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Dye penetrant inspection, also called liquid penetrate inspection or penetrant testing, is a widely applied and low-cost inspection method used to check surface-breaking defects in all non-porous materials.

• 1.

### Which of the following physical properties, more than any other, determines what makesa material a good penetrant?

• A.

Viscosity

• B.

Surface tension

• C.

Wetting ability

• D.

No one single property determines if a material will or will not be a good penetrant

D. No one single property determines if a material will or will not be a good penetrant
• 2.

### The speed with which a penetrant penetrates a surface flaw is influenced to the greatestextent by which of the following properties?

• A.

Density

• B.

Surface tension and wetting ability

• C.

Viscosity

• D.

Relative weight

C. Viscosity
Explanation
The speed with which a penetrant penetrates a surface flaw is influenced to the greatest extent by its viscosity. Viscosity refers to the thickness or resistance to flow of a liquid. A low viscosity penetrant will flow more easily and quickly into a surface flaw, while a high viscosity penetrant will flow more slowly. Therefore, the viscosity of the penetrant is the most important property that affects the speed of penetration.

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• 3.

### Which of the statements below concerning the operation of the blacklight bulds of the mercuryarc type is not true?

• A.

It takes about 5 minutes for the bulb to warm up to its full output when first turned on

• B.

The lamp may go out if the line voltage drops below 90 volts

• C.

Line voltage variations above 120 volts will have little or no effect on the bulb

• D.

If for any reasons the arc is extinguished, the bulb will not immediately respond if the lamp is turned on right after it has been turned off.

C. Line voltage variations above 120 volts will have little or no effect on the bulb
Explanation
Line voltage variations above 120 volts will have little or no effect on the bulb. The correct answer is that this statement is not true. Line voltage variations above 120 volts can have a significant effect on the operation of blacklight bulbs of the mercury arc type. Higher voltage can cause the bulb to overheat and may lead to a shorter lifespan or even the bulb burning out. Therefore, this statement is incorrect as it suggests that high voltage variations have little impact on the bulb.

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• 4.

### Which of the items listed below is NOT an advantage of the liquid penetrant test method?

• A.

The method can find all types of discontinuties

• B.

The method is simple in principle and relatively easy to understand.

• C.

The method is essentially simple in application.

• D.

There are few limitations on the size and shape of the article that can be treated by this method.

A. The method can find all types of discontinuties
Explanation
The given answer is correct because the liquid penetrant test method is not capable of finding all types of discontinuities. While it is effective for detecting surface-breaking defects, it may not be as effective for detecting subsurface or internal defects. Therefore, this method has limitations in its ability to find all types of discontinuities.

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• 5.

### Which of the statements below apply to the liquid penetrant method of testing?

• A.

The penetrant test method is less flexible than eddy current test method

• B.

The penetrant test method is less reliable than the magnetic particle method for finding surface defects in ferromagnetic materials.

• C.

The penetrant test method will not detect fatigue cracks.

• D.

The penetrant test method is more reliable tha radioraphic testing when attempting to detect minute surface discontinuities.

D. The penetrant test method is more reliable tha radioraphic testing when attempting to detect minute surface discontinuities.
Explanation
The given correct answer states that the penetrant test method is more reliable than radiographic testing when attempting to detect minute surface discontinuities. This means that when it comes to finding small surface defects, the penetrant test method is considered to be more dependable compared to radiographic testing.

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• 6.

### Which of the following types of discontinuities will not be detected by the liquid penetrant test method?

• A.

Surface laminations

• B.

Internal forging burst

• C.

Surface cracks

• D.

Surface laps

B. Internal forging burst
Explanation
The liquid penetrant test method is used to detect surface discontinuities in materials. It involves applying a liquid penetrant to the surface of the material, which seeps into any cracks or discontinuities. However, the liquid penetrant test method is not effective in detecting internal discontinuities, such as an internal forging burst. This is because the liquid penetrant cannot reach the internal areas of the material. Therefore, the internal forging burst will not be detected by the liquid penetrant test method.

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• 7.

### Which of the following discontinuities could be classified as a primary processing discontinuity often found in cast material?

