Estuary Last Test Ch 18,19, 20

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Estuary Last Test Ch 18,19, 20 - Quiz


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    **Which one of the following applies to a valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years?

    • A.

      Wastage exceeds accumulation

    • B.

      Accumulation exceeds wastage

    • C.

      Accumulation and wastage are about equal

    • D.

      None of the above.

    Correct Answer
    B. Accumulation exceeds wastage
    Explanation
    A valley glacier that lengthens (extends its terminus downslope) over a period of many years indicates that the amount of ice accumulating in the glacier is greater than the amount of ice melting or being lost through wastage. This suggests that accumulation exceeds wastage, resulting in the growth and extension of the glacier over time.

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  • 2. 

    What type of moraine is formed by the merging of two lateral moraines at a junction of two valley glaciers?

    • A.

      Kettle

    • B.

      Ground

    • C.

      Terminal

    • D.

      Medial

    Correct Answer
    D. Medial
    Explanation
    A medial moraine is formed when two lateral moraines merge at the junction of two valley glaciers. As the two glaciers flow down the valley, their lateral moraines combine and form a long, narrow ridge of debris in the center of the valley. This ridge is known as a medial moraine. Medial moraines are typically made up of a mixture of rock, sediment, and ice, and they can be seen as distinct lines running down the middle of a glacier.

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  • 3. 

    __________ is one of the two, major flow mechanisms in a glacier.

    • A.

      Frost heaving

    • B.

      Crevassal Slip

    • C.

      Morainal Sliding

    • D.

      Basal Slip (Sliding)

    Correct Answer
    D. Basal Slip (Sliding)
    Explanation
    Basal slip (sliding) is one of the two major flow mechanisms in a glacier. It occurs when the glacier slides over its bed due to the presence of meltwater lubricating the interface between the glacier and the underlying rock or sediment. This sliding movement is facilitated by the weight of the overlying ice and gravity. The other major flow mechanism in a glacier is internal deformation, which involves the ice deforming and flowing plastically under the pressure of its own weight.

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  • 4. 

    The_______ was the most recent Pleistocene glacial episode in North America.

    • A.

      Kansan

    • B.

      Indianan

    • C.

      Wisconsinan

    • D.

      Dakotan

    Correct Answer
    C. Wisconsinan
    Explanation
    The Wisconsinan was the most recent Pleistocene glacial episode in North America. This period is characterized by the advance and retreat of glaciers, which shaped the landscape and left behind evidence of their presence, such as moraines and glacial lakes. The Wisconsinan glaciation occurred approximately 75,000 to 11,700 years ago, and its effects can still be seen today in the form of landforms and deposits across North America.

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  • 5. 

    _____ are erosional features produced by valley/alpine glaciers.

    • A.

      Drumlins

    • B.

      Cirques

    • C.

      Moraines

    • D.

      Eskers

    Correct Answer
    B. Cirques
    Explanation
    Cirques are erosional features produced by valley/alpine glaciers. They are bowl-shaped depressions found at the head of a glacier, typically formed by the erosion of a mountain peak or the intersection of multiple glaciers. As the glacier moves downhill, it carves out the cirque through processes such as plucking and abrasion. Cirques often contain small lakes or tarns and are characterized by steep walls and a concave shape. They are important in shaping the landscape and can serve as the starting point for the formation of other glacial landforms such as arêtes and horns.

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  • 6. 

    The two types of glaciers are ________.

    • A.

      Valley and mountain

    • B.

      Continental and polar

    • C.

      Valley (alpine) and continental

    • D.

      Polar and mountain

    Correct Answer
    C. Valley (alpine) and continental
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Valley (alpine) and continental. This is because glaciers can be classified into two main types based on their location and size. Valley glaciers, also known as alpine glaciers, are found in mountainous regions and flow down valleys. Continental glaciers, on the other hand, are large ice sheets that cover vast areas of land, such as the polar ice caps. Therefore, the answer choice Valley (alpine) and continental accurately represents the two types of glaciers.

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  • 7. 

