Marine Biology Exam Part V

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Marine Biology Exam Part V - Quiz

Almost there! We're at Rocky V! you gon' let Tommy take you down!? NO!


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    One of these is an example of coevolution:

    • A.

      A seaweed evolving better ways to catch sunlight

    • B.

      A seaweed evolving a mechanism to take in a particular nutrient

    • C.

      A limpet evolving a behavior that allows it to escape from a seastar predator

    Correct Answer
    C. A limpet evolving a behavior that allows it to escape from a seastar predator
    Explanation
    Coevolution refers to the process where two or more species reciprocally influence each other's evolution. In this case, the limpet evolving a behavior that allows it to escape from a seastar predator is an example of coevolution. As the seastar predator becomes better at catching limpets, the limpets evolve new behaviors to avoid being caught. This creates a continuous cycle of adaptation and counter-adaptation between the two species, illustrating the concept of coevolution.

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  • 2. 

    The relationship between zooxanthallae and reef corals is an example of:

    • A.

      Mutualism

    • B.

      Predation

    • C.

      True love

    Correct Answer
    A. Mutualism
    Explanation
    Zooxanthallae and reef corals have a mutualistic relationship. Zooxanthallae are photosynthetic algae that live within the tissues of reef corals. They provide the corals with nutrients and oxygen through photosynthesis, while the corals provide a protected environment and necessary nutrients for the algae's growth. This mutually beneficial interaction enhances the growth and survival of both organisms.

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  • 3. 

    Cleaning symbiosis is an example of symbiosis because the partners involved in the association:

    • A.

      Are not harmed

    • B.

      Both have coevolved into a close association

    • C.

      One is harmed while the other is not

    Correct Answer
    B. Both have coevolved into a close association
    Explanation
    Cleaning symbiosis is an example of symbiosis because both partners involved in the association have coevolved into a close association. This means that over time, both species have adapted to rely on each other for survival and have developed specific behaviors or physical characteristics that enable them to benefit from the relationship. In cleaning symbiosis, one species acts as a cleaner, removing parasites or debris from the other species, while the other species provides a source of food or protection. This mutualistic relationship demonstrates the concept of coevolution, where both partners have evolved together to maximize the benefits they receive from the association.

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  • 4. 

    The following is a synonym of autotrophs:

    • A.

      Consumer

    • B.

      Primary producer

    • C.

      Heterotroph

    Correct Answer
    B. Primary producer
    Explanation
    Autotrophs are organisms that can produce their own food using energy from sunlight or inorganic substances. They are also known as primary producers because they are the first level in the food chain, converting energy from the sun into organic matter. Consumers, on the other hand, obtain energy by consuming other organisms, while heterotrophs are organisms that cannot produce their own food and rely on consuming other organisms. Therefore, the synonym for autotrophs is "primary producer".

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  • 5. 

    The difference between food webs and food chains is that food webs:

    • A.

      Consist of only one trophic level

    • B.

      Include primary producers as well as consumers

    • C.

      Are more complex

    Correct Answer
    C. Are more complex
    Explanation
    Food webs are more complex than food chains because they consist of multiple trophic levels and include both primary producers (such as plants) and consumers (such as animals). Food chains, on the other hand, represent a linear sequence of organisms where energy and nutrients are transferred from one organism to another. In contrast, food webs depict the interconnectedness and interdependence of multiple food chains within an ecosystem, illustrating the complex interactions between different species and trophic levels.

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  • 6. 

    Consumers that feed directly on the producers are called:

    • A.

      Top predators

    • B.

      Primary consumers

    • C.

      Carnivores

    Correct Answer
    B. Primary consumers
    Explanation
    Primary consumers are consumers that directly feed on producers. They are also known as herbivores, as they primarily consume plants or algae. These organisms play a crucial role in the food chain by transferring energy from producers to higher-level consumers. Unlike top predators, primary consumers do not feed on other consumers. Carnivores, on the other hand, are consumers that primarily feed on other animals. Therefore, the correct answer is primary consumers.

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  • 7. 

    An example of a tertiary consumer:

    • A.

      A seaweed

    • B.

      A grazer

    • C.

      A carnivore

    • D.