• A.

Fatigue crack

• B.

Stress-corrosion

• C.

Porosity

• D.

Lack of penetration

C. Porosity
Explanation
Porosity is a type of discontinuity often found in cast material. It refers to the presence of voids or gas pockets within the material, which can weaken its structural integrity. Porosity can occur during the casting process when gases get trapped in the molten metal and solidify, resulting in the formation of voids. This type of discontinuity is considered a primary processing discontinuity because it is directly related to the manufacturing process. In contrast, fatigue cracks, stress-corrosion, and lack of penetration are discontinuities that can occur after the material has been manufactured and are not specific to the casting process.

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• 8.

### Which of the following discontinuities could be classified as a finishing processing discontinuity?

• A.

Fatigue crack

• B.

Stress-corrosion

• C.

Lamination

• D.

Heat treat crack

D. Heat treat crack
Explanation
A heat treat crack is a type of finishing processing discontinuity. Heat treating involves subjecting a material to high temperatures to alter its properties. If the heat treatment process is not done properly or if there are defects in the material, cracks can form. These cracks are considered finishing processing discontinuities because they occur during the final stage of processing, after all other manufacturing processes have been completed.

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• 9.

### Which of the following discontinuities could be classified as a service induced discontinuity?

• A.

Fatigue crack

• B.

Porosity

• C.

Machine tear

• D.

Lap

A. Fatigue crack
Explanation
A fatigue crack could be classified as a service induced discontinuity because it is caused by repeated loading and unloading of a material, leading to the formation and propagation of cracks over time. This type of crack typically occurs in materials subjected to cyclic stress or fatigue, such as in service components or structures. Therefore, a fatigue crack can be considered a discontinuity that is induced by the service conditions and usage of the material.

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• 10.

### Which of the test part characteristics listed below are normally considered before the specific liquid penetrant test method is selected?

• A.

The kind and size of discontinuities most likely to occur

• B.

The intended application for the part

• C.

The surface finish of the part

• D.

All of the above

D. All of the above
Explanation
Before selecting a specific liquid penetrant test method, it is important to consider the kind and size of discontinuities most likely to occur, the intended application for the part, and the surface finish of the part. These factors play a crucial role in determining the appropriate test method as different methods may be more suitable for detecting specific types of discontinuities or may be better suited for parts with certain surface finishes. Therefore, considering all of these characteristics is necessary for selecting the most effective liquid penetrant test method.

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• 11.

### Aluminum alloy test specimens that have tested by liquid penetrant method should bethoroughly cleaned after testing because:

• A.

The acid in the penetrant may cause severe corrosion

• B.

The alkaline content of wet developer and most emulsifiers could result in surface pitting, particularly in moist atomspheres.

• C.

The toxic residue from the test will severly inhibit the application of paint on aluminum alloys

• D.

A chemical reaction between the penetrant and aluminum could cause a fire because of internal combustion.

B. The alkaline content of wet developer and most emulsifiers could result in surface pitting, particularly in moist atomspheres.
Explanation
After testing aluminum alloy test specimens using the liquid penetrant method, thorough cleaning is necessary because the alkaline content present in the wet developer and most emulsifiers can lead to surface pitting. This is especially true in moist atmospheres.

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• 12.

### Which of the following are typical of foreign matter which might block the opening of discontinuities if the surface of the test specimen is not properly cleaned?

• A.

Paint

• B.

Scale

• C.

Core and mold material

• D.

All of the above

D. All of the above
Explanation
Foreign matter such as paint, scale, and core and mold material can all potentially block the opening of discontinuities if the surface of the test specimen is not properly cleaned. These substances can adhere to the surface and fill in any cracks or gaps, making it difficult to detect any defects or discontinuities during testing. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the surface is thoroughly cleaned before conducting any tests to ensure accurate results.

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• 13.

### Which of the following is not a recommended method of removing grease from a surface of a partto be penetrant tested?

• A.

Vapor degreasing

• B.

Aklaline cleaner

• C.

Cleaning with solvent type material

• D.