    The cross-valley profile of a valley eroded by an alpine glacier is:

    • A.

      “U” shaped

    • B.

      “V” shaped

    • C.

      “S” shaped

    • D.

      “A” shaped

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. “U” shaped
    Explanation
    The cross-valley profile of a valley eroded by an alpine glacier is "U" shaped. This is because the movement of the glacier erodes the valley floor and sides, creating a wide and flat bottom with steep, straight sides. The glacier's immense power and weight cause it to scrape and plow through the landscape, carving out a distinct U-shaped valley. This shape is a characteristic feature of glacial erosion and can be observed in many glaciated regions around the world.

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  • 8. 

    _______ first developed the theory that small variations in the Earth-Sun distance were responsible for short-term climate oscillations (1000-100,000).

    • A.

      H. Goering

    • B.

      Louis Agassiz

    • C.

      M. Milankovich

    • D.

      H. Marcee

    Correct Answer
    C. M. Milankovich
    Explanation
    M. Milankovich first developed the theory that small variations in the Earth-Sun distance were responsible for short-term climate oscillations (1000-100,000).

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  • 9. 

    A(n)______ is similar in appearance to a sinkhole of a karst area.

    • A.

      Kettle

    • B.

      Esker

    • C.

      Cirque

    • D.

      Moraine

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Kettle
    Explanation
    A kettle is similar in appearance to a sinkhole of a karst area because it is a depression in the ground that forms when a block of ice is left behind by a retreating glacier. The ice eventually melts, leaving a hole or depression in the ground. This is similar to a sinkhole in a karst area, which is also a depression in the ground caused by the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone. Both features can have a similar appearance, with a depression or hole in the ground.

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  • 10. 

    Where is the world’s second largest continental ice sheet?

    • A.

      Iceland

    • B.

      Siberia

    • C.

      Antarctica

    • D.

      Greenland

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Antarctica
    Explanation
    Antarctica is the correct answer because it is home to the world's second largest continental ice sheet. The ice sheet covers nearly the entire continent and contains about 90% of the world's ice. It is second in size only to the ice sheet in Greenland. Antarctica's ice sheet plays a crucial role in regulating global climate and sea levels, making it a significant feature of the continent.

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  • 11. 

    _______ have rainfall amounts and soil moisture contents between those of true deserts and humid lands.

    • A.

      Steppes

    • B.

      Tundras

    • C.

      Sundras

    • D.

      Sabkhas

    Correct Answer
    A. Steppes
    Explanation
    Steppes have rainfall amounts and soil moisture contents between those of true deserts and humid lands. Steppes are characterized by dry and arid conditions, but they receive more rainfall than deserts, allowing for some vegetation to grow. The soil in steppes is typically not as dry as in deserts, but it is not as moist as in humid lands. This intermediate level of rainfall and soil moisture makes steppes a transitional zone between deserts and humid lands.

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  • 12. 

    All of the following statements concerning dry lands are true except for:

    • A.

      Precipitation totals are low; dew points are lower in the summer than winter.

    • B.

      Evaporation potential exceeds actual precipitation.

    • C.

      Storms are infrequent and rainfall amounts are highly variable.

    • D.

      Wind is the dominant agent of erosion and sediment transport.

    Correct Answer
    A. Precipitation totals are low; dew points are lower in the summer than winter.
    Explanation
    Dry lands are characterized by low precipitation totals and high evaporation potential exceeding actual precipitation. Storms are infrequent in dry lands, and rainfall amounts are highly variable. Wind is indeed the dominant agent of erosion and sediment transport in dry lands. However, the statement that dew points are lower in the summer than winter is incorrect. In dry lands, the dew point is generally higher in the summer due to the higher temperatures and increased moisture content in the air.

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  • 13. 

    A ________ is an intermittent stream channel in the dry land areas of the western United States.

    • A.

      Wash

    • B.

      Playa

    • C.

      Rivulet

    • D.