      Your mother

    Correct Answer
    C. A carnivore
    Explanation
    A carnivore is the correct answer because it is an organism that primarily consumes other animals as a food source. Tertiary consumers are at the top of the food chain and feed on secondary consumers, which in turn feed on primary consumers. Seaweeds and grazers are not examples of tertiary consumers as they are either primary or secondary consumers in the food chain. The inclusion of "Your mother" is irrelevant and does not fit the context of the question.

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  • 8. 

    On average, what percentage of energy in a particular trophic level is passed on to the next trophic level?

    • A.

      100%

    • B.

      10%

    • C.

      40%

    Correct Answer
    B. 10%
    Explanation
    In a food chain, only about 10% of the energy from one trophic level is transferred to the next trophic level. This is due to energy loss through metabolic processes, heat production, and waste. The remaining 90% of energy is lost and not available for transfer. Therefore, the correct answer is 10%.

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  • 9. 

    The detritus in the water includes:

    • A.

      Dead organic matter

    • B.

      Waste products dissolved in water

    • C.

      All of the plankton

    Correct Answer
    A. Dead organic matter
    Explanation
    The detritus in the water refers to the dead organic matter present in it. This can include decaying plants, animals, and other organic materials. Additionally, waste products dissolved in water, such as chemicals or pollutants, can also contribute to the detritus. It is important to note that detritus does not include all of the plankton, as plankton refers to a diverse group of organisms that can be both living and dead.

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  • 10. 

    A fundamental role of decomposers:

    • A.

      Releasing nutrients for autotrophs

    • B.

      Causing diseases

    • C.

      Providing food for carnivors

    Correct Answer
    A. Releasing nutrients for autotrophs
    Explanation
    Decomposers play a fundamental role in ecosystems by breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. This process is essential for autotrophs, such as plants, to obtain the necessary nutrients for their growth and survival. Decomposers break down dead organisms and organic waste, releasing nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon back into the soil or water, where autotrophs can then absorb them through their roots or other means. Without decomposers, nutrients would remain locked in dead matter and unavailable for autotrophs, disrupting the nutrient cycle and hindering the productivity of ecosystems.

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  • 11. 

    Primary production is measured using the following units:

    • A.

      Gm Carbon/depth

    • B.

      Gm carbon/area/time

    • C.

      Gm carbon/time

    • D.

      Gm carbon/hammer/time

    Correct Answer
    B. Gm carbon/area/time
    Explanation
    Primary production refers to the amount of organic matter (carbon) that is produced by photosynthetic organisms in a given area and time. Measuring primary production is important for understanding the productivity and energy flow in ecosystems. The correct unit for measuring primary production is gm carbon/area/time, as it takes into account the amount of carbon produced per unit area and per unit time. This unit allows for comparisons of primary production between different ecosystems and helps in assessing the overall productivity of an ecosystem.

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  • 12. 

    In the dark light bottle experiment, one of the following is measured in the dark bottle:

    • A.

      Photosynthesis

    • B.

      Respiration

    • C.

      Decompostion

    Correct Answer
    B. Respiration
    Explanation
    In the dark light bottle experiment, the measurement of respiration is done in the dark bottle. Respiration is the process by which organisms convert oxygen and glucose into carbon dioxide, water, and energy. In the dark bottle, where there is no light available for photosynthesis to occur, the only process that can take place is respiration. By measuring the amount of carbon dioxide produced in the dark bottle, we can determine the rate of respiration.

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  • 13. 

    The amount of clorophyll in the water is a direct estimate of:

    • A.

      Primary production

    • B.

      Respiration

    • C.

      Oxygen utilization

    Correct Answer
    A. Primary production
    Explanation
    The amount of chlorophyll in the water is a direct estimate of primary production. Chlorophyll is a pigment found in plants and algae that is essential for photosynthesis, the process by which organisms convert sunlight into energy. Primary production refers to the synthesis of organic compounds by autotrophic organisms, such as plants and algae, through photosynthesis. Therefore, the presence and concentration of chlorophyll in the water can be used as an indicator of the amount of primary production occurring in that ecosystem.

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  • 14. 

    In the carbon cycle, plants play a fundamental role by:

    • A.

      Increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide of respiration and decreasing it as a result of photosynthesis

    • B.

      Increasing the amount of a dissolved arbon dioxide as a result of decomposition

    • C.

      Too long to write.

    • D.

      Burning out.

