Matter And Energy Unit Test 702

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| By Omnilearnscience
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Matter And Energy Unit Test 702 - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The tiny particles that make up all matter are called

    • A.

      Genes

    • B.

      Atoms

    • C.

      Minerals

    • D.

      Cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Atoms
    Explanation
    Atoms are the smallest particles that make up all matter. They are the basic building blocks of everything around us, including genes, minerals, and cells. Genes are made up of DNA molecules, which in turn are made up of atoms. Similarly, minerals and cells are composed of various atoms arranged in specific patterns. Therefore, atoms are the correct answer as they are the fundamental units of matter.

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  • 2. 

     Which model is used by scientists to determine the properties of elements?

    • A.

      A Punnett square

    • B.

      The Periodic Table

    • C.

      A pedigree chart

    • D.

      The rock cycle

    Correct Answer
    B. The Periodic Table
    Explanation
    The Periodic Table is used by scientists to determine the properties of elements. It is a tabular arrangement of chemical elements, organized based on their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties. The table provides valuable information about the elements, such as their atomic mass, symbol, and atomic number. By referring to the Periodic Table, scientists can identify and understand the characteristics and behavior of different elements, helping them in various scientific studies and research.

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  • 3. 

    Some common substances and their chemical formulas are listed in the chart below. Which of these substances are elements?

    • A.

      Hydrochloric acid and carbonic acid

    • B.

      Carbon dioxide and water

    • C.

      Oxygen and water

    • D.

      Helium and oxygen

    Correct Answer
    D. Helium and oxygen
    Explanation
    The correct answer is helium and oxygen. Helium and oxygen are both elements, meaning they cannot be broken down into simpler substances. Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and carbonic acid (H2CO3) are compounds, not elements, as they are made up of multiple elements combined together. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) are also compounds, not elements, as they are made up of multiple elements combined together.

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  • 4. 

    Which statement is true about the charges assigned to an electron and a proton?

    • A.

      Both an electron and a proton are positive

    • B.

      An electron is positive and a proton is negative

    • C.

      An electron is negative and a proton is positive

    • D.

      Both an electron and a proton are negative

    Correct Answer
    C. An electron is negative and a proton is positive
    Explanation
    An electron has a negative charge because it carries a unit of negative electric charge, while a proton has a positive charge because it carries a unit of positive electric charge. This is based on the fundamental properties of these particles as determined by experiments and observations in the field of physics.

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  • 5. 

     The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing

    • A.

      Atomic number

    • B.

      Mass number

    • C.

      Number of isotopes

    • D.

      Number of moles

    Correct Answer
    A. Atomic number
    Explanation
    The elements on the Periodic Table are arranged in order of increasing atomic number. This is because the atomic number represents the number of protons in an atom's nucleus, which determines the element's identity. As you move across the Periodic Table from left to right, the atomic number increases by one each time, indicating the addition of one proton. This arrangement allows for a systematic organization of elements based on their properties and helps in predicting their behavior.

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  • 6. 

     The diagram below shows the geometric structure of a molecule of water (H2O).  What do the symbols    and    represent in the model?

    • A.

      Genetic material

    • B.

      Chemical bonds

    • C.

      Cells

    • D.

      Atoms

    Correct Answer
    D. Atoms
    Explanation
    The symbols in the model represent atoms. In the diagram, the symbols "H" and "O" represent the atoms of hydrogen and oxygen respectively. Atoms are the basic building blocks of matter and combine to form molecules. In the case of water, two hydrogen atoms are bonded to one oxygen atom, forming a molecule of water (H2O). Therefore, the symbols in the model represent the atoms present in the molecule of water.

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  • 7. 

     The table below shows the chemical symbols for some common elements. Based on the information in the table, which of the four substance below is a compound?   

    • A.

      CO

    • B.

      Si

    • C.

      Fe

    • D.

      He

    Correct Answer
    A. CO
    Explanation
    The chemical symbol CO represents the compound carbon monoxide. A compound is a substance made up of two or more different elements chemically bonded together. In this case, carbon (C) and oxygen (O) are bonded together to form carbon monoxide (CO). Therefore, CO is a compound.

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  • 8. 

    Which diagram best represents molecules of matter in the solid phase?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    B. 2
    Explanation
    Diagram 2 represents molecules of matter in the solid phase because the molecules are closely packed together in a regular pattern. This arrangement is characteristic of solids, where the molecules have strong attractive forces holding them in fixed positions. In contrast, the other diagrams show molecules that are more spread out and not as closely packed, which is not representative of the solid phase.

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  • 9. 

     Which substance is usually found in nature as a liquid, solid, and gas?

    • A.

      Water

    • B.

      Rock

    • C.

      Metal

    • D.