Hot water rinse

D. Hot water rinse
Explanation
Hot water rinse is not a recommended method of removing grease from a surface of a part to be penetrant tested because hot water alone is not effective in removing grease. Grease is not soluble in water, especially at high temperatures, so a hot water rinse would not effectively remove the grease from the surface. Instead, methods like vapor degreasing, alkaline cleaner, or cleaning with solvent type material are recommended as they are more effective in removing grease from the surface of the part.

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• 14.

### The penetrant indication of a cold shut on the surface of a casting will be:

• A.

A dotted or smooth continuous line

• B.

A cluster of small indications

• C.

A rough deep indication

• D.

A large bulbous indication

A. A dotted or smooth continuous line
Explanation
A cold shut is a type of casting defect that occurs when two streams of molten metal do not properly fuse together during the casting process. This can result in a visible line on the surface of the casting. A dotted or smooth continuous line is the correct answer because it accurately describes the appearance of a cold shut. The other options, such as a cluster of small indications, a rough deep indication, or a large bulbous indication, do not align with the typical characteristics of a cold shut.

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• 15.

### The penetrant indications of a forging lap will normally be :

• A.

A round or nearly round indication

• B.

A cluster of indications

• C.

A continuous line

• D.

A dotted line

C. A continuous line
Explanation
A continuous line is the correct answer because a forging lap is a defect that occurs during the forging process when a portion of the material folds over itself. This results in a continuous line or ridge on the surface of the forged part. The continuous line is formed due to the folding and overlapping of the material, creating a distinct and continuous indication.

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• 16.

### When conducting a penetrant test , spherical indications on the surface of a part could be indicative of:

• A.

Fatigue cracks

• B.

Porosity

• C.

Weld laps

• D.

Hot tears

B. Porosity
Explanation
Spherical indications on the surface of a part during a penetrant test could be indicative of porosity. Porosity refers to the presence of small holes or voids in the material, which can appear as spherical shapes on the surface. This can be caused by various factors such as improper casting or welding techniques, inadequate material flow, or gas entrapment during manufacturing processes. Identifying porosity is important as it can weaken the structural integrity of the part and affect its performance.

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• 17.

### Which of  the following is not a form in which penetrant developer is commonly available?

• A.

Dry developer

• B.

Non Aqueous developer

• C.

Wet developer

• D.

High viscosity developer

D. High viscosity developer
Explanation
High viscosity developer is not a commonly available form of penetrant developer. Penetrant developer is typically available in three common forms: dry developer, non-aqueous developer, and wet developer. Dry developer is a powder that is applied to the surface of the part being inspected. Non-aqueous developer is a liquid that contains a suspension of developer particles and is applied using a spray or brush. Wet developer is a suspension of developer particles in a water-based solution and is typically applied by immersion or spraying. High viscosity developer, on the other hand, is not commonly used and therefore not readily available.

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• 18.

### Which of the following is a possible cause for false penetrant indications?

• A.

Excessive washing

• B.

• C.

Penetrant or part to cold during penetration time

• D.

Lint or dirt

D. Lint or dirt
Explanation
Lint or dirt can be a possible cause for false penetrant indications because if there is lint or dirt present on the surface being inspected, it can interfere with the penetrant's ability to properly penetrate into any surface defects. This can result in false indications, making it difficult to accurately identify actual defects. Therefore, it is important to ensure that the surface is clean and free from any lint or dirt before applying the penetrant for accurate inspection results.

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• 19.

### Pentrant residues may become entrapped under splines, fasteners, rivets, etc. Which of the following is the most likely reaction caused by such a residue.

• A.

Corrosion caused by the moisture attracted by such residues

• B.

Paint stripping

• C.

Fatigue cracking

• D.

Lattiice structure breakdown

A. Corrosion caused by the moisture attracted by such residues
Explanation
When residues become entrapped under splines, fasteners, rivets, etc., they can create a barrier that traps moisture. This trapped moisture can lead to corrosion of the metal surfaces over time. The presence of the residue attracts and holds moisture against the metal, accelerating the corrosion process. Therefore, the most likely reaction caused by such a residue is corrosion caused by the moisture attracted by the residue.

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• 20.

