The Ultimate Microeconomics Knowledge Test Part II

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The Ultimate Microeconomics Knowledge Test Part II - Quiz

Welcome to The Ultimate Microeconomics Knowledge Test Part II. The following quiz takes a unique approach to microeconomics, as we take a look at some of the more unconventional methods for how a firm or individual might be able to decide how to efficiently and effectively allocate scarce resources. Do you think you’re the kind of person who understands how all of this works? Take the following quiz and we’ll see if you’re right! Good luck!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The earliest unions in the US were ____

    Correct Answer
    Craft Unions
    Explanation
    Craft unions were the earliest unions in the US. These unions were formed by skilled workers from specific trades or crafts, such as carpenters, printers, or blacksmiths. Craft unions aimed to protect the interests of their members, improve working conditions, and negotiate better wages. They focused on maintaining high standards of workmanship and skill within their respective trades. Craft unions played a significant role in the labor movement and the establishment of workers' rights in the United States.

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  • 2. 

    A government imposed restriction on the quantity of a specific good that can be imported

    Correct Answer
    Quota
    Explanation
    A quota refers to a government-imposed restriction on the quantity of a specific good that can be imported. It is a measure used to control the flow of goods into a country and protect domestic industries. By setting a limit on the amount of imports allowed, the government aims to regulate supply and demand dynamics, protect local businesses, and maintain a balance of trade. Quotas can be implemented for various reasons, such as safeguarding national security, promoting economic growth, or addressing trade imbalances.

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  • 3. 

    This act permits states to pass right to work laws

    Correct Answer
    Taft Hartley Act
    Explanation
    The Taft-Hartley Act is a federal law that allows states to pass right-to-work laws. These laws prohibit unions from requiring workers to join or pay dues as a condition of employment. The Taft-Hartley Act was passed in 1947 and was intended to balance the power between labor unions and employers. It gives states the authority to decide whether or not to adopt right-to-work laws, giving workers the freedom to choose whether or not to join a union.

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  • 4. 

    An Increase in the countries rate of inflation is apt to

    • A.

      Decrease demand for the countries currency

    • B.

      Worsen it's balance of trade and payments

    • C.

      Lower its nominal rate of interest and encourage an inflow of capitol

    • D.

      Reduce its imports and improve its trade balance

    Correct Answer
    B. Worsen it's balance of trade and payments
    Explanation
    An increase in the country's rate of inflation is likely to worsen its balance of trade and payments. When inflation rises, the prices of goods and services in the country also increase. This makes the country's exports more expensive compared to other countries, leading to a decrease in demand for its products. At the same time, imports become cheaper, leading to an increase in the country's imports. This imbalance between exports and imports worsens the country's balance of trade and payments, as it is importing more than it is exporting.

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  • 5. 

    The principle of comparitive advantage essentially states that

    • A.

      Total output of an economic system is greatest when each good is produced by those who have the lowest opportunity cost of producing the good

    • B.

      Specialization can reduce output rather than increase it

    • C.

      Some goods have high opportunity costs and low absolute costs

    • D.

      There are some goods for which the opportunity costs of production are the same regardless of who produces them

    Correct Answer
    A. Total output of an economic system is greatest when each good is produced by those who have the lowest opportunity cost of producing the good
    Explanation
    The principle of comparative advantage states that the total output of an economic system is greatest when each good is produced by those who have the lowest opportunity cost of producing the good. This means that resources should be allocated to produce the goods that a country or individual can produce at a lower opportunity cost compared to others. By specializing in the production of goods where they have a comparative advantage, countries can maximize their total output and overall economic efficiency.

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  • 6. 

    In a Lorenz curve perfect income equality is given by

    • A.

      A 45 degree line originating from the origin

    • B.

      A rectangular hyperbola

    • C.

      A horizontal line

    • D.

      A vertical line

    Correct Answer
    A. A 45 degree line originating from the origin
    Explanation
    In a Lorenz curve, perfect income equality is represented by a 45-degree line originating from the origin. This means that every individual or group in the population has an equal share of income. The curve shows the cumulative percentage of income received by the cumulative percentage of the population. A 45-degree line indicates that the cumulative percentage of income is equal to the cumulative percentage of the population, reflecting perfect equality.