    Correct Answer
    A. Increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide of respiration and decreasing it as a result of photosynthesis
    Explanation
    Plants play a fundamental role in the carbon cycle by increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide through respiration. During respiration, plants release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. However, they also decrease the amount of carbon dioxide through photosynthesis. During photosynthesis, plants absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and convert it into oxygen. This process helps to regulate the levels of carbon dioxide in the environment and is crucial for maintaining a balance in the carbon cycle.

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  • 15. 

    Nitrogen fixation is performed at sea by:

    • A.

      Seaweeds

    • B.

      Cyanobacteria

    • C.

      Phytoplankton

    Correct Answer
    B. Cyanobacteria
    Explanation
    Cyanobacteria perform nitrogen fixation at sea. Nitrogen fixation is the process of converting atmospheric nitrogen into a form that can be used by living organisms. Cyanobacteria are capable of this process as they have the enzymes necessary to convert nitrogen gas into ammonia. This ammonia can then be used by other marine organisms as a nutrient source. Seaweeds and phytoplankton are not known to perform nitrogen fixation in the same way as cyanobacteria.

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  • 16. 

    Sessile organisms are part of the:

    • A.

      Benthos

    • B.

      Nekton

    • C.

      Plankton

    Correct Answer
    A. Benthos
    Explanation
    Sessile organisms are part of the benthos. The term "sessile" refers to organisms that are permanently attached to a substrate and do not move. The benthos refers to the organisms that live on or in the bottom sediments of a body of water, such as the ocean floor or a lake bed. Sessile organisms, such as barnacles or mussels, are commonly found in the benthic zone where they attach themselves to rocks, shells, or other solid surfaces. Therefore, the correct answer is benthos.

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  • 17. 

    The subtidal zone is the area:

    • A.

      Between low and high tide

    • B.

      Between the intertidal zone and the continental shelf

    • C.

      Above the higest reefs

    Correct Answer
    B. Between the intertidal zone and the continental shelf
    Explanation
    The subtidal zone refers to the area between the intertidal zone and the continental shelf. This zone is permanently submerged and is not affected by the tides. It is characterized by deeper waters and is home to a diverse range of marine life. The subtidal zone is an important ecological zone as it provides habitat for various species and supports complex ecosystems.

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  • 18. 

    Niche overlap eventually leads to :

    • A.

      Mutualism

    • B.

      Commensalism

    • C.

      Competition

    • D.

      Communism

    Correct Answer
    B. Commensalism
    Explanation
    Niche overlap refers to the situation where two or more species occupy similar ecological niches, meaning they have similar resource requirements and occupy similar habitats. This can lead to different outcomes depending on the interactions between the species. In the case of commensalism, one species benefits while the other is neither harmed nor benefited. Therefore, it is possible that niche overlap can lead to commensalism, where one species benefits from the resources available in the shared niche without affecting the other species.

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  • 19. 

    The second level (right above the base) in the marine food web with the energy base of dissolved inorganic compounds consists of:

    • A.

      Green plants

    • B.

      Herbivorous fish

    • C.

      Sponges

    Correct Answer
    B. Herbivorous fish
    Explanation
    The second level in the marine food web with the energy base of dissolved inorganic compounds consists of herbivorous fish. This means that herbivorous fish feed on green plants that obtain energy from dissolved inorganic compounds. This level is above the base level, which consists of green plants, and below the higher levels in the food web. Sponges, on the other hand, do not directly fit into this specific level as they do not rely on dissolved inorganic compounds for energy.

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  • 20. 

    The second level (right above the base) in the marine food web with the energy base of inorganic compounds consists of:

    • A.

      Green plants

    • B.

      Herbivorous fish

    • C.

      Seriously. same question

    • D.

      Don't mess up twice.

    Correct Answer
    B. Herbivorous fish
    Explanation
    The second level in the marine food web with the energy base of inorganic compounds consists of herbivorous fish. This means that these fish feed on green plants, which are the primary producers in the food web. As herbivores, they obtain their energy by consuming the plants and converting the plant biomass into their own biomass. This level is higher than the base level, which consists of green plants, as the herbivorous fish consume the plants and are then consumed by predators at higher trophic levels.

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  • 21. 

    The loss of estuaries and mangrove forests is particularly serious since these ecosystems

    • A.

      Provide nesting for birds

    • B.