      Rill

    Correct Answer
    A. Wash
    Explanation
    A wash is an intermittent stream channel in the dry land areas of the western United States. This term is commonly used to describe a dry riverbed or a gully that carries water during periods of heavy rainfall or flash floods. The word "wash" is often used in the context of arid or desert regions where water is scarce and the landscape is characterized by dry stream channels.

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  • 14. 

    Most dry lands lie between_________degrees north and south of the equator.

    • A.

      5 and 10

    • B.

      20 and 30

    • C.

      40 and 50

    • D.

      0 and 5

    Correct Answer
    B. 20 and 30
    Explanation
    Dry lands are areas with low precipitation and high evaporation rates, resulting in limited water availability. The given answer, "20 and 30," suggests that most dry lands are located between 20 and 30 degrees north and south of the equator. This is because these regions experience high temperatures and receive less rainfall, making them prone to aridity and desertification. The answer aligns with the fact that many major deserts, such as the Sahara and the Sonoran Desert, are found within this latitude range.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following best describes the climatic factors that cause low latitude deserts like the Sahara in Africa?

    • A.

      Cool, dry air aloft is descending; surface winds are blowing toward the equator.

    • B.

      Warm, humid air aloft is descending; surface winds blow away from the equator

    • C.

      Warm, humid air is rising; surface winds are calm.

    • D.

      Cool, dry air at the surface is rising, causing winds to blow away from the equator.

    Correct Answer
    A. Cool, dry air aloft is descending; surface winds are blowing toward the equator.
    Explanation
    In low latitude deserts like the Sahara in Africa, the climatic factors that cause them are cool, dry air aloft descending and surface winds blowing toward the equator. This means that the air at higher altitudes is cool and dry, which causes it to sink down towards the surface. As a result, the surface winds are directed towards the equator. This descending air and the blowing winds contribute to the arid conditions and lack of precipitation in these desert regions.

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  • 16. 

    Clay and silt left over from dunes or glacial rock flour that were transported long distances by winds are called:

    • A.

      Cross beds

    • B.

      Dunes

    • C.

      Till

    • D.

      Loess

    Correct Answer
    D. Loess
    Explanation
    Loess refers to clay and silt that has been transported by winds over long distances. This sediment is often deposited in thick layers and can be found in areas that were once covered by glaciers or in regions with extensive dune systems. Loess is typically composed of fine particles that are easily eroded and can be easily transported by wind. It is commonly found in regions with a dry climate and is known for its ability to support fertile soils.

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  • 17. 

    What controls erosion and deposition in eolian environments?

    • A.

      Wind speed

    • B.

      Barometric pressure

    • C.

      Temperatures

    • D.

      Latitude and longitude

    Correct Answer
    A. Wind speed
    Explanation
    Wind speed is the correct answer because it directly influences the movement of sediment in eolian environments. Higher wind speeds can transport larger and heavier particles, leading to increased erosion and deposition. Conversely, lower wind speeds may only be able to move smaller particles, resulting in less erosion and deposition. Therefore, wind speed is a crucial factor in controlling the processes of erosion and deposition in eolian environments.

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  • 18. 

    Desertification:

    • A.

      Is increasingly becoming a problem

    • B.

      Is a natural process

    • C.

      Is exacerbated by human processes

    • D.

      Results in droughts and famine

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Desertification is the process by which fertile land turns into desert due to various factors. It is increasingly becoming a problem as it is occurring at an alarming rate in many parts of the world. Additionally, desertification is a natural process that can be accelerated by human activities such as deforestation, overgrazing, and improper land use. As a result of desertification, areas experience reduced rainfall, loss of vegetation, and soil degradation, leading to droughts and famine. Therefore, all of the given options are correct and contribute to the understanding of desertification.

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  • 19. 

    How is desert pavement formed?

    • A.

      Blowing wind removes fine-size particles; coarser particles abrades to sand size

    • B.

      Intense chemical weathering removes the sand and silt particles, leaving coarse rock debris covering the land surface

    • C.

      Running water deposits gravel and sand over finer sized particles.

    • D.

      Deflation and sheet wash remove fine sized particles leaving coarse weathered rock fragments concentrated at the surface.