      Glass

    Correct Answer
    A. Water
    Explanation
    Water is the substance that is usually found in nature as a liquid, solid, and gas. This is because water can exist in three different states: liquid water, solid ice, and gaseous water vapor. Water can be found as a liquid in rivers, lakes, and oceans, as a solid in the form of ice and snow, and as a gas in the form of water vapor in the atmosphere. Its ability to exist in all three states is due to its unique molecular structure and the intermolecular forces between its molecules.

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  • 10. 

    A wet shirt is put on a clothesline to dry on a sunny day. The shirt dries because water molecules

    • A.

      Gain heat energy and condense

    • B.

      Gain heat energy and evaporate

    • C.

      Lose heat energy and condense

    • D.

      Lose heat energy and evaporate

    Correct Answer
    B. Gain heat energy and evaporate
    Explanation
    On a sunny day, the shirt is exposed to heat energy from the sun. This heat energy causes the water molecules in the wet shirt to gain energy. As a result, the water molecules start to evaporate, which means they transition from a liquid state to a gaseous state. This process of evaporation allows the water molecules to escape from the shirt, leading to the drying of the shirt.

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  • 11. 

     Which graph correctly shows the effect of heat energy on the motion of molecules of matter?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    C. 3
    Explanation
    Graph 3 correctly shows the effect of heat energy on the motion of molecules of matter. As heat energy is added to a substance, the molecules gain kinetic energy and move faster. This is represented by the increasing slope of the graph, indicating an increase in temperature and the motion of molecules. The other graphs do not show this relationship accurately.

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  • 12. 

    Which observation would be evidence that the water is undergoing a phase change?

    • A.

      Waves form on the top of the pond.

    • B.

      Water soaks into the wet sand.

    • C.

      The water splashes out of the swimming pool.

    • D.

      The water level in the glass of water decreases.

    Correct Answer
    D. The water level in the glass of water decreases.
    Explanation
    The water level in the glass of water decreasing is evidence that the water is undergoing a phase change. When water evaporates and changes from a liquid to a gas, the water level in a glass will decrease. This indicates that the water molecules are gaining enough energy to break free from the liquid state and become a gas.

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  • 13. 

    How is heat energy transferred within the liquid water in the pond?

    • A.

      Compound formation

    • B.

      Convection currents

    • C.

      Chemical reactions

    • D.

      Nuclear reactions

    Correct Answer
    B. Convection currents
    Explanation
    Heat energy is transferred within the liquid water in the pond through convection currents. Convection is the process of heat transfer through the movement of a fluid, in this case, the liquid water. As the water is heated, it becomes less dense and rises, while the cooler water sinks. This creates a circular motion known as convection currents, which allows the heat energy to be distributed throughout the water in the pond.

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  • 14. 

    The four diagrams below model the results of mixing atoms of different substances. Each atom is represented by a different symbol. Which diagram correctly models a chemical change?

    • A.

      1

    • B.

      2

    • C.

      3

    • D.

      4

    Correct Answer
    B. 2
    Explanation
    In diagram 2, the atoms of different substances are shown combining and rearranging to form new molecules. This indicates a chemical change, as the original substances have reacted and transformed into new substances with different properties. In contrast, the other diagrams show atoms simply being mixed together without any indication of a chemical reaction taking place. Therefore, diagram 2 correctly models a chemical change.

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  • 15. 

     The diagram below shows a boy observing a fish located at position B below the surface of the water. The boy sees the fish at position A. The apparent position of the fish is different from the actual position of the fish. What has happened to the light passing through the water to cause this difference?

    • A.

      Reflection

    • B.

      Absorption

    • C.

      Compression

    • D.

      Refraction

    Correct Answer
    D. Refraction
    Explanation
    When light passes from one medium to another, such as from air to water, it changes direction due to the change in speed. This phenomenon is called refraction. In this case, the light rays coming from the fish at position B enter the water and refract, causing them to change direction. As a result, the boy sees the fish at position A, which is the apparent position. The difference in the apparent position and the actual position of the fish is caused by refraction of light in the water.

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  • 16. 

     Hydrochloric acid is added to a beaker containing a piece of zinc. As a result, zinc chloride is formed and hydrogen gas is released. This is an example of

    • A.

      A chemical reaction

    • B.

      A physical change

    • C.

      Photosynthesis

    • D.

      Evaporation

    Correct Answer
    A. A chemical reaction
    Explanation
    When hydrochloric acid is added to a piece of zinc, a chemical reaction occurs. The hydrochloric acid reacts with the zinc to form zinc chloride and releases hydrogen gas. This is a chemical reaction because new substances are formed (zinc chloride and hydrogen gas) with different properties than the original substances (hydrochloric acid and zinc). A physical change, on the other hand, does not result in the formation of new substances. Photosynthesis and evaporation are unrelated processes and do not occur in this scenario.

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  • 17. 

    Which form of energy is needed to change water from a liquid to a gas?

