Mid-term Exam Review - Hbs

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Midterm Quizzes & Trivia

HBS review - Mid-term Exam


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Nerves carry impulses toward the brain are

    • A.

      Sensory neurons

    • B.

      Efferent neurons

    • C.

      Motor neurons

    • D.

      Interneurons

    Correct Answer
    B. Efferent neurons
    Explanation
    Efferent neurons are responsible for carrying impulses away from the brain and towards the rest of the body, allowing for the transmission of motor commands and signals. These neurons are part of the peripheral nervous system and play a crucial role in controlling voluntary movements and bodily functions. Sensory neurons, on the other hand, carry impulses from sensory receptors to the brain, while interneurons facilitate communication between different neurons in the central nervous system. Motor neurons, although involved in the control of movement, specifically transmit signals from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands.

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  • 2. 

    A simple spinal reflex goes along with which of the following reflex arcs?

    • A.

      Efferent neuron, interneuron, afferent neuron

    • B.

      Afferent neuron, efferent neuron, interneuron

    • C.

      Afferent neuron, interneuron, efferent neuron

    • D.

      Efferent neuron, afferent neuron, interneuron

    Correct Answer
    C. Afferent neuron, interneuron, efferent neuron
    Explanation
    A simple spinal reflex involves the following sequence of events: first, sensory information is detected by the afferent neuron and transmitted to the central nervous system. Next, the information is processed by the interneuron, which relays the signal to the appropriate motor neuron. Finally, the motor neuron sends a response signal to the effector organ or muscle, resulting in a reflex action. Therefore, the correct sequence for a simple spinal reflex is afferent neuron, interneuron, efferent neuron.

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  • 3. 

    The ventral side of an organism is the 

    • A.

      Front side

    • B.

      Left side

    • C.

      Back side

    • D.

      Under side (belly)

    Correct Answer
    D. Under side (belly)
    Explanation
    The ventral side of an organism refers to its under side or belly. This is because the ventral side is typically the side that faces down or is closest to the ground when an organism is in its normal anatomical position. It is opposite to the dorsal side, which refers to the back side of an organism. Therefore, the correct answer is under side (belly).

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  • 4. 

    Brain disease/disorder that progressively destroys the myelin sheaths of the neurons of the central nervous system is called 

    • A.

      Parkinson’s disease

    • B.

      Lou Gehrig’s disease

    • C.

      Multiple sclerosis

    • D.

      Huntington’s disease

    Correct Answer
    C. Multiple sclerosis
    Explanation
    Multiple sclerosis is a brain disease that causes the progressive destruction of the myelin sheaths, which are protective coverings around the neurons in the central nervous system. This leads to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body, resulting in various physical and cognitive symptoms. Parkinson's disease, Lou Gehrig's disease, and Huntington's disease are all different conditions that affect the nervous system, but they do not specifically involve the destruction of myelin sheaths like multiple sclerosis does.

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  • 5. 

    Which membrane protein is responsible for restoring the orginial concentration of ions during the action potential?

    • A.

      Na channel

    • B.

      K channel

    • C.

      Ca channel

    • D.

      Na/K pump

    Correct Answer
    D. Na/K pump
    Explanation
    The Na/K pump is responsible for restoring the original concentration of ions during the action potential. This pump actively transports three sodium ions out of the cell and two potassium ions into the cell, using ATP as an energy source. This process helps maintain the concentration gradients of sodium and potassium ions across the cell membrane, which is essential for the proper functioning of the action potential and overall cell function.

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  • 6. 

    Which protein hormone is produced by the pancreas to promote the increase in the sugar content of the blood by breaking down glycogen in the liver?

    • A.

      Glucose

    • B.

      Glucagon

    • C.

      Thyroxine

    • D.

      Insulin

    Correct Answer
    B. Glucagon
    Explanation
    Glucagon is the correct answer because it is a protein hormone produced by the pancreas that promotes an increase in the sugar content of the blood. It does so by breaking down glycogen in the liver, which releases glucose into the bloodstream. Glucagon acts as a counter-regulatory hormone to insulin, which decreases blood sugar levels, and helps maintain glucose homeostasis in the body.

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  • 7. 

    An endocrine gland that stores and releases two hormones produced by the hypothallumus is called the

    • A.

      Pancreas

    • B.

      Hippocampus

    • C.

      Pituitary

    • D.

      Thyroid

    Correct Answer
    C. Pituitary
    Explanation
    The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland that stores and releases two hormones, oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which are produced by the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland is often referred to as the "master gland" because it controls the release of hormones from other endocrine glands in the body. It plays a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions such as growth, metabolism, reproduction, and water balance.

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  • 8. 

