Liquid Penetrant

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Liquid Quizzes & Trivia

Liquid penentrant theory and applications


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    • A. 

      Viscosity

    • B. 

      Surface tension

    • C. 

      Wetting ability

    • D. 

      No one single property determines if a material will or will not be a good penetrant

  • 2. 
    The speed with which a penetrant penetrates a surface flaw is influenced to the greatestextent by which of the following properties?
    • A. 

      Density

    • B. 

      Surface tension and wetting ability

    • C. 

      Viscosity

    • D. 

      Relative weight

  • 3. 
    • A. 

      It takes about 5 minutes for the bulb to warm up to its full output when first turned on

    • B. 

      The lamp may go out if the line voltage drops below 90 volts

    • C. 

      Line voltage variations above 120 volts will have little or no effect on the bulb

    • D. 

      If for any reasons the arc is extinguished, the bulb will not immediately respond if the lamp is turned on right after it has been turned off.

  • 4. 
    • A. 

      The method can find all types of discontinuties

    • B. 

      The method is simple in principle and relatively easy to understand.

    • C. 

      The method is essentially simple in application.

    • D. 

      There are few limitations on the size and shape of the article that can be treated by this method.

  • 5. 
    • A. 

      The penetrant test method is less flexible than eddy current test method

    • B. 

      The penetrant test method is less reliable than the magnetic particle method for finding surface defects in ferromagnetic materials.

    • C. 

      The penetrant test method will not detect fatigue cracks.

    • D. 

      The penetrant test method is more reliable tha radioraphic testing when attempting to detect minute surface discontinuities.

  • 6. 
    Which of the following types of discontinuities will not be detected by the liquid penetrant test method?
    • A. 

      Surface laminations

    • B. 

      Internal forging burst

    • C. 

      Surface cracks

    • D. 

      Surface laps

  • 7. 
    Which of the following discontinuities could be classified as a primary processing discontinuity often found in cast material?
    • A. 

      Fatigue crack

    • B. 

      Stress-corrosion

    • C. 

      Porosity

    • D. 

      Lack of penetration

  • 8. 
    Which of the following discontinuities could be classified as a finishing processing discontinuity?
    • A. 

      Fatigue crack

    • B. 

      Stress-corrosion

    • C. 

      Lamination

    • D. 

      Heat treat crack

  • 9. 
    Which of the following discontinuities could be classified as a service induced discontinuity?
    • A. 

      Fatigue crack

    • B. 

      Porosity

    • C. 

      Machine tear

    • D. 

      Lap

  • 10. 
    Which of the test part characteristics listed below are normally considered before the specific liquid penetrant test method is selected?
    • A. 

      The kind and size of discontinuities most likely to occur

    • B. 

      The intended application for the part

    • C. 

      The surface finish of the part

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 11. 
    • A. 

      The acid in the penetrant may cause severe corrosion

    • B. 

      The alkaline content of wet developer and most emulsifiers could result in surface pitting, particularly in moist atomspheres.

    • C. 

      The toxic residue from the test will severly inhibit the application of paint on aluminum alloys

    • D. 

      A chemical reaction between the penetrant and aluminum could cause a fire because of internal combustion.

  • 12. 
    Which of the following are typical of foreign matter which might block the opening of discontinuities if the surface of the test specimen is not properly cleaned?
    • A. 

      Paint

    • B. 

      Scale

    • C. 

      Core and mold material

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 13. 
    Which of the following is not a recommended method of removing grease from a surface of a partto be penetrant tested?
    • A. 

      Vapor degreasing

    • B. 

      Aklaline cleaner

    • C. 

      Cleaning with solvent type material

    • D. 

      Hot water rinse

  • 14. 
    The penetrant indication of a cold shut on the surface of a casting will be:
    • A. 

      A dotted or smooth continuous line

    • B. 

      A cluster of small indications

    • C. 

      A rough deep indication

    • D. 

      A large bulbous indication

  • 15. 
    The penetrant indications of a forging lap will normally be :
    • A. 

      A round or nearly round indication

    • B. 