    Correct Answer
    D. Deflation and sheet wash remove fine sized particles leaving coarse weathered rock fragments concentrated at the surface.
    Explanation
    Desert pavement is formed through a process called deflation and sheet wash. Deflation refers to the blowing wind that removes fine-sized particles from the land surface. As the wind blows, it carries away the smaller particles, leaving behind the coarser weathered rock fragments. Sheet wash, on the other hand, is the process where running water deposits gravel and sand over the finer-sized particles. Over time, the combination of deflation and sheet wash removes the fine-sized particles, resulting in a concentration of coarse weathered rock fragments at the surface, which forms the desert pavement.

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  • 20. 

    Type of dune is illustrated below? (looks like a wavy star shaped pattern)

    • A.

      Longitudinal

    • B.

      Transverse

    • C.

      Star

    • D.

      Parabolic

    Correct Answer
    C. Star
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Star" because the description provided mentions a wavy star-shaped pattern, which is characteristic of star dunes. Star dunes have multiple arms that radiate from a central point, creating a distinct star-like shape. This type of dune is formed by winds blowing from different directions, causing sand to accumulate in a central location and form the arms of the star.

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  • 21. 

    ______ tide is an incoming or rising tide.

    • A.

      Flood

    • B.

      Rip

    • C.

      Drift

    • D.

      Ebb

    Correct Answer
    A. Flood
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Flood" because a flood tide refers to the incoming or rising tide. This term is commonly used to describe the period when the water level is increasing and moving towards the shore. During a flood tide, the water is flowing in and filling up areas that were previously dry. It is the opposite of an ebb tide, which is when the water level is receding or going out to sea.

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  • 22. 

    Over the past few thousand years, how, if at all, has sea level been changing?

    • A.

      It has fallen about 10 inches per century

    • B.

      It has remained about the same

    • C.

      It has risen about 10 centimeters per century

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. It has risen about 10 centimeters per century
    Explanation
    Sea level has been rising about 10 centimeters per century over the past few thousand years. This indicates a gradual increase in the average height of the world's oceans over time. This rise in sea level can be attributed to various factors such as the melting of glaciers and ice sheets, thermal expansion of seawater due to global warming, and changes in ocean currents. It is important to monitor and understand these changes in order to assess and mitigate the potential impacts of sea level rise on coastal areas and human populations.

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  • 23. 

    ****Large estuaries are more common on a _______ coastline.

    • A.

      Emergent

    • B.

      Submergent

    • C.

      Stable

    • D.

      Retreating

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Submergent
    Explanation
    Submergent coastlines are characterized by a gradual or rapid rise in sea level, resulting in the flooding of low-lying areas and the formation of large estuaries. This is due to factors such as subsidence or tectonic activity. In contrast, emergent coastlines are characterized by land uplift or a decrease in sea level, which leads to the formation of features like raised beaches or marine terraces. Stable coastlines experience minimal changes in sea level and are not prone to the formation of large estuaries. Retreating coastlines, on the other hand, are characterized by erosion and a net loss of land, making the formation of large estuaries less likely. Therefore, the correct answer is submergent.

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  • 24. 

    Longshore drift:

    • A.

      Causes mass movement of sediment downshore

    • B.

      Creates a loss of sediment from some beaches

    • C.

      Creates an increase in sediment on some beaches

    • D.

      Can be stabilized by groins and jetties

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    Longshore drift refers to the process of sediment being transported along the coastline by the action of waves and currents. It causes mass movement of sediment downshore as it moves sediment from one area to another. This movement can result in a loss of sediment from some beaches, as it is carried away to other locations. On the other hand, longshore drift can also create an increase in sediment on some beaches, as it deposits sediment that it has carried from elsewhere. To stabilize longshore drift, structures like groins and jetties can be built, which help to disrupt the movement of sediment and maintain the beach profile. Therefore, all of the given statements are correct.

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  • 25. 

    **Incoming waves slow down and rotate towards the orientation of being parallel to the shoreline. This process is known as______.

    • A.