    The difference between a rod and a cone is 

    • A.

      Cone sense color and rods sense faint light.

    • B.

      Rods sense color and cones sense faint light.

    • C.

      Rods sense faint light and color, cones only sense faint light.

    • D.

      Cones sense color and faint light, rods only sense color.

    Correct Answer
    A. Cone sense color and rods sense faint light.
    Explanation
    Rods and cones are two types of photoreceptor cells in the retina of the eye. Rods are responsible for vision in low light conditions and are more sensitive to faint light. They do not distinguish colors. On the other hand, cones are responsible for color vision and are less sensitive to light. Therefore, the correct answer is that cones sense color and rods sense faint light.

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  • 9. 

    What structure regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye?

    • A.

      Aqueous humor

    • B.

      Lens

    • C.

      Cornea

    • D.

      Iris

    Correct Answer
    D. Iris
    Explanation
    The iris is the structure that regulates the amount of light passing to the visual receptors of the eye. It controls the size of the pupil, which determines the amount of light entering the eye. The iris contains muscles that can contract or expand, adjusting the size of the pupil in response to the brightness of the environment. When there is bright light, the iris contracts and the pupil becomes smaller to limit the amount of light entering the eye. Conversely, in low light conditions, the iris expands and the pupil dilates to allow more light to enter the eye.

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  • 10. 

    Eye disorder where the loss of vision is caused by damage to the optic nerve because of increased intraocular pressure.

    • A.

      Myopia

    • B.

      Glaucoma

    • C.

      Cataracts

    • D.

      Retinitsis pigmentosa

    Correct Answer
    B. Glaucoma
    Explanation
    Glaucoma is the correct answer because it is an eye disorder that causes vision loss due to damage to the optic nerve caused by increased intraocular pressure. This increased pressure can lead to the compression and damage of the optic nerve, resulting in vision loss. Myopia, cataracts, and retinitis pigmentosa are all different eye disorders that do not involve damage to the optic nerve from increased intraocular pressure.

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  • 11. 

    Light passes through the following structures in which order?

    • A.

      Vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor, cornea

    • B.

      Cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor

    • C.

      Cornea, vitreous humor, lens, aqueous humor

    • D.

      Aqueous humor, cornea, lens, vitreous humor

    Correct Answer
    B. Cornea, aqueous humor, lens, vitreous humor
  • 12. 

    Restriction enzymes are derived from:

    • A.

      Microorganisms.

    • B.

      Bacteria.

    • C.

      Viruses.

    • D.

      All of the above.

    Correct Answer
    B. Bacteria.
    Explanation
    Restriction enzymes are proteins that are derived from bacteria. These enzymes are produced by bacteria as a defense mechanism against viral infections. They are able to recognize specific DNA sequences and cut the DNA at those sites. This ability to cut DNA at specific locations is widely used in molecular biology techniques such as DNA cloning and genetic engineering. While microorganisms and viruses are also capable of producing enzymes, the correct answer specifically states that restriction enzymes are derived from bacteria.

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  • 13. 

    Gel electrophoresis separates nucliec acids by:

    • A.

      Shape.

    • B.

      Size.

    • C.

      Both shape and size.

    • D.

      Neither shape or size.

    Correct Answer
    B. Size.
    Explanation
    Gel electrophoresis is a technique used to separate nucleic acids based on their size. In this process, a mixture of nucleic acids is loaded onto a gel matrix and an electric current is applied. The smaller nucleic acids move faster through the gel, while the larger ones move slower. As a result, the nucleic acids are separated into distinct bands based on their size. Therefore, the correct answer is size.

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  • 14. 

    Motor neurons

    • A.

      Pick up signals through senses.

    • B.

      Connect sensory neurons to motor neurons.

    • C.

      Recieve signals from the central nervous system, causing movement.

    • D.

      None of the choices are correct.

    Correct Answer
    C. Recieve signals from the central nervous system, causing movement.
    Explanation
    Motor neurons receive signals from the central nervous system, causing movement. Motor neurons are responsible for transmitting signals from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands in the body, allowing for voluntary and involuntary movements. They are part of the peripheral nervous system and play a crucial role in coordinating and controlling muscle contractions.

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  • 15. 

    The difference between a rod and a cone is 

    • A.

      Cone sense color and rods sense faint light.

    • B.

      Rods sense color and cones sense faint light.

    • C.

      Rods sense faint light and color, cones only sense faint light.

    • D.

      Cones sense color and faint light, rods only sense color.

    Correct Answer
    A. Cone sense color and rods sense faint light.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "cone sense color and rods sense faint light." This is because cones are responsible for color vision and are most sensitive to bright light, while rods are responsible for vision in low light conditions and are not sensitive to color.