      Are among the most productive of all marine ecosystems

    • C.

      Provide habitats to many species

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The loss of estuaries and mangrove forests is particularly serious because these ecosystems provide nesting sites for birds, are among the most productive of all marine ecosystems, and provide habitats for many species. This means that the loss of these ecosystems would not only impact the bird population, but also disrupt the balance of marine ecosystems and result in the loss of habitats for various species.

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  • 22. 

    Coral reefs are being directly affected by the destruction of:

    • A.

      Tropical rainforests

    • B.

      Estuaries

    • C.

      Sandy beaches

    Correct Answer
    A. Tropical rainforests
    Explanation
    Coral reefs are being directly affected by the destruction of tropical rainforests. This is because rainforests play a crucial role in maintaining the health of coral reefs. The roots of trees in rainforests help to stabilize the soil, preventing erosion and the runoff of sediment into the ocean. When rainforests are destroyed, the sediment flows into the ocean and settles on coral reefs, smothering and suffocating the coral. Additionally, rainforests are important for regulating freshwater flow into coastal areas, and the loss of this regulation can lead to increased salinity levels, which can also harm coral reefs.

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  • 23. 

    One important reason behind the destruction of mangrove forests in recent years is:

    • A.

      Shrimp farming

    • B.

      Bird hunting

    • C.

      Whale wars

    • D.

      Whale wars

    Correct Answer
    A. Shrimp farming
    Explanation
    One important reason behind the destruction of mangrove forests in recent years is shrimp farming. Shrimp farming involves clearing large areas of mangroves to create ponds for shrimp cultivation. This process not only destroys the mangrove habitat but also disrupts the delicate ecological balance of the area. The removal of mangroves leads to increased erosion, loss of biodiversity, and reduced protection against natural disasters such as storms and tsunamis. The expansion of shrimp farming has had a significant negative impact on mangrove forests worldwide.

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  • 24. 

    Pollution is best described as

    • A.

      Adding substances or energy that harm the environment

    • B.

      Changing the population of the species

    • C.

      The decrease in quality of the environment from natural events

    Correct Answer
    A. Adding substances or energy that harm the environment
    Explanation
    Pollution refers to the introduction of harmful substances or energy into the environment, which can have negative effects on the ecosystem, human health, and natural resources. This can include the release of pollutants into the air, water, or soil, as well as the emission of harmful energy sources such as radiation. By adding these harmful elements, pollution disrupts the natural balance of the environment and can cause damage to ecosystems and living organisms.

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  • 25. 

    Eurotophication is a type of pollution caused by:

    • A.

      Pesticides

    • B.

      Oil runoff

    • C.

      Fertilizers

    Correct Answer
    C. Fertilizers
    Explanation
    Eurotophication is a type of pollution caused by excessive nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, in water bodies. These nutrients come from various sources, including fertilizers. When fertilizers are applied to agricultural fields or gardens, excess nutrients can run off into nearby water bodies, leading to the growth of algae and aquatic plants. This excessive growth depletes oxygen levels in the water, causing harm to aquatic life and disrupting the ecosystem. Therefore, fertilizers contribute to eurotophication.

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  • 26. 

    People sometimes contract hepatitis from eating raw shellfish because the shellfish

    • A.

      Filter the virus from sewage-contaminated water

    • B.

      Is the normal carrier of the hepatitis virus

    • C.

      Are most likely spoiled

    Correct Answer
    A. Filter the virus from sewage-contaminated water
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "filter the virus from sewage-contaminated water." This means that the shellfish have the ability to remove or separate the virus from water that has been contaminated with sewage. As a result, when people consume raw shellfish, they may unknowingly ingest the hepatitis virus that has been filtered by the shellfish. This highlights the importance of properly cooking shellfish to eliminate any potential health risks.

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  • 27. 

    Sludge is best defined as:

    • A.

      Raw sewage

    • B.

      Semi-liquid material that results from sewage treatment

    • C.

      My cooking

    • D.

      Decay bacteria in fish

    Correct Answer
    B. Semi-liquid material that results from sewage treatment
    Explanation
    Sludge is best defined as a semi-liquid material that results from sewage treatment. This definition accurately describes the nature and origin of sludge, which is a byproduct of the sewage treatment process. Sludge is the residue that remains after the solid waste in sewage undergoes treatment, such as sedimentation and filtration. It is typically thick, viscous, and contains a mixture of organic and inorganic materials. This definition distinguishes sludge from raw sewage, which refers to untreated wastewater, as well as from unrelated concepts like cooking and decay bacteria in fish.