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  • 7. 

    Flexible exchange rates are determined by

    • A.

      The IMF

    • B.

      The forces of supply and demand

    • C.

      The government of the importing country

    • D.

      The government of the exporting country

    Correct Answer
    B. The forces of supply and demand
    Explanation
    Flexible exchange rates are determined by the forces of supply and demand. In a flexible exchange rate system, the value of a currency is determined by the market forces of supply and demand in the foreign exchange market. If there is a high demand for a particular currency, its value will increase relative to other currencies. Conversely, if there is a high supply of a currency, its value will decrease. This system allows for fluctuations in currency values based on market conditions, rather than being controlled by any specific entity such as the IMF or governments of importing or exporting countries.

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  • 8. 

    The fact that the United States has a trade deficit means that

    • A.

      The United States is a bad place to invest capitol

    • B.

      The economy in our country is weak and we cannot compete with the Japanese

    • C.

      The United States has a surplus in its capital account

    • D.

      The United States has a deficit in its capital account

    Correct Answer
    C. The United States has a surplus in its capital account
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the United States has a surplus in its capital account. A trade deficit means that the value of imports is greater than the value of exports, which implies that the United States is purchasing more goods and services from other countries than it is selling to them. However, a surplus in the capital account means that the United States is attracting more foreign investment and capital inflows than it is investing abroad and experiencing capital outflows. This suggests that despite the trade deficit, the United States is still an attractive place for foreign investors to invest their capital.

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  • 9. 

    The marginal cost of a unit of labor in a perfectly competitive labor market is

    • A.

      Its average MRP

    • B.

      Equal to product price

    • C.

      The market wage rate

    • D.

      Equal to MRP

    Correct Answer
    C. The market wage rate
    Explanation
    In a perfectly competitive labor market, the marginal cost of a unit of labor is equal to the market wage rate. This means that the additional cost incurred by a firm to hire one more unit of labor is equal to the prevailing wage rate in the market. In such a market, firms are price takers and the wage rate is determined by the overall supply and demand for labor. Therefore, the market wage rate represents the cost that firms have to bear in order to hire additional labor, making it the correct answer.

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  • 10. 

    A closed shop is a business enterprise in which

    • A.

      Employees cannot belong to a union when they are employed, and cannot join a union and keep working there

    • B.

      Employees must join the union to maintain employment

    • C.

      Employees must belong to the union before they can be employed

    • D.

      Employees cannot belong to the union when they are hired but may join the union later and keep their jobs

    Correct Answer
    C. Employees must belong to the union before they can be employed
    Explanation
    In a closed shop, employees must belong to the union before they can be employed. This means that the company only hires individuals who are already members of the union. It is a requirement for employment and non-union members cannot be hired. This ensures that all employees are part of the union and have the same rights and benefits.

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  • 11. 

    Absolute advantage is defined as

    • A.

      Having a lower average fixed cost in production of a good than does someone else

    • B.

      The ability to use more input of resources than others can

    • C.

      The ability to produce more output from given inputs of resources than others can

    • D.

      The ability to produce more output of one good relative to another good than another country can

    Correct Answer
    C. The ability to produce more output from given inputs of resources than others can
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "the ability to produce more output from given inputs of resources than others can." This definition of absolute advantage refers to the ability of a country, individual, or firm to produce a greater quantity of goods or services using the same amount of resources as compared to others. It focuses on productivity and efficiency in utilizing resources to generate more output.

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  • 12. 

    The Bretton Woods agreement established the

    • A.

      Gold standard

    • B.

      G-7

    • C.

      System of managed flexible exchange rates

    • D.

      International Monetary Fund

    Correct Answer
    D. International Monetary Fund
    Explanation
    The correct answer is the International Monetary Fund. The Bretton Woods agreement, signed in 1944, created the International Monetary Fund (IMF) as part of a new global financial system. The IMF's main purpose is to promote international monetary cooperation and stability. It provides financial assistance to member countries facing balance of payments problems and works to maintain stable exchange rates. The establishment of the IMF was a key component of the Bretton Woods system, which aimed to prevent another global economic crisis like the Great Depression.

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  • 13. 