### Developer assists in the detection of penetrants retained in the discontinunities by aidingthe

• A.

Post cleaning process

• B.

Emulsification process

• C.

Bleed-out process

• D.

Drying process

C. Bleed-out process
Explanation
The developer assists in the detection of penetrants retained in the discontinuities by aiding the bleed-out process. During the bleed-out process, the penetrant that has seeped into the discontinuities is allowed to "bleed out" or migrate to the surface. The developer helps to draw out and highlight these penetrants, making them more visible and easier to detect. This process is crucial in non-destructive testing methods such as liquid penetrant testing, where the developer plays a vital role in revealing any defects or flaws in the material being tested.

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• 21.

### Developer assists in the detection of the visible dye penetrant test method by:

• A.

Providing a clean surface

• B.

Providing a contrasting background

• C.

Providing a dry surface

• D.

Emulsifying the penetrant bleed-out

B. Providing a contrasting background
Explanation
The developer assists in the detection of the visible dye penetrant test method by providing a contrasting background. This means that the developer creates a background against which the dye penetrant can be easily seen and detected. By providing a contrasting background, the developer enhances the visibility of any defects or indications that may be present on the surface being tested.

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• 22.

### When using post-emulsification penetrants, difficulties incurred during the washing operationcan be overcome by:

• A.

Reapplying a coat of emulsifier

• B.

Increasing the water pressure used during the washing operation

• C.

Completely reprocessing the part from surface preparation on and by using a longer emulsifier time.

• D.

Dipping the part in boiling water

C. Completely reprocessing the part from surface preparation on and by using a longer emulsifier time.
• 23.

### Which of the following methods for applying non-aqueous developer is normally consideredmost effective?

• A.

Spraying

• B.

Swabbing

• C.

Brushing

• D.

Dipping

A. Spraying
Explanation
Spraying is considered the most effective method for applying non-aqueous developer because it allows for even and consistent coverage over the surface being inspected. This method ensures that the developer is evenly distributed and penetrates into any surface cracks or defects, providing better visibility of indications. It also allows for a faster and more efficient application compared to other methods such as swabbing, brushing, or dipping, which may result in uneven coverage or require more time and effort. Overall, spraying is preferred for its effectiveness in achieving accurate and reliable inspection results.

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• 24.

### Of the methods listed below, the most effective means of precleaning a test item prior to a penetrant test is

• A.

Vapor degreasing

• B.

Detergent cleaning

• C.

Steam cleaning

• D.

Solvent wiping

A. Vapor degreasing
Explanation
Vapor degreasing is the most effective means of precleaning a test item prior to a penetrant test because it uses a solvent in vapor form to remove contaminants from the surface. The vapor can penetrate into small crevices and remove oils, grease, and other contaminants effectively. This method ensures a clean surface for the penetrant test, allowing for accurate results. Detergent cleaning, steam cleaning, and solvent wiping may not be as effective in removing all contaminants from the surface, potentially leading to inaccurate test results.

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• 25.

### Flourescent materials used in flourescent penetrants respond most actively to radiant energy, of a wave length of approximately:

• A.

7,000 Angstroms

• B.

250 KV

• C.

3,650 Angstroms

• D.

100 foot candles

C. 3,650 Angstroms
Explanation
Fluorescent materials used in fluorescent penetrants respond most actively to radiant energy with a wavelength of approximately 3,650 Angstroms. This means that when exposed to this specific wavelength of energy, these materials will emit light of a different color, making them useful for detecting surface defects or cracks in materials. The other options, 7,000 Angstroms, 250 KV, and 100 foot candles, do not correspond to the optimal wavelength for the fluorescence process.

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• 26.

### When performing a liquid penetrant test using solvent removable dye penetrant, ther are several ways to remove excess penetrant from the surface of the part. Which of the methods listed belowis generally regarded as most suitable for giving accurate test results?

• A.

Squirting solvent over the surface with no more than 40 psi pressure

• B.

Wiping with a soaking wet cloth, then wiping with a dry cloth

• C.

Wiping with a solvent dampened cloth, then wiping with dry cloths

• D.

