Literature Eval Midterm Practice

70 Questions | Total Attempts: 48

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Literature Quizzes & Trivia

Compilation of quiz and softchalk questions.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    What are the ultimate goals of medicine?
    • A. 

      Improve health

    • B. 

      Improve quality of life

    • C. 

      Reduce cholesterol

    • D. 

      Improve quantity of life

    • E. 

      Save health care dollars

  • 2. 
    Evidence-based practice gives us the tools we need to know if the diagnostic tests and treatments we give actually contribute to achieving our ultimate goals.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 3. 
    Which of the following are steps in the evidence-based approach to answering questions? Choose all that apply.
    • A. 

      Applying evidence to the patient case.

    • B. 

      Defining the question

    • C. 

      Critically appraising the evidence

    • D. 

      Searching PubMed

    • E. 

      Assessing study size and power

  • 4. 
    Evidence-based practice is defined by three components. Select the three components of evidence-based practice. 
    • A. 

      Systematic searching

    • B. 

      Clinical experience

    • C. 

      The best available evidence

    • D. 

      The most current evidence

    • E. 

      Randomized controlled trials

  • 5. 
    Which of the following are components of a well-built clinical question? Choose all that apply.
    • A. 

      Patient or Problem

    • B. 

      Patient Prognosis

    • C. 

      Intervention or treatment

    • D. 

      Outcomes

    • E. 

      Comparison

  • 6. 
    Which of the following is not a low level question?
    • A. 

      Is lithium available as an oral solution?

    • B. 

      What are the storage requirements for dabigatran?

    • C. 

      Does the evidence support the use of montelukast for migraine prevention?

    • D. 

      What are the FDA-approved indications for gabapentin?

  • 7. 
    Setting filters on a search increases the number of results retrieved.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 8. 
    Systematic searching is important because it... (choose all that apply):
    • A. 

      Ensures that we look for the right kind of information to answer the question.

    • B. 

      Allows us to cherry pick evidence.

    • C. 

      Helps us know when to stop searching.

    • D. 

      Improves our efficiency in identifying evidence.

  • 9. 
    You are conducting a systematic search in PubMed to identify guidelines for the treatment of prostate cancer.  Which of the following filters would NOT be appropriate.
    • A. 

      Article type: Randomized Controlled Trial

    • B. 

      Language: English

    • C. 

      Species: Human

    • D. 

      Article Type: Practice Guideline

  • 10. 
    You are writing a review article on HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and need to gather clinical trials evaluating their efficacy.  You are particularly interested in determining which, if any, of the statins have a mortality benefit in secondary prevention.  After conducting your search and setting your filters you read through the article abstracts and choose only those studies which assessed patient mortality as an outcome.  Thus, studies looking at mortality would meet your ___________ criteria.
    • A. 

      Inclusion

    • B. 

      Exclusion

    • C. 

      Evidence

    • D. 

      Cherry-picking

  • 11. 
    Which of the following outcomes would be considered patient-oriented evidence?
    • A. 

      HbA1c

    • B. 

      Kidney failure

    • C. 

      Hamilton D Rating Scale

    • D. 

      LDL levels

    • E. 

      Stroke

  • 12. 
    Which of the following is NOT an experimental study design?
    • A. 

      Crossover Study

    • B. 

      Cohort Study

    • C. 

      Randomized Controlled Trial

  • 13. 
    For most clinical questions regarding drug therapies, the most relevant research design is usually a:
    • A. 

      Randomized controlled trial

    • B. 

      Population Study

    • C. 

      Cohort study

    • D. 

      Case study

  • 14. 
    Which of the following is included in "the big three" validity assessments?
    • A. 

      Was patient allocation adequately concealed?

    • B. 

      Were groups similar at baseline?

    • C. 

      Was a per-protocol or intention to treat analysis used?

    • D. 

      Were patients in each group treated similarly?

  • 15. 
    For most clinical questions regarding diagnosis, the most relevant research design is a:
    • A. 

      Prospective, blinded comparison to gold standard

    • B. 

      Cohort Study

    • C. 

      Case Control

    • D. 

