
    Explanation
    Mitochondria and chloroplasts are organelles that help provide cells with energy. Mitochondria are responsible for producing ATP through cellular respiration, which is the main source of energy for the cell. Chloroplasts, on the other hand, are found in plant cells and are responsible for photosynthesis, which converts sunlight into chemical energy in the form of glucose. Both organelles play crucial roles in energy production and are essential for the functioning of cells.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is a phase of mitosis?

    • A.

      Cytokinesis

    • B.

      Interphase

    • C.

      Prophase

    • D.

      S phase

    Correct Answer
    C. Prophase
    Explanation
    Prophase is a phase of mitosis where the chromatin condenses into visible chromosomes, the nuclear envelope breaks down, and the mitotic spindle begins to form. During prophase, the centrosomes move to opposite poles of the cell and spindle fibers begin to attach to the chromosomes. This is the first phase of mitosis and sets the stage for the subsequent stages of metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Cytokinesis, interphase, and S phase are not phases of mitosis.

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  • 17. 

    If the parent cell starts out with 24 Chromosome and undergoes mitosis, then how many will the daughter cells have?

    • A.

      48

    • B.

      12

    • C.

      5

    • D.

      24

    Correct Answer
    D. 24
    Explanation
    During mitosis, the parent cell undergoes cell division and produces two identical daughter cells. The purpose of mitosis is to ensure that each daughter cell receives an exact copy of the parent cell's genetic material. Therefore, the daughter cells will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell, which in this case is 24.

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  • 18. 

    What is the last phase of mitosis?

    • A.

      Telephase

    • B.

      Interphase

    • C.

      Metaphase

    • D.

      Prophase

    Correct Answer
    A. Telephase
    Explanation
    The last phase of mitosis is telephase. During telephase, the chromosomes have already moved to opposite poles of the cell and are starting to decondense. The nuclear envelope begins to reform around each set of chromosomes, and the nucleolus reappears. The spindle fibers disassemble, and the cell starts to undergo cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm. This phase marks the end of mitosis and the beginning of two separate daughter cells.

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  • 19. 

    Put the following stages in the cell cycle in order.

    • A.

      2,3,5,4,1

    • B.

      2,1,3,5,4

    • C.

      4,1,2,5,3

    • D.

      2,3,1,5,4

    Correct Answer
    D. 2,3,1,5,4
    Explanation
    The correct order of the stages in the cell cycle is 2,3,1,5,4. In the cell cycle, stage 2 represents the S phase where DNA replication occurs. Stage 3 is the G2 phase where the cell prepares for mitosis. Stage 1 is the G1 phase where the cell grows and carries out its normal functions. Stage 5 is the M phase or mitosis, where the cell divides into two daughter cells. Stage 4 is the cytokinesis phase where the cytoplasm divides and the two daughter cells fully separate.

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  • 20. 

    In Meiosis if the parent cells has 40 chromosomes, then how many will the daughter cells have?

    • A.

      40

    • B.

      10

    • C.

      20

    • D.

      18

    Correct Answer
    C. 20
    Explanation
    During meiosis, the parent cell undergoes two rounds of cell division, resulting in the formation of four daughter cells. Each daughter cell will have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Therefore, if the parent cell has 40 chromosomes, the daughter cells will have 20 chromosomes each.

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  • 21. 

    Meiosis produces which of the following?

    • A.

      Plant cells

    • B.

      Animal cells

    • C.

      Sex cells

    • D.

      Skin cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Sex cells
    Explanation
    Meiosis is a type of cell division that occurs in sexually reproducing organisms. During meiosis, specialized cells called sex cells or gametes are produced. These sex cells, such as sperm and egg cells, contain half the number of chromosomes compared to the parent cells. This reduction in chromosome number is necessary for sexual reproduction, as it ensures that the offspring will have the correct number of chromosomes when the sperm and egg cells combine during fertilization. Therefore, the correct answer is sex cells.

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  • 22. 

    Mitosis and meiosis are processes by which animal and plant cells divide.  Which statement best describes a difference between mitosis and meiosis?

    • A.

      Meiosis is a multi-step process.

    • B.

      Mitosis occurs only in eukaryotic cells.

    • C.

      Meiosis is used in the repair of an organism.

    • D.

      Mitosis produces genetically identical daughter cells.

    Correct Answer
    D. Mitosis produces genetically identical daughter cells.
    Explanation
    Mitosis is a process of cell division in which a single cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This means that the genetic information in the parent cell is replicated and evenly distributed between the two daughter cells, resulting in genetically identical cells. On the other hand, meiosis is a multi-step process that involves two rounds of cell division, resulting in the production of four non-identical daughter cells. These daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell and are used in sexual reproduction to create genetic diversity.

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  • 23. 

    Look at the picture.  What happens NEXT?

    • A.

      The nucleus reforms around the chromosomes.

    • B.

      The identical sister chromatids are pulled apart.

    • C.

      The chromosomes appear and the spindle forms.

    • D.

      A cleavage furrow divides the cytoplasm into two daughter cells

    Correct Answer
    B. The identical sister chromatids are pulled apart.
    Explanation
    In the process of cell division, known as mitosis, the sister chromatids, which are identical copies of each chromosome, are pulled apart by the spindle fibers. This occurs during the anaphase stage of mitosis. The separation of sister chromatids ensures that each daughter cell receives a complete set of chromosomes.

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  • 24. 

    Which statement is NOT true about crossing over?

    • A.

      Occurs in prophase 1

    • B.

      Increases genetic diversity

    • C.

      Occurs only between pairs of homologous chromosomes

    • D.

      Happens in both mitosis and meiosis

    Correct Answer
    D. Happens in both mitosis and meiosis
    Explanation
    Crossing over is a process that occurs during prophase 1 of meiosis, where segments of genetic material are exchanged between homologous chromosomes. This exchange of genetic material leads to an increase in genetic diversity within a population. However, crossing over does not occur in mitosis, as mitosis involves the replication and division of cells without the exchange of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. Therefore, the statement "happens in both mitosis and meiosis" is not true about crossing over.

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 10, 2017
    Quiz Created by
    Mooneyja
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