      A cluster of indications

    • C. 

      A continuous line

    • D. 

      A dotted line

  • 16. 
    When conducting a penetrant test , spherical indications on the surface of a part could be indicative of:
    • A. 

      Fatigue cracks

    • B. 

      Porosity

    • C. 

      Weld laps

    • D. 

      Hot tears

  • 17. 
    Which of  the following is not a form in which penetrant developer is commonly available?
    • A. 

      Dry developer

    • B. 

      Non Aqueous developer

    • C. 

      Wet developer

    • D. 

      High viscosity developer

  • 18. 
    Which of the following is a possible cause for false penetrant indications?
    • A. 

      Excessive washing

    • B. 

      Inadequate application of developer

    • C. 

      Penetrant or part to cold during penetration time

    • D. 

      Lint or dirt

  • 19. 
    Pentrant residues may become entrapped under splines, fasteners, rivets, etc. Which of the following is the most likely reaction caused by such a residue.
    • A. 

      Corrosion caused by the moisture attracted by such residues

    • B. 

      Paint stripping

    • C. 

      Fatigue cracking

    • D. 

      Lattiice structure breakdown

  • 20. 
    Developer assists in the detection of penetrants retained in the discontinunities by aidingthe
    • A. 

      Post cleaning process

    • B. 

      Emulsification process

    • C. 

      Bleed-out process

    • D. 

      Drying process

  • 21. 
    Developer assists in the detection of the visible dye penetrant test method by:
    • A. 

      Providing a clean surface

    • B. 

      Providing a contrasting background

    • C. 

      Providing a dry surface

    • D. 

      Emulsifying the penetrant bleed-out

  • 22. 
    • A. 

      Reapplying a coat of emulsifier

    • B. 

      Increasing the water pressure used during the washing operation

    • C. 

      Completely reprocessing the part from surface preparation on and by using a longer emulsifier time.

    • D. 

      Dipping the part in boiling water

  • 23. 
    Which of the following methods for applying non-aqueous developer is normally consideredmost effective?
    • A. 

      Spraying

    • B. 

      Swabbing

    • C. 

      Brushing

    • D. 

      Dipping

  • 24. 
    • A. 

      Vapor degreasing

    • B. 

      Detergent cleaning

    • C. 

      Steam cleaning

    • D. 

      Solvent wiping

  • 25. 
    Flourescent materials used in flourescent penetrants respond most actively to radiant energy, of a wave length of approximately:
    • A. 

      7,000 Angstroms

    • B. 

      250 KV

    • C. 

      3,650 Angstroms

    • D. 

      100 foot candles

  • 26. 
    • A. 

      Squirting solvent over the surface with no more than 40 psi pressure

    • B. 

      Wiping with a soaking wet cloth, then wiping with a dry cloth

    • C. 

      Wiping with a solvent dampened cloth, then wiping with dry cloths

    • D. 

      Wiping with dry paper wipes, then wiping with a solvent dampened cloth, and finally wiping with dry colth

  • 27. 
    Emulsifier time:
    • A. 

      Is important but not normally critical

    • B. 

      The time needed to rinse the emulsifier and excess penetrant from the surface

    • C. 

      Is extremely important and will greatly affect test results.

    • D. 

      Should be as long as economically practical

  • 28. 
    Prior to penetrant testing ot a previously machined soft metal part, which of the the cleaning methods listed below would be best  remove any smeared metal that could mask discontinuities?
    • A. 

      Etching

    • B. 

      Shot peening

    • C. 

      Alkaline cleaning

    • D. 

      Water cleaning with detergents

  • 29. 
    • A. 

      The drying process is used to assure that all excess penetrant will evaporate.

    • B. 

      The drying process assures the uniform drying of dry developer applied over a wet emulsifier

    • C. 

      The drying process reduces penetration time

    • D. 

      After the application of a wet developer , the drying time aids in securing a uniform developer coating

  • 30. 
    Which of the following is the best reason why excessive drying of a part is not desired?
    • A. 

      The extra time required is wasted

    • B. 