      Relaxing

    • B.

      Reflection

    • C.

      Refraction

    • D.

      Refluxing

    • E.

      Recalcitrating

    Correct Answer
    C. Refraction
    Explanation
    Refraction is the correct answer because it refers to the phenomenon where incoming waves slow down and change direction as they approach the shoreline, causing them to rotate and align parallel to the shoreline. This is due to the change in speed and direction of the waves as they transition from deeper to shallower water.

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  • 26. 

    ***A______ is an isolated remnant of bedrock standing above a wave-cut platform.

    • A.

      Sea spit

    • B.

      Sea stack

    • C.

      Sea rampart

    • D.

      Sea span

    Correct Answer
    B. Sea stack
    Explanation
    A sea stack is an isolated remnant of bedrock standing above a wave-cut platform. It is formed through the erosion of coastal cliffs by the relentless pounding of waves. Over time, the waves erode the base of the cliff, causing the upper portion to separate and stand alone. Sea stacks are often tall and vertical, and they can be found along coastlines around the world.

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  • 27. 

    _______ are coastal structures designed to keep tidal inlets from shifting location or filling with sand.

    • A.

      Breakwaters

    • B.

      Groins

    • C.

      Seawalls

    • D.

      Jetties

    • E.

      Tombolos

    Correct Answer
    D. Jetties
    Explanation
    Jetties are coastal structures designed to keep tidal inlets from shifting location or filling with sand. They are typically built perpendicular to the shoreline and extend into the water. Jetties help to stabilize the inlet by reducing the energy of waves and currents, allowing sediment to accumulate and maintain a navigable channel. They also provide a sheltered area for boats and help to prevent erosion along the shoreline.

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  • 28. 

    A name commonly used as a synonym for the Ice Age is __________.

    • A.

      Pennsylvanian period

    • B.

      Miocene epoch

    • C.

      Mesozoic era

    • D.

      Pleistocene epoch

    Correct Answer
    D. Pleistocene epoch
    Explanation
    The Pleistocene epoch is commonly referred to as the Ice Age because it was a time period characterized by extensive glaciation and the presence of large ice sheets. This epoch lasted from about 2.6 million to 11,700 years ago, and during this time, the Earth experienced multiple periods of glaciation and interglacial periods. The name "Pleistocene" is derived from the Greek words pleistos, meaning "most," and kainos, meaning "new," signifying the relatively recent occurrence of this epoch in geological history.

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  • 29. 

    Which one of the moraines listed below is NOT characteristic of continental glaciation?

    • A.

      Lateral moraine

    • B.

      Terminal moraine

    • C.

      Ground moraine

    • D.

      Recessional moraine

    Correct Answer
    A. Lateral moraine
    Explanation
    A lateral moraine is not characteristic of continental glaciation because it is formed along the sides of a glacier, while continental glaciation refers to the vast ice sheets that cover large areas of land. Lateral moraines are typically found in alpine glaciation, where glaciers are confined to mountain valleys. Terminal moraines, ground moraines, and recessional moraines, on the other hand, are all associated with continental glaciation. Terminal moraines mark the furthest extent of the glacier, ground moraines are formed as the glacier retreats and deposits sediment, and recessional moraines are created during temporary pauses in glacial retreat.

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  • 30. 

    The bottom or downward tip of a crevasse marks the ____________.

    • A.

      Boundary between parts of the glacier moving by basal sliding and crevassal slip

    • B.

      Boundary between the basal sliding and external flowage zones

    • C.

      Bottom of the basal sliding zone

    • D.

      Top of the internal deformation and flowage zone

    Correct Answer
    D. Top of the internal deformation and flowage zone
    Explanation
    The bottom or downward tip of a crevasse marks the top of the internal deformation and flowage zone.

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  • 31. 

    A fiord is a __________.

    • A.

      Lake in a cirque

    • B.

      Valley before it was glaciated

    • C.

      Drowned glacial trough

    • D.