    The purpose of the Supplemental Security Income program is

    • A.

      To supplement Social Security for the elderly with medical problems

    • B.

      To provide a minimum income for the aged, blind and disabled

    • C.

      To provide a guaranteed minimum income for all Americans

    • D.

      To provide a minimum income for all households with children

    Correct Answer
    B. To provide a minimum income for the aged, blind and disabled
    Explanation
    The purpose of the Supplemental Security Income program is to provide a minimum income for the aged, blind, and disabled. This program aims to assist individuals who are unable to work due to age-related issues, visual impairments, or disabilities by providing them with a basic level of financial support. It is specifically designed to address the needs of this particular population and ensure that they have a minimum income to meet their basic living expenses.

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  • 14. 

    The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade is an international agreement

    • A.

      To establish the North American continent as a free trade area

    • B.

      To encourage peaceful settle of trade disputes but no particular point of view about the desirability of higher or lower tariffs

    • C.

      To encourage world trade by lowering tariffs and other trade barriers

    • D.

      To make all tariffs illegal

    Correct Answer
    C. To encourage world trade by lowering tariffs and other trade barriers
    Explanation
    The correct answer is to encourage world trade by lowering tariffs and other trade barriers. This is because the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was created with the aim of promoting international trade by reducing tariffs and other barriers to trade. It sought to create a more open and transparent trading system, allowing countries to engage in trade more easily and efficiently. By lowering tariffs and trade barriers, GATT aimed to encourage economic growth, increase market access, and foster cooperation among member countries.

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  • 15. 

    The monopsonistic exploitation of labor refers to

    • A.

      The reduction in total output from monopoly in the product market

    • B.

      The union wage differential

    • C.

      Workers being paid less than their marginal revenue product

    • D.

      The reduction in employment resulting from union wage setting

    Correct Answer
    C. Workers being paid less than their marginal revenue product
    Explanation
    The correct answer is workers being paid less than their marginal revenue product. Monopsonistic exploitation of labor occurs when employers have significant market power in the labor market, allowing them to pay workers less than the value they contribute to the firm. This leads to a situation where workers are not fully compensated for their marginal revenue product, which is the additional revenue generated by the last unit of labor hired. This exploitation can result in lower wages and reduced economic welfare for workers.

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  • 16. 

    Karl Marx argued that income should be distributed

    • A.

      According to desire

    • B.

      According to need

    • C.

      According to productivity

    • D.

      So as to provide the strongest incentive to work

    Correct Answer
    B. According to need
    Explanation
    Karl Marx argued that income should be distributed according to need. This means that individuals should receive resources and support based on their basic necessities and requirements, rather than their desires or productivity. Marx believed that this approach would ensure a fair and equitable distribution of resources, allowing everyone to have access to what they need for a decent standard of living. By prioritizing need over other factors, Marx aimed to address inequality and create a more just society.

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  • 17. 

    According to economic historians, one characteristiv of international trade is that it

    • A.

      Aids in the international transmission of ideas

    • B.

      Reduces the world wide output of goods

    • C.

      Reduces the world wide consumption of goods

    • D.

      Causes persistent world wide inflation

    Correct Answer
    A. Aids in the international transmission of ideas
    Explanation
    International trade aids in the international transmission of ideas because it allows for the exchange of goods and services between different countries. Through trade, countries are exposed to new products, technologies, and practices from other nations, which can lead to the transfer of knowledge and ideas. This exchange of ideas can promote innovation, improve productivity, and drive economic growth. Additionally, trade can foster cultural exchange and understanding, as countries learn from each other's customs, traditions, and ways of doing business.

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  • 18. 

    Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) are

    • A.

      A reserve asset created by the International Monetary Fund that countries can use to settle international payments

    • B.

      A liability payment from a branch bank to nation's central bank

    • C.

      A country's surpluses in their fiscal budgets

    • D.

      Exchanges of gold between nations

    Correct Answer
    A. A reserve asset created by the International Monetary Fund that countries can use to settle international payments
    Explanation
    SDRs are a reserve asset created by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that countries can use to settle international payments. This means that SDRs act as a form of international currency that countries can hold and use to make payments to other countries. The IMF creates SDRs based on a basket of major currencies, and these SDRs can be exchanged for other currencies or used to make payments for goods and services. It is an important tool for promoting international monetary cooperation and providing liquidity to the global financial system.