    • A.

      Heat

    • B.

      Mechanical

    • C.

      Chemical

    • D.

      Sound

    Correct Answer
    A. Heat
    Explanation
    Heat is the form of energy required to change water from a liquid to a gas. When heat is applied to water, the molecules gain energy and move faster, eventually breaking the bonds that hold them together as a liquid. This process is known as evaporation, where water molecules escape from the liquid phase and become water vapor in the gas phase. Therefore, heat is necessary to provide the energy required for this phase change to occur.

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  • 18. 

     A student crumples up a sheet of paper.  Which property of the paper has changed?

    • A.

      Color

    • B.

      Mass

    • C.

      State

    • D.

      Shape

    Correct Answer
    D. Shape
    Explanation
    The correct answer is shape because when the student crumples up the sheet of paper, its physical form changes from a flat and smooth shape to a wrinkled and irregular shape. The color, mass, and state of the paper remain the same.

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  • 19. 

     Sound will not travel in a

    • A.

      Solid

    • B.

      Gas

    • C.

      Liquid

    • D.

      Vacuum

    Correct Answer
    D. Vacuum
    Explanation
    Sound requires a medium to travel through, as it is a mechanical wave. In a solid, the particles are closely packed together, allowing sound waves to easily transfer energy from one particle to another. In a liquid, the particles are also close together, although not as tightly as in a solid. In a gas, the particles are more spread out, but still close enough for sound waves to propagate. However, in a vacuum, there are no particles present to transmit the sound waves, resulting in the absence of sound.

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  • 20. 

     Which statement best describes the property of light waves illustrated in the diagram below?

    • A.

      Some materials absorb light waves

    • B.

      Some materials reflect light waves

    • C.

      Light waves are refracted by some materials

    • D.

      Light waves are emitted by some materials

    Correct Answer
    C. Light waves are refracted by some materials
    Explanation
    The diagram shows a light wave passing through a material and changing direction. This phenomenon is known as refraction, which occurs when light waves travel from one medium to another with a different refractive index. Some materials have the ability to refract light waves, causing them to bend or change direction as they pass through. Therefore, the statement "Light waves are refracted by some materials" best describes the property of light waves illustrated in the diagram.

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  • 21. 

    Which diagram represents electromagnetic energy with the shortest wavelength?

    • A.

      A

    • B.

      B

    • C.

      C

    • D.

      D

    Correct Answer
    B. B
    Explanation
    Diagram B represents electromagnetic energy with the shortest wavelength. This can be determined by comparing the wavelengths of the different diagrams. Diagram B has the highest frequency and shortest distance between the wave peaks, indicating a shorter wavelength compared to the other diagrams.

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  • 22. 

     The picture below shows a ringing bell inside a vacuum jar. As air is pumped from the vacuum jar, the sound level of the ringing bell will decrease until it can no longer be heard. This happens because air must be present in the jar in order for

    • A.

      Sound to be transferred

    • B.

      Electricity to flow through the wires

    • C.

      The rubber to seal the jar

    • D.

      The bell clanger to vibrate

    Correct Answer
    A. Sound to be transferred
    Explanation
    Sound is a mechanical wave that requires a medium, such as air, to propagate. When the air is pumped out of the vacuum jar, there is no medium for the sound waves to travel through, resulting in a decrease in sound level. Eventually, when all the air is removed, the sound waves cannot be transferred at all, leading to the bell no longer being heard.

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  • 23. 

    A common characteristic of sound waves is that they

    • A.

      Are created by vibrations

    • B.

      Travel in straight lines toward the source

    • C.

      Travel fastest through empty space

    • D.

      Move at the speed of light

    Correct Answer
    A. Are created by vibrations
    Explanation
    Sound waves are created by vibrations. When an object vibrates, it causes the air particles around it to also vibrate, creating a disturbance in the air. This disturbance then travels through the air as a sound wave. Therefore, the characteristic of sound waves being created by vibrations is a common and fundamental aspect of how sound propagates through a medium.

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  • 24. 

     When a person speaks into a telephone, sound energy is changed mostly into which form of energy?

    • A.

      Heat

    • B.

      Light

    • C.

      Electrical

    • D.

      Chemical

    Correct Answer
    C. Electrical
    Explanation
    When a person speaks into a telephone, the sound energy is converted mostly into electrical energy. This is because the sound waves produced by the person's voice cause the microphone in the telephone to vibrate. These vibrations are then converted into electrical signals that can be transmitted through the telephone wires or wireless signals.

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  • 25. 

    Chemical and physical changes are a part of everyday life. What are 2 ways that humans use chemical changes and physical changes to their advantage? (Use RAFFT or any short response technique to answer this quesiton in the space provided)

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  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Mar 11, 2013
    Quiz Created by
    Omnilearnscience
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