Wiping with dry paper wipes, then wiping with a solvent dampened cloth, and finally wiping with dry colth

D. Wiping with dry paper wipes, then wiping with a solvent dampened cloth, and finally wiping with dry colth
Explanation
The most suitable method for removing excess penetrant from the surface of the part is wiping with dry paper wipes, followed by wiping with a solvent dampened cloth, and finally wiping with a dry cloth. This method ensures that all excess penetrant is effectively removed without leaving any residue on the surface, which could potentially interfere with the accuracy of the test results.

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• 27.

### Emulsifier time:

• A.

Is important but not normally critical

• B.

The time needed to rinse the emulsifier and excess penetrant from the surface

• C.

Is extremely important and will greatly affect test results.

• D.

Should be as long as economically practical

C. Is extremely important and will greatly affect test results.
Explanation
The emulsifier time refers to the duration required to rinse the emulsifier and excess penetrant from the surface during a test. This step is considered extremely important as it has a significant impact on the test results. The emulsifier helps to remove excess penetrant and enhance the visibility of defects, so if the emulsifier time is not properly followed, it could lead to inaccurate or incomplete test results. Therefore, ensuring the appropriate emulsifier time is crucial for obtaining reliable and valid test outcomes.

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• 28.

### Prior to penetrant testing ot a previously machined soft metal part, which of the the cleaning methods listed below would be best  remove any smeared metal that could mask discontinuities?

• A.

Etching

• B.

Shot peening

• C.

Alkaline cleaning

• D.

Water cleaning with detergents

A. Etching
Explanation
Etching would be the best cleaning method to remove smeared metal that could mask discontinuities in a previously machined soft metal part prior to penetrant testing. Etching involves using a chemical solution to remove a thin layer of the metal surface, revealing any hidden defects or discontinuities. This process helps to ensure that the penetrant testing can accurately detect any flaws in the part.

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• 29.

### Which of the following is a purpose of the drying process used in penetrant testing?

• A.

The drying process is used to assure that all excess penetrant will evaporate.

• B.

The drying process assures the uniform drying of dry developer applied over a wet emulsifier

• C.

The drying process reduces penetration time

• D.

After the application of a wet developer , the drying time aids in securing a uniform developer coating

D. After the application of a wet developer , the drying time aids in securing a uniform developer coating
Explanation
The drying process aids in securing a uniform developer coating after the application of a wet developer. This means that the drying time helps to ensure that the developer is evenly spread and adheres properly to the surface being tested.

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• 30.

### Which of the following is the best reason why excessive drying of a part is not desired?

• A.

The extra time required is wasted

• B.

The developer may lose its blotting ability

• C.

A reduction in resolution may result

• D.

The excess developer may be difficult to remove

C. A reduction in resolution may result
Explanation
Excessive drying of a part is not desired because it can result in a reduction in resolution. When a part is excessively dried, it can cause the developer to dry out and shrink, leading to a decrease in the ability to clearly visualize and identify any defects or details on the part's surface. This reduction in resolution can hinder the effectiveness of the inspection process and compromise the accuracy of the results.

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• 31.

### Which of the following is the best reason why the application of emulsifier by a brush is not recommended?

• A.

The brushing action mixes the emulsifier with the penetrant prematurely and irregularly, making accurate control of the emulsification time impossible

• B.

Brushing does not always completely coat the part, thereby leaving a portion of the part difficult to wash

• C.

Brushing in itself is not harnful,but many types of brush materials combine with the emulsifier agents resulting in penetrant and part contamination.

• D.

Brushing results in a streaking appearance during inspection

A. The brushing action mixes the emulsifier with the penetrant prematurely and irregularly, making accurate control of the emulsification time impossible
Explanation
When the emulsifier is applied by a brush, the brushing action mixes it with the penetrant prematurely and irregularly. This mixing makes it difficult to accurately control the emulsification time, which is necessary for proper inspection.

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• 32.

### Developing time depends on the:

• A.

Type of penetrant used

• B.

Type of developer used and type of discontinuity to be detected

• C.

Temperature of the material being used

• D.