      Period of the Ice Age

    Correct Answer
    C. Drowned glacial trough
    Explanation
    A fiord is a drowned glacial trough. This means that it is a deep, narrow inlet of the sea that was formed by a glacier. As the glacier advanced and retreated, it carved out a U-shaped valley. When the glacier melted, the sea level rose and filled the valley, creating a fiord. Fiords are typically characterized by steep cliffs and deep waters.

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  • 32. 

    Drumlins are __________.

    • A.

      Composed of outwash

    • B.

      Ridges formed on top of a glacier

    • C.

      Formed in the zone of fracture

    • D.

      Not found singly, but in clusters

    Correct Answer
    D. Not found singly, but in clusters
    Explanation
    Drumlins are not found singly, but in clusters. This means that drumlins, which are elongated hills made of glacial deposits, are typically found grouped together rather than isolated. This clustering pattern suggests that drumlins form and accumulate in specific areas, possibly due to the movement and deposition of glacial ice. The presence of drumlins in clusters can provide insights into past glacial activity and the shaping of the landscape.

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  • 33. 

    Abrasion and plucking generally involve what part of a glacier?

    • A.

      The internal, flowage zone

    • B.

      The snout zone

    • C.

      The surface, brittle zone

    • D.

      The basal, sliding zone

    Correct Answer
    D. The basal, sliding zone
    Explanation
    Abrasion and plucking generally involve the basal, sliding zone of a glacier. This is the area where the glacier is in contact with the underlying bedrock or sediment. Abrasion occurs as the glacier moves over the bedrock, scraping and grinding it, while plucking refers to the glacier picking up and carrying away pieces of the bedrock. Both processes are facilitated by the movement and pressure of the glacier in the basal, sliding zone.

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  • 34. 

    The term "drift" __________.

    • A.

      Refers only to alpine glaciers

    • B.

      Refers only to moraines

    • C.

      Is synonymous with the term "till"

    • D.

      means any sediments of glacial origin

    Correct Answer
    D. means any sediments of glacial origin
    Explanation
    The term "drift" refers to any sediments of glacial origin. It is a broad term that encompasses all types of sediments that are deposited or moved by glaciers, including till, moraines, and other glacial deposits. It is not limited to any specific type of glacier or landform, making it a more inclusive and general term for glacial sediments.

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  • 35. 

    A(n) ____________ represents a former meltwater channel or tunnel in glacial ice that was filled with sand and gravel.

    • A.

      Esker

    • B.

      Yazoo ridge

    • C.

      Valley plain

    • D.

      Kettle

    Correct Answer
    A. Esker
    Explanation
    An esker is a former meltwater channel or tunnel in glacial ice that was filled with sand and gravel.

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  • 36. 

    Which process occurs where a glacier enters the sea?

    • A.

      Kaming

    • B.

      Calving

    • C.

      Surging

    • D.

      Drowning

    Correct Answer
    B. Calving
    Explanation
    Calving is the process that occurs when a glacier enters the sea. It involves the breaking off of large chunks of ice from the glacier's edge and the formation of icebergs. As the glacier moves forward and reaches the water, the pressure and buoyancy cause the ice to fracture and separate, resulting in the release of icebergs into the sea. This process is common in areas where glaciers meet the ocean, such as fjords or coastal regions, and contributes to the formation of new icebergs in the marine environment.

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  • 37. 

    A _______ forms when a block of ice is buried in drift and subsequently melts creating a pit.

    • A.

      Tarn

    • B.

      Paternoster

    • C.

      Kame

    • D.

      Kettle

    Correct Answer
    D. Kettle
    Explanation
    A kettle forms when a block of ice is buried in drift and subsequently melts creating a pit. This pit resembles the shape of a kettle, hence the name.

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  • 38. 

    ____________ is an irregular, usually thin till layer laid down by a retreating glacier.

    • A.

      Terminal moraine

    • B.

      Outwash blanket

    • C.

      Kame sheet

    • D.