      The developer may lose its blotting ability

    • C. 

      A reduction in resolution may result

    • D. 

      The excess developer may be difficult to remove

  • 31. 
    • A. 

      The brushing action mixes the emulsifier with the penetrant prematurely and irregularly, making accurate control of the emulsification time impossible

    • B. 

      Brushing does not always completely coat the part, thereby leaving a portion of the part difficult to wash

    • C. 

      Brushing in itself is not harnful,but many types of brush materials combine with the emulsifier agents resulting in penetrant and part contamination.

    • D. 

      Brushing results in a streaking appearance during inspection

  • 32. 
    Developing time depends on the:
    • A. 

      Type of penetrant used

    • B. 

      Type of developer used and type of discontinuity to be detected

    • C. 

      Temperature of the material being used

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 33. 
    When using a flourescent, post-emulsifiable penetrant, the length of time the emulsifier is allowed to remain on the part is critical when detecting shallow scratch like discontintities. the best length of time should be: 
    • A. 

      10 seconds

    • B. 

      5 seconds

    • C. 

      2 to 3 seconds

    • D. 

      Determined by experimentation

  • 34. 
    • A. 

      The contaminant may be of a composition that attacks the penetrant and reduces the fluorescent or color of the penetrant

    • B. 

      The contaminants may be of such a nature that they reduce or even prevent capillary action by the penetrant

    • C. 

      The contaminant may retain the penetrant and thus increase the sensitivity of the inspection.

    • D. 

      The contaminant may completely fill the crack and thus prevent the entry of penetrant

  • 35. 
    • A. 

      Can only be used on aluminum test specimens

    • B. 

      Need not be removed from the surfaces prior to development

    • C. 

      Have a soapy base

    • D. 

      Do not need the application of an emulsifier before rinsing

  • 36. 
    • A. 

      More rapidly drive the penetrant into deep, tight cracks

    • B. 

      React with the surface penetrant to make the penetrant water-washable

    • C. 

      Add fluorescent dye or pigment to the penetrant

    • D. 

      Provide a coating to which dry powder developer can adhere

  • 37. 
    • A. 

      Mix the emulsifier with the excess surface penetrant only

    • B. 

      Mix the emulsifier with all the penetrant on the the surface and in discontinuities

    • C. 

      Mix the emulsifier with penetrant in the discontinuities

    • D. 

      Allow the emulsifier to dry out to a white powder

  • 38. 
    Which of the following is not a good practice when penetrant testing?
    • A. 

      Applying emulsifier by dipping the part in emulsifier

    • B. 

      Appling developer by sprayingthe part with developer

    • C. 

      Removal of water-washable penetrant with a water spray

    • D. 

      Applying emulsifier with a brush

  • 39. 
    A commonly used method of checking on the overall performance of a penetrant material system is by:
    • A. 

      Determining the viscosity of the penetrant

    • B. 

      Measuring the wettability of the penetrant

    • C. 

      Comparing two sections of artifically cracked specimens

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 40. 
    • A. 

      Water-washable penetrants contain an emulsifier, while non waterwashable penetrants do not

    • B. 

      The viscosity of the two penetrants is different

    • C. 

      The color of the two penetrants is different

    • D. 

      Non water-washable penetrants are more easily removed than are water washable penetrants.

  • 41. 
    Which of the following characteristics are normally considered when selecting the type of penetrant to be used in a penetrant test?
    • A. 

      Removal characteristics of the penetrant

    • B. 

      The flash point of the penetrant

    • C. 

      The cost of the penetrant

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 42. 
    When penetrant testing titanium alloys, the materials used in the penetrant system shouldnot contain any constituent quantities of:
    • A. 

      Carbon or oil

    • B. 

      Halogenated solvents

    • C. 

      Emulsifier or oil

    • D. 

      Fluorescent agent

  • 43. 
    Which of the following discontinuities might be found in sand castings?
    • A. 

      In complete penetration

    • B. 

      Undercut

    • C. 

      Pipe

    • D. 