All of the above

B. Type of developer used and type of discontinuity to be detected
Explanation
The developing time in penetrant testing depends on the type of developer used and the type of discontinuity that needs to be detected. Different developers and discontinuities may require different amounts of time for the penetrant to fully develop and make the discontinuity visible. The type of penetrant used and the temperature of the material being tested do not directly affect the developing time.

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• 33.

### When using a flourescent, post-emulsifiable penetrant, the length of time the emulsifier is allowed to remain on the part is critical when detecting shallow scratch like discontintities. the best length of time should be:

• A.

10 seconds

• B.

5 seconds

• C.

2 to 3 seconds

• D.

Determined by experimentation

D. Determined by experimentation
Explanation
The length of time the emulsifier is allowed to remain on the part is critical when detecting shallow scratch-like discontinuities. This means that there is no specific or fixed length of time that can be determined as the best. It varies depending on the specific situation and the depth of the discontinuities. Therefore, the best length of time should be determined by experimentation, where different durations are tested to find the most effective time for detecting the desired discontinuities.

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• 34.

### Which of the following statements concerning contaminating materials on the surface of a partto be penetrant tested is  not true?

• A.

The contaminant may be of a composition that attacks the penetrant and reduces the fluorescent or color of the penetrant

• B.

The contaminants may be of such a nature that they reduce or even prevent capillary action by the penetrant

• C.

The contaminant may retain the penetrant and thus increase the sensitivity of the inspection.

• D.

The contaminant may completely fill the crack and thus prevent the entry of penetrant

C. The contaminant may retain the penetrant and thus increase the sensitivity of the inspection.
Explanation
The presence of contaminants on the surface of a part being penetrant tested can have various effects on the inspection process. One possible effect is that the contaminant may be composed in a way that attacks the penetrant, causing a reduction in its fluorescent or color properties. Another possible effect is that the contaminants may be of a nature that hinders capillary action by the penetrant, potentially reducing or even preventing its ability to enter cracks or defects. Additionally, the contaminant may completely fill a crack, preventing the entry of the penetrant. However, it is not true that the contaminant can retain the penetrant and increase the sensitivity of the inspection.

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• 35.

### Water-washable liquid penetrants differ from post-emulsification penetrants in that water-washable penetrants:

• A.

Can only be used on aluminum test specimens

• B.

Need not be removed from the surfaces prior to development

• C.

Have a soapy base

• D.

Do not need the application of an emulsifier before rinsing

D. Do not need the application of an emulsifier before rinsing
Explanation
Water-washable liquid penetrants do not need the application of an emulsifier before rinsing. This means that after the penetrant has been applied and allowed to dwell on the surface, it can be rinsed off directly with water without the need for an additional emulsifier. This is different from post-emulsification penetrants, which require the application of an emulsifier before rinsing to remove excess penetrant from the surface.

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• 36.

### The function of the emulsifier in the post-emulsification penetrant method is to:

• A.

More rapidly drive the penetrant into deep, tight cracks

• B.

React with the surface penetrant to make the penetrant water-washable

• C.

Add fluorescent dye or pigment to the penetrant

• D.

Provide a coating to which dry powder developer can adhere

B. React with the surface penetrant to make the penetrant water-washable
Explanation
The function of the emulsifier in the post-emulsification penetrant method is to react with the surface penetrant to make it water-washable. This means that the emulsifier helps to dissolve the penetrant and make it easier to remove from the surface being inspected. By making the penetrant water-washable, it allows for easier and more effective cleaning of the part after inspection, ensuring that any excess penetrant is removed and reducing the risk of false indications.

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• 37.

### When penetrant testing for shallow discontinuities using a post-emulsification penetrant, the emulsification time should be long enough to:

• A.

Mix the emulsifier with the excess surface penetrant only

• B.

Mix the emulsifier with all the penetrant on the the surface and in discontinuities

• C.

Mix the emulsifier with penetrant in the discontinuities

• D.

Allow the emulsifier to dry out to a white powder

A. Mix the emulsifier with the excess surface penetrant only
Explanation
When using a post-emulsification penetrant for shallow discontinuities, the emulsification time should be long enough to mix the emulsifier with the excess surface penetrant only. This means that the emulsifier should only be mixed with the penetrant that is on the surface and not with the penetrant that may be present in the discontinuities. By doing so, the excess penetrant can be effectively removed, allowing for better visibility and detection of any shallow discontinuities.