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  • 28. 

    Accumulation of sludge on the bottom of the ocean is responsible for:

    • A.

      Anoxic, or oxygen lacking, conditions

    • B.

      Drastic changes in the salinity

    • C.

      Drastic changes in the temperature

    Correct Answer
    A. Anoxic, or oxygen lacking, conditions
    Explanation
    The accumulation of sludge on the bottom of the ocean can lead to anoxic, or oxygen lacking, conditions. This is because the sludge can act as a barrier, preventing oxygen from reaching the water above it. As a result, oxygen-dependent organisms in that area may struggle to survive, leading to anoxic conditions. The sludge can also contribute to the release of harmful chemicals and nutrients, further exacerbating the lack of oxygen in the affected area.

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  • 29. 

    The two most important sources of oil pollution in the marine environment are:

    • A.

      Tanker and blowout accidents

    • B.

      Natural seepage and urban runoff

    • C.

      Tar balls and urban wastes

    Correct Answer
    B. Natural seepage and urban runoff
    Explanation
    The correct answer is natural seepage and urban runoff. Natural seepage refers to the release of oil from underground reservoirs through cracks or faults in the Earth's crust, which can contaminate the marine environment. Urban runoff, on the other hand, refers to the water that flows over the ground surface in urban areas, picking up pollutants such as oil from roads, parking lots, and industrial areas, and carrying them into rivers, lakes, and oceans. Both natural seepage and urban runoff are significant sources of oil pollution in the marine environment.

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  • 30. 

    A substance that is biodegradable:

    • A.

      Evaporates slowly

    • B.

      Can be broken down by bacteria

    • C.

      Sinks to the bottom

    Correct Answer
    B. Can be broken down by bacteria
    Explanation
    A substance that is biodegradable can be broken down by bacteria. This means that bacteria have the ability to decompose and break down the substance into simpler compounds, which can then be absorbed and utilized by other organisms in the environment. This process is important for the natural recycling of organic matter and helps to reduce waste and pollution.

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  • 31. 

    After oil spills, what type of marine animals are most likely to die of exposure?

    • A.

      Sea urchins

    • B.

      Sea birds

    • C.

      Migrating fish like salmon

    Correct Answer
    B. Sea birds
    Explanation
    Sea birds are most likely to die of exposure after oil spills. Oil spills can coat the feathers of sea birds, causing them to lose their waterproofing and insulation properties. As a result, the birds become susceptible to hypothermia and are unable to fly or swim effectively. Additionally, the birds may ingest the toxic oil while preening their feathers, leading to internal damage and poisoning. This makes sea birds highly vulnerable to the negative impacts of oil spills, often resulting in high mortality rates among these species.

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  • 32. 

    The most harmful oil spills in terms of damage to the environment are generally considered to be:

    • A.

      Blowout of offshore rigs

    • B.

      Sinking or collision of tankers

    • C.

      Natural seepage

    • D.

      Kevin Costner in Waterworld

    Correct Answer
    B. Sinking or collision of tankers
    Explanation
    The sinking or collision of tankers is considered the most harmful oil spills in terms of damage to the environment. When tankers sink or collide, large amounts of oil are released into the water, causing extensive pollution. This can have devastating effects on marine life, ecosystems, and coastal areas. The oil can contaminate water, coat plants and animals, and disrupt the delicate balance of the ecosystem. The cleanup process is also challenging and expensive. Therefore, the sinking or collision of tankers is widely recognized as one of the most damaging types of oil spills.

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  • 33. 

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are found most commonly in:

    • A.

      Fertilizers

    • B.

      Pesticides

    • C.

      Oil

    Correct Answer
    B. Pesticides
    Explanation
    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are commonly found in pesticides. This is because chlorinated hydrocarbons are effective in killing pests and insects. They have insecticidal properties and are used to control and eliminate pests in agriculture and other settings. Chlorinated hydrocarbons like DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) were widely used as pesticides in the past, although their use has been restricted due to environmental concerns.

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  • 34. 

    A persistent chemical is one that is:

    • A.

      Toxic

    • B.

      Non biodegradable

    • C.