      Shrinkage

  • 44. 
    Which of the following discontinuities might be found in a welded fabrication?
    • A. 

      Shrinkage

    • B. 

      Lack of fusion

    • C. 

      Seams

    • D. 

      Laps

  • 45. 
    Which of the following discontinuities might be found in rolled bar stock?
    • A. 

      Shrinkage

    • B. 

      Bleedout

    • C. 

      Laps

    • D. 

      Undercut

  • 46. 
    Which of the following discontinuities might be found in rolled plate?
    • A. 

      Laminations

    • B. 

      Shrinkage

    • C. 

      Lack of fusion

    • D. 

      Undercut

  • 47. 
    Which of the following contaminants could affect the sensitivity of a penetrant?
    • A. 

      Acid

    • B. 

      Water

    • C. 

      Salts

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 48. 
    Which of the following is a discontinuitiy that might be found in a forging?
    • A. 

      Shrinkage cracks

    • B. 

      Laps

    • C. 

      Cold shuts

    • D. 

      Insufficient penetration

  • 49. 
    Which of the following is a discontinuitity that might be found in rolled bar stock?
    • A. 

      Blow holes

    • B. 

      Shrinkage laps

    • C. 

      Cracks and seams

    • D. 

      Insufficient penetration

  • 50. 
    Which of the following is a discontinuity that might be found in rolled plate stock?
    • A. 

      Shrinkage cracks

    • B. 

      Inclusions

    • C. 

      Forging laps

    • D. 

      Blow holes

  • 51. 
    • A. 

      The inspection can be carried out in a well lighted area

    • B. 

      Small indications are more easily seen

    • C. 

      They ccan be used where cotact with water is objectionable

    • D. 

      Less sensitive to contamin ation of discontinuities

  • 52. 
    Which of the following is an advantage of visible dye over fluorescent penetrants?
    • A. 

      Small indications are easily seen

    • B. 

      They can be used on anodized and chomate surfaces

    • C. 

      They make less background on rough surfaces

    • D. 

      No special lighting is required

  • 53. 
    Which of the following is an advantage of solvent wipe methods over water-wasing?
    • A. 

      No special lighting is necessary during inspection

    • B. 

      They provide a quicker penetration of small openings

    • C. 

      Small indications are more easily seen

    • D. 

      They can easily be carried out in the field and remote areas

  • 54. 
    The tendency of a liquid penetrant to enter a discontinuity is primarily related to:
    • A. 

      The viscosity of the penetrant

    • B. 

      The capillary forces

    • C. 

      The chemical inertness of the penetrant

    • D. 

      The specific gravity of the penetrant

  • 55. 
    • A. 

      To wash the penetrant out of discontinuities

    • B. 

      As a aid in washing off the surface of parts when using either the water or oil soluble penetrants

    • C. 

      To emulsify the oil-soluble penetrant, thereby making it water washable

    • D. 

      To preclean parts before applying penetrant

  • 56. 
    The prime purpose of the blacklight for fluorescent penetrant inspection is:
    • A. 

      To magnify indications

    • B. 

      To make the indications visible

    • C. 

      To develop indications

    • D. 

      To speed up inspections

  • 57. 
    • A. 

      So that inspection can be done without drying parts

    • B. 

      To speed the bleeding of penetrant out of defects

    • C. 

      To check the effectiveness of the wash cycle

    • D. 

      To determine if parts have been covered with penetrant

  • 58. 
    Developing powder should always  be:
    • A. 

      Highly fluorescent

    • B. 

      Applied wet

    • C. 

      Colorless

    • D. 

      Evenly applied

  • 59. 
    • A. 

      Poor washing

    • B. 

      Insufficient emulsifying time(post emulsification method)

    • C. 

      Porous material and coating

    • D. 

      Improper cleaning before penetrant cycle

    • E. 

      All of the above

  • 60. 
    Rejection or acceptance of parts should be based on which of the following , in absence of written acceptance criteria?
    • A. 

      The inspector's education

    • B. 

      The design of the part and its intended application

    • C. 