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• 38.

### Which of the following is not a good practice when penetrant testing?

• A.

Applying emulsifier by dipping the part in emulsifier

• B.

Appling developer by sprayingthe part with developer

• C.

Removal of water-washable penetrant with a water spray

• D.

Applying emulsifier with a brush

D. Applying emulsifier with a brush
Explanation
Applying emulsifier with a brush is not a good practice when conducting penetrant testing because it can lead to uneven application and inadequate coverage of the part. This can result in missed indications or false readings during the testing process. It is recommended to apply emulsifier by dipping the part or using other methods that ensure uniform coverage and proper penetration of the penetrant into any surface defects.

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• 39.

### A commonly used method of checking on the overall performance of a penetrant material system is by:

• A.

Determining the viscosity of the penetrant

• B.

Measuring the wettability of the penetrant

• C.

Comparing two sections of artifically cracked specimens

• D.

All of the above

C. Comparing two sections of artifically cracked specimens
Explanation
One commonly used method of checking on the overall performance of a penetrant material system is by comparing two sections of artificially cracked specimens. This allows for a direct comparison between the effectiveness of the penetrant in detecting and indicating cracks or defects in the material. By examining the two sections side by side, any differences in the penetrant's ability to penetrate and highlight the cracks can be easily observed and evaluated. This method provides a practical and visual assessment of the penetrant's performance and can help determine its effectiveness in detecting flaws.

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• 40.

### An important difference between non water-washable penetrants and water-washable penetrants is that:

• A.

Water-washable penetrants contain an emulsifier, while non waterwashable penetrants do not

• B.

The viscosity of the two penetrants is different

• C.

The color of the two penetrants is different

• D.

Non water-washable penetrants are more easily removed than are water washable penetrants.

A. Water-washable penetrants contain an emulsifier, while non waterwashable penetrants do not
Explanation
Water-washable penetrants contain an emulsifier, which allows them to be easily washed away with water after the inspection process. On the other hand, non water-washable penetrants do not contain an emulsifier, making them more difficult to remove. This difference in composition is what sets the two types of penetrants apart. The viscosity and color of the penetrants are not mentioned in the explanation and are therefore not relevant to the correct answer.

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• 41.

### Which of the following characteristics are normally considered when selecting the type of penetrant to be used in a penetrant test?

• A.

Removal characteristics of the penetrant

• B.

The flash point of the penetrant

• C.

The cost of the penetrant

• D.

All of the above

D. All of the above
Explanation
When selecting the type of penetrant to be used in a penetrant test, several characteristics are normally considered. The removal characteristics of the penetrant are important as they determine how easily the penetrant can be removed from the surface after the test is completed. The flash point of the penetrant is also considered as it indicates the temperature at which the penetrant can ignite, which is crucial for safety reasons. Additionally, the cost of the penetrant is taken into account to ensure that it is affordable and within budget. Therefore, all of the above characteristics are considered when selecting the type of penetrant for a penetrant test.

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• 42.

### When penetrant testing titanium alloys, the materials used in the penetrant system shouldnot contain any constituent quantities of:

• A.

Carbon or oil

• B.

Halogenated solvents

• C.

Emulsifier or oil

• D.

Fluorescent agent

B. Halogenated solvents
Explanation
Halogenated solvents should not be present in the materials used in the penetrant system when testing titanium alloys. This is because halogenated solvents can react with titanium and cause corrosion or degradation of the alloy. Therefore, to ensure the integrity of the titanium, it is important to avoid using materials that contain halogenated solvents.

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• 43.

### Which of the following discontinuities might be found in sand castings?

• A.

In complete penetration

• B.

Undercut

• C.

Pipe

• D.