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  • 16. 

    What is the best way to determine the gender of a skeleton?

    • A.

      Using the skull and pelvis.

    • B.

      Using the skull and humerus.

    • C.

      Using the pelvis and femur.

    • D.

      Using the femur and humerus.

    Correct Answer
    A. Using the skull and pelvis.
    Explanation
    The best way to determine the gender of a skeleton is by using the skull and pelvis. The skull can provide information about certain features that are more common in males or females, such as the size and shape of the brow ridge, jaw, and chin. The pelvis is also a reliable indicator as it differs between males and females in terms of shape and size. By examining both the skull and pelvis, forensic anthropologists can make a more accurate determination of the gender of a skeleton.

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  • 17. 

    What does DNA stand for?

    • A.

      Deoxyribose Nucleotide Amalayze

    • B.

      Deoxyribonuclecic Acid

    • C.

      Decarbonuclecic Acid

    • D.

      Deoxyribonuclecic Amalayze

    Correct Answer
    B. Deoxyribonuclecic Acid
    Explanation
    DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid. It is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning, and reproduction of all known living organisms. DNA is composed of nucleotides, which consist of a sugar molecule (deoxyribose), a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base (adenine, thymine, cytosine, or guanine). The structure of DNA is a double helix, with two strands of nucleotides twisted around each other. DNA is responsible for transmitting hereditary information from one generation to the next.

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  • 18. 

    The backbone of a DNA molecule is made of which two components?

    • A.

      Phosphate molecules and ribose sugars

    • B.

      Deoxyphosphate molecules and ribose sugars

    • C.

      Deoxyphosphate molecules and deoxyribose sugars

    • D.

      Phosphate molecules and deoxyribose sugars.

    Correct Answer
    A. Phosphate molecules and ribose sugars
    Explanation
    The backbone of a DNA molecule is made up of phosphate molecules and ribose sugars. The phosphate molecules form the outer edges of the DNA molecule, creating a sturdy structure. The ribose sugars are connected to the phosphate molecules, forming the "rungs" of the DNA ladder. Together, these components provide the support and stability necessary for the DNA molecule to maintain its structure and function properly.

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  • 19. 

    DNA is ___________ and will move through the gel toward the ___________ end of the electrophoresis chamber.

    • A.

      Neutral, negative

    • B.

      Negative, neutral

    • C.

      Negative, positive

    • D.

      Positive, negative

    Correct Answer
    C. Negative, positive
    Explanation
    DNA is negatively charged due to the phosphate groups in its backbone. During electrophoresis, an electric current is applied, causing the DNA molecules to move through the gel. Since like charges repel each other, the negatively charged DNA will move towards the positive end of the electrophoresis chamber. Therefore, the correct answer is "negative, positive".

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  • 20. 

    Epithelial cells can be found:

    • A.

      In adipose tissue, blood, bone, cartilage.

    • B.

      In neurons and neuroglia.

    • C.

      Making up all muscles, including the heart.

    • D.

      Lining organs and body cavities.

    Correct Answer
    D. Lining organs and body cavities.
    Explanation
    Epithelial cells are specialized cells that form the lining of organs and body cavities. They create a protective barrier and help in the absorption and secretion of substances. Adipose tissue, blood, bone, and cartilage do not consist of epithelial cells. Neurons and neuroglia are part of the nervous system, not epithelial cells. While muscles are made up of muscle cells, not all muscles are composed of epithelial cells. Therefore, the correct answer is lining organs and body cavities.

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  • 21. 

    When examining the mandible (jaw), females tend to have a ____________ shape to it.

    • A.

      Y

    • B.

      U

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      V

    Correct Answer
    D. V
    Explanation
    When examining the mandible (jaw), females tend to have a V shape to it. This is because the mandible of females is typically narrower and more pointed at the chin, creating a V-shaped appearance. On the other hand, males tend to have a more square or U-shaped mandible, with a wider and more pronounced jawline. The V shape in females is often associated with a more feminine and delicate facial structure.

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  • 22. 

    Explain the four different types of tissue and their function.

  • 23. 

    What does it mean to have 20/20 vision? Be specific in your description and use your vocabulary words. 

  • 24. 

    List four structures that are common to all humans. Be sure to include their function as well. 

  • 25. 

    How do the three types of neurons work together to send and receive signals? Make sure you identify the three types, where they are found and what their function is.

  • 26. 

    How do feedback loops regulate the action of hormones?

  • 27. 

    How do the eye and the brain work together to process what we see? How does the eye perceive depth, color and optical illusions?

  • 28. 

    Describe how the body maintains homeostasis when levels of blood sugar decrease. Be specific. 

Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 06, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Dohertyd
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