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  • 19. 

    The foreign exchange rate describes the

    • A.

      Balance of trade

    • B.

      Balance of payments

    • C.

      Law of comparitive advantage

    • D.

      Price of a foreign currency in terms of a domestic currency

    Correct Answer
    D. Price of a foreign currency in terms of a domestic currency
    Explanation
    The foreign exchange rate refers to the price of a foreign currency in terms of a domestic currency. It represents the value at which one currency can be exchanged for another. This rate is determined by various factors such as supply and demand, interest rates, inflation, and economic stability. The exchange rate plays a crucial role in international trade, investment, and tourism, as it affects the cost of imported and exported goods and services.

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  • 20. 

    The more bowed the Lorenz curve the

    • A.

      Less equal the income distribution

    • B.

      More equal the income distribution

    • C.

      Greater the overall wealth in the economy

    • D.

      Less overall wealth in the economy

    Correct Answer
    A. Less equal the income distribution
    Explanation
    The more bowed the Lorenz curve, the less equal the income distribution. This is because the Lorenz curve represents the cumulative share of income received by the cumulative share of the population. A more bowed curve indicates that a smaller proportion of the population is receiving a larger share of the income, resulting in a greater level of income inequality. Conversely, a less bowed curve would indicate a more equal distribution of income, with a larger proportion of the population receiving a more equal share of the income.

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  • 21. 

    The fact that there is a minus sign before the number for unilateral transfers means that

    • A.

      Country x has significant inflation

    • B.

      Country x imported more goods than it exported

    • C.

      Country x recieved more in foreign aid than it gave in foreign aid

    • D.

      Country x game more to foreigners than foreigners gave to country x

    Correct Answer
    D. Country x game more to foreigners than foreigners gave to country x
    Explanation
    The fact that there is a minus sign before the number for unilateral transfers means that country x gave more to foreigners than foreigners gave to country x.

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  • 22. 

    The monopsonist will employ labor at the point where the

    • A.

      Marginal factor cost equals the marginal revenue product of labor

    • B.

      Marginal revenue product equals the wage rate

    • C.

      Marginal cost of output equals the marginal revenue

    • D.

      Demand equals the supply of labor

    Correct Answer
    A. Marginal factor cost equals the marginal revenue product of labor
    Explanation
    The correct answer is that the monopsonist will employ labor at the point where the marginal factor cost equals the marginal revenue product of labor. This means that the monopsonist will hire workers until the additional cost of hiring one more worker equals the additional revenue generated by that worker. At this point, the monopsonist is maximizing their profit because they are paying the exact amount for labor that is equal to the value that labor is producing for the firm.

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  • 23. 

    The percentage of national income spent on health care

    • A.

      Has steadily decreased since 1965

    • B.

      Has steadily increased since 1965

    • C.

      Increased until the end of the 1970s and then decreased in the 1980s and 1990s

    • D.

      Decreased until the end of the 1970s and then increased in the 1980s and 1990s

    Correct Answer
    B. Has steadily increased since 1965
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "has steadily increased since 1965." This means that the percentage of national income spent on health care has been consistently rising since 1965.

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  • 24. 

    The balance of payments is

    • A.

      The value of goods and services bought and sold in the world market

    • B.

      A summary records of a country's economic transactions with foreign residents and governments

    • C.

      A summary record of a country's purchases and sales of goods and services in the world market

    • D.

      The value of merchandise goods bought and sold in the world market

    Correct Answer
    B. A summary records of a country's economic transactions with foreign residents and governments
    Explanation
    The balance of payments is a summary record of a country's economic transactions with foreign residents and governments. It includes all the financial transactions that a country engages in with the rest of the world, such as exports, imports, investments, and transfers. It provides a comprehensive view of a country's economic relationship with other nations and helps measure the overall economic health and stability of a country.

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  • 25. 

    A right to work law makes it illegal for

    • A.

      Emplyers to refuse to hire union workers

    • B.

      Union membership to be a requirement for continued employment in any establishment

    • C.