      Ground moraine

    Correct Answer
    D. Ground moraine
    Explanation
    Ground moraine is an irregular, usually thin till layer laid down by a retreating glacier. This type of moraine is formed when the glacier melts and deposits the debris it was carrying, creating a mixture of different-sized rocks, sand, and clay. Ground moraine is typically spread out over a large area and can be found underneath the glacier or scattered on the landscape. It is different from terminal moraine, which is formed at the furthest extent of the glacier, and outwash blanket, which is formed by meltwater carrying sediment away from the glacier. Kame sheet is not a type of moraine.

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  • 39. 

    A broad accumulation of stratified drift deposited adjacent to the downstream edge of an end moraine is a __________.

    • A.

      Kame terrace

    • B.

      esker

    • C.

      Outwash plain

    • D.

      Ground moraine

    Correct Answer
    C. Outwash plain
    Explanation
    An outwash plain is a broad accumulation of stratified drift that is deposited adjacent to the downstream edge of an end moraine. This type of deposit forms when meltwater from a glacier carries and deposits sediment as it flows away from the glacier. The sediment is sorted and stratified, with coarser material near the glacier and finer material farther away. This process creates a broad, flat plain of sediment that is often found adjacent to the end moraine.

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  • 40. 

    Which one of the following statements is true?

    • A.

      Desert landscapes are monotonous, relatively flat areas covered to various depths with sand

    • B.

      Deserts and dry lands are concentrated in areas of ascending air masses and relatively low atmospheric pressures

    • C.

      Despite infrequent rainfalls, erosional and depositional features of running water are important in desert landscapes

    • D.

      Rainshadow deserts occur where air masses descend after first having risen to cross a mountain range

    Correct Answer
    C. Despite infrequent rainfalls, erosional and depositional features of running water are important in desert landscapes
    Explanation
    Despite the infrequent rainfalls, erosional and depositional features of running water are important in desert landscapes. This statement suggests that even though deserts receive limited rainfall, the impact of running water in shaping the landscape through erosion and deposition is significant. This is because when rain does occur in deserts, it can lead to flash floods and the formation of wadis (dry riverbeds) which can carve out canyons and create unique landforms in desert regions.

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  • 41. 

    A ____________ is an intermittent stream channel in the dry land areas of the western United States.

    • A.

      Rivulet

    • B.

      Playa

    • C.

      Rill

    • D.

      Wash

    Correct Answer
    D. Wash
    Explanation
    A wash is an intermittent stream channel in the dry land areas of the western United States. This term is commonly used to describe a dry creek bed or a channel that only carries water during periods of heavy rain or snowmelt. Washes are typically found in arid or semi-arid regions and play an important role in water drainage and erosion control. They can also be referred to as arroyos or dry washes.

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  • 42. 

    The loess deposited in many parts of the Midwest __________.

    • A.

      was once glacial outwash deposits

    • B.

      is in the form of transverse dunes

    • C.

      Is uniformly thick

    • D.

      had its source in desert regions

    Correct Answer
    A. was once glacial outwash deposits
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "was once glacial outwash deposits." This means that the loess, which is a type of wind-blown sediment, was originally deposited by meltwater from glaciers. Over time, this glacial outwash material accumulated and formed the loess deposits found in many parts of the Midwest.

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  • 43. 

    Desert and steppe lands cover about what percentage of Earth’s land area?

    • A.

      10%

    • B.

      66%

    • C.

      30%

    • D.

      3%

    Correct Answer
    C. 30%
    Explanation
    Desert and steppe lands cover approximately 30% of Earth's land area. This means that almost one-third of the Earth's land is made up of these arid and semi-arid regions. These areas are characterized by low rainfall and sparse vegetation, making them inhospitable for most forms of life. The significant coverage of desert and steppe lands highlights the importance of understanding and addressing the unique challenges and environmental issues faced by these regions.

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  • 44. 

    What mature, desert landscape feature consists of coalesced alluvial fans?

    • A.

      Balda

    • B.

      Bajada

    • C.

      Bahia

    • D.