Shrinkage

D. Shrinkage
Explanation
Shrinkage is a type of discontinuity that can be found in sand castings. It occurs when the metal solidifies and contracts, causing the formation of voids or cavities in the casting. This can happen due to inadequate feeding of molten metal into the mold, improper cooling, or the presence of impurities in the metal. Shrinkage discontinuities can weaken the casting and affect its structural integrity. Therefore, it is important to properly control the cooling and feeding processes during the casting to minimize shrinkage defects.

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• 44.

### Which of the following discontinuities might be found in a welded fabrication?

• A.

Shrinkage

• B.

Lack of fusion

• C.

Seams

• D.

Laps

B. Lack of fusion
Explanation
In a welded fabrication, lack of fusion refers to a type of discontinuity where the weld metal fails to fuse completely with the base metal or the previously deposited weld metal. This can occur due to various reasons such as improper welding technique, inadequate heat input, or contamination. Lack of fusion can weaken the weld joint and compromise its integrity, leading to potential structural failures or leaks. Therefore, it is important to ensure proper fusion during the welding process to maintain the quality and strength of the fabrication.

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• 45.

### Which of the following discontinuities might be found in rolled bar stock?

• A.

Shrinkage

• B.

Bleedout

• C.

Laps

• D.

Undercut

C. Laps
Explanation
Laps are a type of discontinuity that can be found in rolled bar stock. Laps occur when there is a folding or overlapping of the metal during the rolling process, resulting in a weak area in the bar. This can lead to reduced strength and potential failure of the bar. Therefore, it is important to inspect rolled bar stock for laps to ensure its quality and integrity.

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• 46.

### Which of the following discontinuities might be found in rolled plate?

• A.

Laminations

• B.

Shrinkage

• C.

Lack of fusion

• D.

Undercut

A. Laminations
Explanation
Laminations are a type of discontinuity that can be found in rolled plate. Laminations are layers or plates of material that are not bonded together properly during the rolling process, resulting in weak spots or separations within the plate. These laminations can affect the structural integrity of the plate and may cause it to fail under certain conditions. Therefore, it is important to detect and address any laminations in rolled plate to ensure its quality and performance.

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• 47.

### Which of the following contaminants could affect the sensitivity of a penetrant?

• A.

Acid

• B.

Water

• C.

Salts

• D.

All of the above

D. All of the above
Explanation
All of the contaminants listed, including acid, water, and salts, can affect the sensitivity of a penetrant. Acid can react with the penetrant and cause it to degrade or become less effective. Water can dilute the penetrant, reducing its ability to detect flaws. Salts can also interfere with the penetrant's ability to adhere to the surface being inspected, leading to false readings or diminished sensitivity. Therefore, all of these contaminants have the potential to impact the sensitivity of a penetrant.

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• 48.

### Which of the following is a discontinuitiy that might be found in a forging?

• A.

Shrinkage cracks

• B.

Laps

• C.

Cold shuts

• D.

Insufficient penetration

B. Laps
Explanation
Laps are a type of discontinuity that can be found in a forging. Laps occur when there is a folding or overlapping of metal during the forging process. This can happen when the material is not properly aligned or when there is insufficient pressure applied during the forging. Laps can weaken the integrity of the forging and can lead to failure under stress. Therefore, it is important to detect and address laps during the inspection and quality control process of forgings.

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• 49.

### Which of the following is a discontinuitity that might be found in rolled bar stock?

• A.

Blow holes

• B.

Shrinkage laps

• C.

Cracks and seams

• D.

Insufficient penetration

C. Cracks and seams
Explanation
Cracks and seams are a type of discontinuity that can be found in rolled bar stock. Cracks are fractures that occur in the material, while seams are lines or ridges formed during the rolling process. These discontinuities can weaken the structural integrity of the bar stock and affect its performance.

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• 50.

### Which of the following is a discontinuity that might be found in rolled plate stock?

• A.

Shrinkage cracks

• B.

Inclusions

• C.

Forging laps

• D.

Blow holes

B. Inclusions
Explanation
Inclusions are foreign particles or impurities that are trapped within the material during the manufacturing process. These inclusions can create weak spots in the rolled plate stock, leading to a potential discontinuity.

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• Current Version
• Mar 22, 2023
Quiz Edited by
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• Apr 27, 2010
Quiz Created by
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