      Union membership to be denied on the basis of race, gender or national origin

    • D.

      A union to exist in state

    Correct Answer
    B. Union membership to be a requirement for continued employment in any establishment
    Explanation
    A right to work law prohibits employers from making union membership a requirement for continued employment in any establishment. This means that even if an employee chooses not to join a union, they cannot be denied employment or face any negative consequences solely based on their decision. This law ensures that individuals have the freedom to choose whether or not to join a union without fear of losing their job.

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  • 26. 

    Under the Social Security program currently in existence

    • A.

      Benefits are based on need

    • B.

      Benefits are determined by whether one contributed to the system or not

    • C.

      Benefits are provide to everyone who contributed to the system except those under private retirement plans

    • D.

      Benefits are guaranteed to be no lower for future retirees than current retirees

    Correct Answer
    B. Benefits are determined by whether one contributed to the system or not
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "benefits are determined by whether one contributed to the system or not." This means that in the Social Security program, the amount of benefits an individual receives is based on whether they have contributed to the system through payroll taxes or not. This implies that those who have contributed more to the system will generally receive higher benefits compared to those who have contributed less or not at all.

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  • 27. 

    Under flexible exchange rates, an increase in the value of a domestic currency in terms of other currencies is referred to as

    • A.

      An appreciation

    • B.

      A depreciation

    • C.

      A devaluation

    • D.

      A revaluation

    Correct Answer
    A. An appreciation
    Explanation
    An appreciation refers to an increase in the value of a domestic currency in relation to other currencies. This means that the domestic currency can buy more of other currencies. It is a result of market forces such as increased demand for the domestic currency or decreased supply of other currencies.

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  • 28. 

    Which statement best desfcribes the behavior of the monopsonist in the labor market?

    • A.

      It restricts it output to keep the product price high

    • B.

      It hires less labor but pays the competitive wage rate

    • C.

      It must pay different amounts for each unit of labor hired

    • D.

      It hires less labor and pays a lower wage rate than in the competitive case

    Correct Answer
    D. It hires less labor and pays a lower wage rate than in the competitive case
    Explanation
    The statement "it hires less labor and pays a lower wage rate than in the competitive case" best describes the behavior of a monopsonist in the labor market. A monopsonist has market power as the sole buyer of labor, allowing them to exert control over the wage rate. To maximize their profits, a monopsonist will hire less labor and pay a lower wage rate compared to a competitive market where multiple buyers exist. This behavior is a result of the monopsonist's ability to dictate the terms of employment due to their market dominance.

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  • 29. 

    Overall since the 1930's tariff rates in the United States have

    • A.

      Increased

    • B.

      Decreased

    • C.

      Reamined unchanged

    • D.

      Become very unstable changing week to week

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreased
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "decreased" because the statement mentions that tariff rates in the United States have changed since the 1930s. Since the word "decreased" is the only option that indicates a reduction in rates, it can be inferred that the tariff rates have decreased over time.

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  • 30. 

    The age earning cycle us

    • A.

      An earnings profile of an individual throughout his or her lifetime

    • B.

      The earnings differences by age and by gender

    • C.

      The difference in the relationship between age and earnings across countries

    • D.

      Average incomes of people broken down by age categories

    Correct Answer
    A. An earnings profile of an individual throughout his or her lifetime
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "an earnings profile of an individual throughout his or her lifetime." This refers to the pattern of income that an individual earns over the course of their life, taking into account factors such as education, work experience, and age. It acknowledges that earnings tend to increase with age as individuals gain more skills and experience, and then may decline later in life as they approach retirement. This concept helps to understand how income changes over time and can be useful in planning for financial goals and retirement.

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  • 31. 

    The exchange rate system in use since the early 1970s is best described as a

    • A.

      Dollar standard

    • B.

      Adjustable peg system

    • C.

      Fixed exchange rate system

    • D.

      Freely floating or managed "dirty" floating exchange rate system

    Correct Answer
    D. Freely floating or managed "dirty" floating exchange rate system
    Explanation
    The correct answer is freely floating or managed "dirty" floating exchange rate system. This system allows the exchange rate to be determined by market forces of supply and demand, with minimal intervention from the central bank. However, the central bank may occasionally intervene in the foreign exchange market to influence the exchange rate, hence the term "managed" or "dirty" floating. This system contrasts with a fixed exchange rate system, where the exchange rate is fixed to a specific currency or a basket of currencies, and an adjustable peg system, where the exchange rate is periodically adjusted within a certain range.