      Baja

    Correct Answer
    B. Bajada
    Explanation
    A bajada is a mature, desert landscape feature that consists of coalesced alluvial fans. Alluvial fans are sediment deposits that form at the base of mountains or hills in arid regions. Over time, these individual alluvial fans merge together to form a continuous slope or bajada. This feature is commonly found in desert areas where occasional flash floods occur, carrying sediment and depositing it at the base of the slopes. The merging of these alluvial fans creates a smooth, sloping surface that characterizes a bajada.

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  • 45. 

    Inselbergs are ____________.

    • A.

      Insulated icebergs floating in a hot spring

    • B.

      Blowouts cut from bedrock in mountainous areas

    • C.

      lithified rock formed by cementation of wind-deposited, dune sands

    • D.

      bedrock hills in a highly eroded desert landscape

    Correct Answer
    D. bedrock hills in a highly eroded desert landscape
    Explanation
    Inselbergs are bedrock hills that can be found in a highly eroded desert landscape. These hills are formed when the surrounding softer rock and sediment erode away, leaving behind the more resistant bedrock. Over time, the erosive forces of wind and water shape these bedrock hills into unique and isolated formations. Inselbergs can be found in various desert regions around the world and are often considered as prominent landmarks in these landscapes.

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  • 46. 

    The daily tidal range is LEAST during _______ tide

    • A.

      Spring

    • B.

      Ebb

    • C.

      Neap

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Neap
    Explanation
    During neap tide, the daily tidal range is least. Neap tides occur when the gravitational forces of the moon and the sun are perpendicular to each other, resulting in the least amount of tidal variation. The gravitational pull of the moon and the sun partially cancel each other out during neap tides, causing smaller tidal bulges and a smaller tidal range. This is in contrast to spring tides, which occur when the gravitational forces of the moon and the sun are aligned, resulting in larger tidal bulges and a greater tidal range.

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  • 47. 

    The daily tidal range is GREATEST during _______ tide.

    • A.

      Spring

    • B.

      Ebb

    • C.

      Neap

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. Spring
    Explanation
    The daily tidal range is greatest during spring tide. Spring tide occurs when the sun, moon, and Earth are aligned, creating a strong gravitational pull on the ocean. This results in higher high tides and lower low tides, leading to a greater difference in water levels between high and low tides.

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  • 48. 

    Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the _______ of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.

    • A.

      Right

    • B.

      Left

    • C.

      West

    • D.

      East

    Correct Answer
    A. Right
    Explanation
    Due to the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents in the Northern Hemisphere are deflected to the right of their path of motion. This is because as water moves northward, it experiences a deflection to the right due to the Earth's rotation. This deflection is caused by the conservation of angular momentum, where faster-moving water near the equator has a greater eastward velocity than slower-moving water near the poles. As a result, surface ocean currents in the Northern Hemisphere generally flow in a clockwise direction, which is to the right of their original path.

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  • 49. 

    Because of the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents are deflected to the _______ of their path of motion in the Southern Hemisphere

    • A.

      Right

    • B.

      Left

    • C.

      West

    • D.

      East

    Correct Answer
    B. Left
    Explanation
    Due to the Coriolis effect, surface ocean currents in the Southern Hemisphere are deflected to the left of their path of motion. The Coriolis effect is caused by the rotation of the Earth, which causes moving objects, like ocean currents, to be deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere. This deflection occurs because different points on the Earth's surface are moving at different speeds due to the rotation, causing a deviation in the path of moving objects. Therefore, in the Southern Hemisphere, ocean currents are deflected to the left.

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  • 50. 

    Which one of the following is a landform created by wave erosion?

    • A.

      Spit

    • B.

      Estuary

    • C.

      Tombolo

    • D.

      sea arch

    Correct Answer
    D. sea arch
    Explanation
    A sea arch is a landform created by wave erosion. Over time, the relentless force of waves crashing against coastal cliffs gradually erodes the rock, forming a hole or tunnel. As the erosion continues, the hole enlarges and eventually breaks through, creating an arch-like structure. Sea arches are often found along rocky coastlines and are a result of the continuous pounding of waves against the cliffs.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Nov 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Dec 08, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Mikeria561

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