      Randomized controlled trial

  • 16. 
    The preferred study type for a prognosis is:
    • A. 

      Cohort study

    • B. 

      Randomized controlled trial

    • C. 

      Meta analysis

    • D. 

      Public survey

  • 17. 
    Randomized control trials are the best source when searching for information on harm and/or etiology.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    Which of the following is a threat to validity? Choose all that apply.
    • A. 

      Selection bias

    • B. 

      Crossover study design

    • C. 

      Financial conflict of interest

    • D. 

      Confounding

    • E. 

      Chance

  • 19. 
    In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial, researchers were evaluating patients to determine the effect of Zombrex on mortality compared to placebo. At baseline, 45% of the patients in the treatment group were considered obese. In the placebo group, 25% were considered to be obese. Based on this information, this study is at risk for which threat to validity?
    • A. 

      Confounding

    • B. 

      Measurement bias

    • C. 

      Expectation bias

    • D. 

      Analysis bias

  • 20. 
    Which of the following is an appropriate method for random allocation?
    • A. 

      Flipping a coin

    • B. 

      Drawing straws

    • C. 

      Assignment based on eye color

    • D. 

      Drawing numbers from a hat

  • 21. 
    Which of the following is an adequate method for concealing allocation?
    • A. 

      Third party random sequence assignment

    • B. 

      Random allocation

    • C. 

      Using a matching placebo treatment

    • D. 

      Flipping a coin

  • 22. 
    Studies with larger sample populations are more likely to have good external validity or generalizability.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 23. 
    Which of the following are examples of mid-level questions? (Select all that apply):
    • A. 

      Adverse drug reaction

    • B. 

      Dosing

    • C. 

      Indications

    • D. 

      Formulations

    • E. 

      Drug interactions

    • F. 

      Tablet ID

    • G. 

      Pharmacology

    • H. 

      Storage

    • I. 

      Pregnancy and lactation

    • J. 

      Compatibility

    • K. 

      Compounding

    • L. 

      Natural products

  • 24. 
    What are the important questions to ask when assessing relevance?
    • A. 

      What is the study type or research design?

    • B. 

      Is the study capable of adequately addressing the question?

    • C. 

      What is the therapy or intervention being studied? Is it feasible?

    • D. 

      What is the primary outcome of the study? Is it disease oriented or patient oriented?

    • E. 

      Was allocation adequately concealed?

    • F. 

      Is the outcome measure apporpriate to adequately answer the question?

    • G. 

      Were patients in the study randomly allocated?

  • 25. 
    Review the following abstract and select the primary outcome below:  Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency has been proposed to be causal in 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin)-induced myopathies. However, the clinical benefit of supplementation is unproved. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of CoQ10 supplementation on myalgias presumed to be caused by statins. Patients currently receiving a statin who developed new-onset myalgias in ≥ 2 extremities within 60 days of initiation or a dosage increase were eligible. Patients continued statin therapy and were randomized using a matched design to either CoQ10 60 mg twice daily or matching placebo. Double-blind treatment continued for 3 months, and patients completed a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire at baseline and at each monthly visit. The primary end point was the comparison of the VAS score at 1 month. A total of 76 patients were enrolled (40 in the CoQ10 arm and 36 in the placebo arm). The mean VAS score was 6 cm at baseline in both groups. At 1 month, no difference was seen in the mean VAS score between the 2 groups (3.9 cm in the CoQ10 group and 4 cm in the placebo group; p = 0.97). However, 5 patients in the CoQ10 group and 3 in the placebo group discontinued therapy during the first month because of myalgias. The baseline median score on the Sensory Pain Rating Index subscale was 10 in the CoQ10 group and 11.5 in the placebo group. At 1 month, these scores had decreased to 6.5 and 7.5, respectively, with no statistically significant difference (p = 0.34). In conclusion, CoQ10 did not produce a greater response than placebo in the treatment of presumed statin-induced myalgias.What was the primary outcome?
    • A. 

      VAS Score at 1 month

    • B. 

      McGill Pain Questionaire

    • C. 

      Sensory Pain Rating Index at baseline

    • D. 

      Statin-induced myalgia

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