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  • 32. 

    The President of the US can obtain a court injunction to stop a astrike for an 80 day "cooling off" period if the strike is expected to imperil national health or safety. This power is granted in the

    • A.

      Taft Hartley Act

    • B.

      Wagner Act

    • C.

      Landrum Griffin Act

    • D.

      National Industrial Recovery Act

    Correct Answer
    A. Taft Hartley Act
    Explanation
    The Taft Hartley Act grants the President of the US the power to obtain a court injunction to stop a strike for an 80 day "cooling off" period if the strike is expected to imperil national health or safety. This act was passed in 1947 and amended the Wagner Act, which was focused on protecting the rights of employees to engage in collective bargaining. The Taft Hartley Act aimed to balance the power between employers and unions and introduced several provisions to regulate labor-management relations.

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  • 33. 

    Dumping is defined as

    • A.

      Selling a good abroad at prices below the costs of the firms in the foreign countries

    • B.

      Exporting goods that are of inferior quality

    • C.

      Selling a good abroad at prices below its cost of production or below the price charged in the home market

    • D.

      Exporting goods that are sources of pullition

    Correct Answer
    C. Selling a good abroad at prices below its cost of production or below the price charged in the home market
    Explanation
    Dumping refers to the practice of selling a product in a foreign market at a price that is either below its cost of production or lower than the price charged in the domestic market. This strategy is often employed to gain a competitive advantage and capture market share in the foreign market. By selling goods at lower prices, companies can undercut their competitors and potentially drive them out of business. Dumping is considered an unfair trade practice and is subject to regulations and penalties in many countries.

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  • 34. 

    The contributive standard of income distribution is met by

    • A.

      Setting wages according to marginal productivity

    • B.

      Having a highly progressive income tax

    • C.

      Having the government determine all wages

    • D.

      Using local committees to determine the needs of families in the area

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Setting wages according to marginal productivity
    B. Having a highly progressive income tax
    Explanation
    The contributive standard of income distribution is met by setting wages according to marginal productivity and having a highly progressive income tax. Setting wages according to marginal productivity ensures that individuals are compensated based on the value they contribute to the economy, promoting fairness and efficiency. A highly progressive income tax system redistributes wealth from the rich to the poor, reducing income inequality and ensuring that everyone contributes to society according to their ability. These measures help to achieve a more equitable distribution of income and promote social welfare.

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  • 35. 

    The basic purpose of the Bretton Woods meeting was to

    • A.

      Fix prices

    • B.

      Locate the world's supply of gold

    • C.

      Slow down inflation after World War II

    • D.

      Create a new international payment system

    Correct Answer
    D. Create a new international payment system
    Explanation
    The Bretton Woods meeting was held in 1944 with the aim of creating a new international payment system. The meeting resulted in the establishment of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, which were designed to promote international economic cooperation and stability. The new payment system included fixed exchange rates tied to the US dollar, which was in turn pegged to gold. This system aimed to facilitate international trade and investment by providing stability and predictability in currency exchange rates.

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  • 36. 

    A problem with third party financing of much health care is that

    • A.

      It reduces the quality of health care received by most people

    • B.

      It discourages physicians from getting second opinions and running tests to be sure the right procedure is used

    • C.

      It causes the demand for medical services to increase which causes health care costs to increase

    • D.

      It discourages people from relying on the judgements of physicians in making decisions about health care

    Correct Answer
    C. It causes the demand for medical services to increase which causes health care costs to increase
    Explanation
    Third-party financing of healthcare causes the demand for medical services to increase, which in turn leads to an increase in healthcare costs. When individuals have access to third-party financing, such as insurance, they are more likely to seek medical services and procedures, even if they may not be necessary. This increased demand puts pressure on healthcare providers to meet the growing needs, leading to higher costs. As a result, the overall cost of healthcare increases due to the increased utilization of medical services driven by third-party financing.

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  • 37. 