      Insoluble in water

    Correct Answer
    B. Non biodegradable
    Explanation
    A persistent chemical refers to a substance that cannot be broken down or decomposed by natural processes, such as biological or chemical reactions. In this context, the correct answer is "non biodegradable" because it accurately describes a chemical that cannot be broken down by biological organisms. This means that the chemical will persist in the environment for a long time, potentially causing harm to ecosystems and organisms.

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  • 35. 

    Persistent chemicals are particularly harmful to the environment because they:

    • A.

      Are toxic to plants and other autotrophs

    • B.

      Are not soluble in water

    • C.

      Accumulate in organisms that are higher in the food chain

    Correct Answer
    C. Accumulate in organisms that are higher in the food chain
    Explanation
    Persistent chemicals are particularly harmful to the environment because they accumulate in organisms that are higher in the food chain. This means that as these chemicals are ingested by smaller organisms, they are not easily broken down or eliminated from their bodies. Instead, they build up over time, becoming more concentrated in the tissues of larger organisms that consume them. This bioaccumulation can have detrimental effects on these higher-level organisms, leading to health issues and potential population declines.

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  • 36. 

    A type of seabird that was particularly affected by pesticides such as DDT:

    • A.

      Pelicans

    • B.

      Cormorants

    • C.

      Common gulls

    Correct Answer
    A. Pelicans
    Explanation
    Pelicans were particularly affected by pesticides such as DDT. This suggests that the use of these pesticides had a negative impact on the population of pelicans. The other two options, cormorants and common gulls, are not mentioned as being particularly affected by pesticides in the given information. Therefore, pelicans are the correct answer.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following organisms are expected to show the highest concentration of DTT and other chlorinated hydrocarbons in tissues?

    • A.

      Carnivorous fish

    • B.

      Sea lions

    • C.

      Phytoplankton

    Correct Answer
    B. Sea lions
    Explanation
    Sea lions are expected to show the highest concentration of DTT and other chlorinated hydrocarbons in tissues. This is because sea lions are higher up in the food chain and consume carnivorous fish that may contain these pollutants. As these pollutants move up the food chain, they become more concentrated in the tissues of higher-level predators like sea lions. Phytoplankton, on the other hand, are at the bottom of the food chain and are less likely to accumulate high levels of these pollutants.

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  • 38. 

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons reach the marine environment by way of:

    • A.

      Fertilizers used in farms along the shore

    • B.

      River runoff

    • C.

      Thermal pollution getting into the clouds

    Correct Answer
    B. River runoff
    Explanation
    Chlorinated hydrocarbons reach the marine environment through river runoff. This means that these chemicals are washed into rivers from various sources such as industrial activities, agricultural practices, and urban runoff. Once in the rivers, they are carried downstream and eventually make their way into the marine ecosystem. This can have detrimental effects on marine organisms and ecosystems, as chlorinated hydrocarbons are often toxic and can bioaccumulate in the food chain.

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  • 39. 

    PCB's are characterized by being:

    • A.

      Persistent

    • B.

      Radioactive

    • C.

      Eutrophication

    Correct Answer
    B. Radioactive
    Explanation
    PCBs (Polychlorinated Biphenyls) are characterized as being radioactive. PCBs are a group of synthetic organic chemicals that were widely used in electrical equipment, hydraulic fluids, and other industrial applications. They are known for their persistence in the environment and their ability to bioaccumulate in organisms. Although they are not naturally radioactive, PCBs can become contaminated with radioactive isotopes through industrial processes or environmental contamination. This contamination can make PCBs radioactive and pose additional risks to human health and the environment.

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  • 40. 

    One of the following has been implicated in abnormal sexual behavior in seabirds:

    • A.

      Sewage pollution

    • B.

      Chlorinated hydrocarbons

    • C.

      Thermal pollution

    Correct Answer
    B. Chlorinated hydrocarbons
    Explanation
    Chlorinated hydrocarbons have been implicated in abnormal sexual behavior in seabirds. These chemicals are known to have endocrine-disrupting effects, which can interfere with the normal hormonal balance in animals. This disruption can lead to changes in reproductive behavior and sexual development. Sewage pollution and thermal pollution may have other negative impacts on seabirds, but they have not been specifically linked to abnormal sexual behavior in the same way that chlorinated hydrocarbons have.

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