      The appropriate penetrant standard

    • D. 

      The selection of the penetrant

  • 61. 
    When improper processing causes inspection difficulties, what should the inspector do?
    • A. 

      Swab parts with a solvent

    • B. 

      Use a correct bleed-back procedure

    • C. 

      Erase non-relevant fluorescence

    • D. 

      Reprocess the part

  • 62. 
    Which of the following is most apt to render the post-emulsification test ineffective?
    • A. 

      Too long of a pentrant time

    • B. 

      Too long of a developing time

    • C. 

      Too long of an emulsifying time

    • D. 

      None of the above

  • 63. 
    Dry developer should be applied :
    • A. 

      So that a heavy coat of developer covers all surfaces

    • B. 

      So that a light dusting covers all surfaces to be inspected

    • C. 

      With a dry paint brush

    • D. 

      By dipping

  • 64. 
    Which factor would apply in determining the dwell time required for the penetrant to be effective?
    • A. 

      Type of discontinuity sought

    • B. 

      Shape of part

    • C. 

      Size of part

    • D. 

      Surface roughness

  • 65. 
    The part is an aluminum forging. desription-the indication is sharpe, half-moon shape, not deep, and is called a :
    • A. 

      Lap

    • B. 

      Center line porosity

    • C. 

      Heat treat crack

    • D. 

      False indication

  • 66. 
    The part is a 1/2 inch thick aluminum plate with a veeweld. desription- the indication appears in an area that is somewhat dish shaped. the indication extends out from the center in a spoke formation. the indication is:
    • A. 

      Shrinkage

    • B. 

      Non-relevant

    • C. 

      A quench crack

    • D. 

      A crater crack

  • 67. 
    • A. 

      Dross

    • B. 

      Hot tear

    • C. 

      Microshrinkage

    • D. 

      Porosity

  • 68. 
    Shrinkage cracks are usually found in what areas of a casting?
    • A. 

      Thin sections only

    • B. 

      Heavy sections only

    • C. 

      Abrupt changes in thickness

    • D. 

      No longer a problem

  • 69. 
    Which of the following is a discontinuity that might be found in forging?
    • A. 

      Shrinkage crack

    • B. 

      Lap

    • C. 

      Hot tear

    • D. 

      Lamination

  • 70. 
    Which of the following is a discontinuity that might be found in rolled bar stock?
    • A. 

      Blow hole

    • B. 

      Shrinkage lap

    • C. 

      Crack or seam

    • D. 

      Laco of penetration

  • 71. 
    The term " non-relevant indication" is used to describe certain types of penetrant testing indications. which of the following would be a typical non-relevant indication?
    • A. 

      Indications due to part geometry or part design configurations

    • B. 

      Nonmagnetic indications

    • C. 

      Multiple indications

    • D. 

      Non-linear indications

  • 72. 
    • A. 

      The discontinuities maybe closed

    • B. 

      Oil contaminants might be sealed in the discontinuities

    • C. 

      The sand used in the sandblasting operation may be forced into the discontinuity

    • D. 

      The sandblasting operation may introduce discontinuities into the part

  • 73. 
    A continuous line indication can be caused by which of the following discontinuities?
    • A. 

      Porosity

    • B. 

      Slag inclusions

    • C. 

      Pitting

    • D. 

      Cracks

  • 74. 
    Which of the following could be a source of false indications on a test specimen?
    • A. 

      Pentrant on the test table

    • B. 

      Penetrant on the hands of the inspector

    • C. 

      Contamination of dry or wet developer with penetrant

    • D. 

      All of the above

  • 75. 
    A crack type discontinuity will generlly appear as:
    • A. 

      A round indication

    • B. 

      A continuous line, either straight or jagged

    • C. 

      A straight, single solid line

    • D. 

      Random round or elongated holes

  • 76. 
    Which of the following discontinuities would be impossible to detect using a liquid penetrant test?
    • A. 

      Forging lap

    • B. 

      Crater crack

    • C. 

      Grinding cracks

    • D. 

      Non-metallic internal inclusions