    Governments sometimes subsidize domestic industries. When this occurs

    • A.

      The governments also impose tariffs on imports to protect the industries even more

    • B.

      The subsidized industries have an advantage on international markets relative to non subsidized industries

    • C.

      Firms cannot be guilty of dumping because their prices are not below their costs

    • D.

      The subsidized industries sell less in international markets because it is more profitable to sell domestically

    Correct Answer
    B. The subsidized industries have an advantage on international markets relative to non subsidized industries
    Explanation
    When governments subsidize domestic industries, it means that they provide financial assistance or incentives to these industries, such as tax breaks or grants. This helps the subsidized industries lower their production costs and become more competitive. As a result, they gain an advantage in international markets compared to non-subsidized industries. This advantage could be in terms of lower prices, higher quality products, or better market access, which allows them to attract more customers and increase their market share globally.

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  • 38. 

    Unilateral transfers are

    • A.

      Transactions that take place within the geographic boundaries of a country

    • B.

      Gifts from residents of one country to foreigners

    • C.

      Transactions that take place across geographic boundaries but in which both transactors are citizens of the same country

    • D.

      Government transactions that involve reserves

    Correct Answer
    B. Gifts from residents of one country to foreigners
    Explanation
    Unilateral transfers refer to gifts or transfers of money or assets from residents of one country to foreigners. These transfers are typically made without any expectation of receiving something in return. It is a form of international financial transaction that involves the movement of funds across national borders.

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  • 39. 

    When unions exist in markets

    • A.

      Firms must have market power in their output markets

    • B.

      There no longer is a perfectly competitive labor supply

    • C.

      Individual workers no longer make labor leisure trade off decisions

    • D.

      Employers have market power in the labor market

    Correct Answer
    B. There no longer is a perfectly competitive labor supply
    Explanation
    When unions exist in markets, there is no longer a perfectly competitive labor supply. This is because unions negotiate collective bargaining agreements on behalf of workers, which can lead to higher wages and better working conditions. As a result, the supply of labor becomes less elastic and more controlled by the union. This reduces the ability of firms to easily hire additional workers at lower wages, as they would in a perfectly competitive labor market. Instead, employers may have to negotiate with the union or face higher labor costs, giving them less power in the labor market.

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  • 40. 

    The Lorenz curve is a geometric representation of

    • A.

      The profile of earnings for a "typical" family over time

    • B.

      The standard of living experience by the poor in a country

    • C.

      The difference between pre-tax and post tax income

    • D.

      The distribution of income

    Correct Answer
    D. The distribution of income
    Explanation
    The Lorenz curve is a graphical representation that shows the distribution of income within a population. It plots the cumulative percentage of total income against the cumulative percentage of the population. The curve helps to visualize the degree of income inequality in a society. A perfectly equal distribution of income would result in a straight line, while a more unequal distribution would result in a curved line. Therefore, the correct answer is "the distribution of income."

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  • 41. 

    Restrictions on imports

    • A.

      Eventually reduce exports too

    • B.

      Enhance economic welfare by encouraging more exports

    • C.

      Are the quickest way for a country in recession to start on the path of economic recovery

    • D.

      Usually have no long run effects on an economy

    Correct Answer
    A. Eventually reduce exports too
    Explanation
    Restrictions on imports can eventually reduce exports too. This is because when a country imposes restrictions on imports, it often triggers retaliation from other countries, leading to a decrease in export opportunities for the country. Additionally, restrictions on imports can disrupt global supply chains and increase production costs, making exports less competitive in the international market. Therefore, over time, these restrictions can have a negative impact on a country's export performance as well.

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  • 42. 

    Unions can increase labor productivity by

    • A.

      Maximizing the number of workers in the union

    • B.

      Reducing the supply of workers over time

    • C.

      Reducing conflicts between workers and management

    • D.

      Reducing the quantity of poorly made imports into the country

    Correct Answer
    C. Reducing conflicts between workers and management
    Explanation
    Unions can increase labor productivity by reducing conflicts between workers and management. When there is a strong union presence, workers have a collective voice and bargaining power, which can lead to improved working conditions, fair wages, and better benefits. This can create a more harmonious relationship between workers and management, reducing conflicts and promoting a more efficient and productive work environment.

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  • 43. 

    When economists David Gould, GL Woodbridge and Roy Ruffin examined the data on the relationship between increases in imports and the rate of unemployment, they concluded that

    • A.

      Free trade leads to increased unemplyment

    • B.

      There is no casual link between increases in imports and the rate of unemployment

    • C.

      Increases in imports always preceded increases in unemployment by a period of 6 months to 1 year

    • D.

      Increases in imports always preceded increases in imports by a period of 6 months to 1 year

    Correct Answer
    B. There is no casual link between increases in imports and the rate of unemployment
    Explanation
    The economists David Gould, GL Woodbridge, and Roy Ruffin examined the data on the relationship between increases in imports and the rate of unemployment and concluded that there is no causal link between increases in imports and the rate of unemployment. This means that an increase in imports does not directly lead to an increase in unemployment. Other factors may be at play in determining the rate of unemployment, and imports alone cannot be considered the cause.

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  • 44. 

    Specialization and international trade lead to

    • A.

      An outward shift in the production possibilities frontier

    • B.

      An inward shift in the production possibilities frontier

    • C.

      A lower opportunity cost of domestic production of all goods

    • D.

      An enhanced level of consumption

    Correct Answer
    D. An enhanced level of consumption
    Explanation
    Specialization allows countries to focus on producing goods and services that they have a comparative advantage in, leading to increased efficiency and productivity. International trade allows countries to exchange these specialized goods and services, expanding their consumption options beyond what they can produce domestically. As a result, specialization and international trade lead to an enhanced level of consumption, as countries can access a wider variety of goods and services from around the world.

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  • 45. 

    When the balance of trade is in balance

    • A.

      The value of capital exports quals the value of capital imports

    • B.

      The value of exports equals the value of imports

    • C.

      The accounting identity does not hold

    • D.

      The value of all debit transactions equal the value of all credit transactions

    Correct Answer
    B. The value of exports equals the value of imports
    Explanation
    When the balance of trade is in balance, it means that the value of exports equals the value of imports. This indicates that a country's total exports of goods and services are equal to its total imports. It implies that there is no deficit or surplus in the trade balance, and the country is neither importing more than it is exporting nor vice versa. This balance in trade is desirable as it promotes economic stability and indicates a healthy level of international trade.

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  • 46. 

    A new industry develops and we want to protect its foreign competition. Which one of the following appropriately describes this type of protection?

    • A.

      National security

    • B.

      Cartelization

    • C.

      Infant industry

    • D.

      Protecting American Jobs

    Correct Answer
    C. Infant industry
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "infant industry". This term refers to the protection of a new industry from foreign competition in order to give it time to grow and become competitive. This protection is usually temporary and aims to nurture and support the industry until it can stand on its own.

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  • 47. 

    Under flexible exchange rate system, a decrease in the value of a domestic currency in terms of foreign currencies is referred to as

    • A.

      An appreciation

    • B.

      A depreciation

    • C.

      A devaluation

    • D.

      A revaluation

    Correct Answer
    B. A depreciation
    Explanation
    Under a flexible exchange rate system, a decrease in the value of a domestic currency in terms of foreign currencies is referred to as a depreciation. This means that the domestic currency has lost value compared to other currencies, making it less expensive to purchase foreign currencies. This can happen due to various factors such as changes in supply and demand, economic indicators, or market speculation. A depreciation can have both positive and negative effects on a country's economy, impacting exports, imports, inflation, and overall competitiveness in international markets.

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  • 48. 

    The most powerful tool unions have at their disposal when bargaining with management is

    • A.

      The Taft Hartley Act

    • B.

      The ability to strike

    • C.

      The secondary boycott

    • D.

      The power of pure competition

    Correct Answer
    B. The ability to strike
    Explanation
    Unions have the ability to strike, which is their most powerful tool when bargaining with management. Strikes involve workers refusing to work as a form of protest or negotiation tactic. By collectively withholding their labor, unions can disrupt business operations and put pressure on management to meet their demands. Strikes can be highly effective in forcing management to address workers' concerns and negotiate better working conditions, wages, and benefits.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 19, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 01, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Caroline1017
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