Earth Science Exam #3

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Earth Science Exam #3 - Quiz

This exam cover the atmosphere, pollution, and glaciers


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Where is the world's largest ice sheet located today?

    • A.

      A) Russia, Siberia

    • B.

      B) Greenland

    • C.

      C) Iceland

    • D.

      D) Antarctica

    Correct Answer
    D. D) Antarctica
    Explanation
    Antarctica is home to the world's largest ice sheet. It contains about 90% of the world's ice and is the largest single mass of ice on Earth. The ice sheet covers almost the entire continent, with an average thickness of about 1.9 kilometers. Its size and thickness make it the largest and most significant ice sheet in the world, making option D the correct answer.

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  • 2. 

    Which one of the following is NOT true of glaciers?

    • A.

      A) show evidence of past or present flow

    • B.

      Exist only in the Northern Hemisphere

    • C.

      C) form from the recrystallization of snow

    • D.

      D) originate on land

    Correct Answer
    B. Exist only in the Northern Hemisphere
    Explanation
    Glaciers are large masses of ice that form on land and show evidence of past or present flow. They form from the recrystallization of snow and can be found in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Therefore, the statement that glaciers exist only in the Northern Hemisphere is not true.

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  • 3. 

    A fiord is a ________.

    • A.

      A) a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created in a valley carved by glacial activity.

    • B.

      B) lake in a cirque

    • C.

      C) valley before it was glaciated

    • D.

      D) period of the Ice Age

    Correct Answer
    A. A) a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created in a valley carved by glacial activity.
    Explanation
    A fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created in a valley carved by glacial activity. This means that a fiord is a specific type of geological formation that occurs in areas where glaciers have carved out deep valleys. The steep sides or cliffs of the fiord are a result of the glacier's movement and erosion. The presence of a fiord indicates that the area has experienced past glaciation and is often associated with regions that have a history of ice ages.

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  • 4. 

    ________ is an irregular, usually thin till layer laid down by a retreating glacier.

    • A.

      A) Ground moraine

    • B.

      B) Outwash blanket

    • C.

      C) Kame sheet

    • D.

      D) Kame

    Correct Answer
    A. A) Ground moraine
    Explanation
    Ground moraine is an irregular and usually thin layer of till that is deposited by a retreating glacier. As the glacier retreats, it leaves behind debris and sediment that it has picked up and transported. This debris is deposited in a haphazard manner, resulting in the formation of ground moraine. It is characterized by its irregular shape and thinness compared to other types of moraines. Ground moraine is commonly found in areas where glaciers have recently retreated, and it contributes to the formation of the landscape in these regions.

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  • 5. 

    A broad accumulation of stratified drift deposited adjacent to the downstream edge of an end moraine is a ________.

    • A.

      A) kame terrace

    • B.

      B) ground moraine

    • C.

      C) outwash plain

    • D.

      D) esker

    Correct Answer
    C. C) outwash plain
    Explanation
    An outwash plain is a broad accumulation of stratified drift deposited adjacent to the downstream edge of an end moraine. It is formed when meltwater from a glacier carries and deposits sediments, creating a flat and relatively smooth plain. This process occurs as the glacier retreats and the meltwater flows away from the glacier, leaving behind sorted sediments. Therefore, the correct answer is C) outwash plain.

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  • 6. 

    When ice forms from seawater, the remaining seawater will have a:

    • A.

      A) higher salinity

    • B.

      B) lighter color

    • C.

      C) darker color

    • D.

      D) higher temperature

    Correct Answer
    A. A) higher salinity
    Explanation
    When ice forms from seawater, the remaining seawater will have a higher salinity. This is because when seawater freezes, the salt (sodium chloride) is excluded from the ice crystals and remains in the liquid phase. As a result, the concentration of salt in the remaining seawater increases, leading to a higher salinity.

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  • 7. 

    The atmospheric component that contributes to the majority of greenhouse warming on Earth is

    • A.

      A) methane

    • B.

      B) water vapor

    • C.

      C) ozone

    • D.

      D) carbon dioxide

    Correct Answer
    B. B) water vapor
    Explanation
    Water vapor is the atmospheric component that contributes to the majority of greenhouse warming on Earth. This is because water vapor is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the atmosphere and has a strong ability to absorb and re-emit infrared radiation, which traps heat in the atmosphere. While other greenhouse gases such as methane, ozone, and carbon dioxide also contribute to the greenhouse effect, water vapor is the most significant factor due to its high concentration and strong warming potential.

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  • 8. 

    Ozone: .

    • A.

      A) exists primarily in the troposphere

    • B.

      B) is very difficult to split into diatomic oxygen and monatomic oxygen.

    • C.

      C) absorbs ultraviolet light.

    • D.

      D) typically reaches its greatest concentrations near the ground and near major cities.

    Correct Answer
    C. C) absorbs ultraviolet light.
    Explanation
    Ozone absorbs ultraviolet light. This is because ozone molecules have the ability to absorb the energy from ultraviolet light and convert it into heat. This property of ozone is important for protecting life on Earth, as it prevents a significant amount of harmful ultraviolet radiation from reaching the surface.

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  • 9. 

    The troposphere:

    • A.

      A) has height that is relatively consistent at about ten kilometers.

    • B.

      B) is characterized in part by vertical mixing of air.

    • C.

      C) stays about the same temperature above three kilometers.

    • D.

      D) contains a bit less than half the atmosphere's mass.

    Correct Answer
    B. B) is characterized in part by vertical mixing of air.
    Explanation
    The troposphere is the lowest layer of the Earth's atmosphere, extending from the surface up to about 10 kilometers. It is characterized by vertical mixing of air, where warm air rises and cool air sinks, creating weather patterns and allowing for the distribution of heat and moisture. This mixing of air helps to regulate temperature and humidity in the troposphere. Therefore, option B) is the correct answer as it accurately describes one of the key characteristics of the troposphere.

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  • 10. 

    The atmosphere is a mixture of:

    • A.

      A) moisture and gas molecules only.

    • B.

      B) precipitation and air.

    • C.

      C) particulate matter and water.

    • D.

      D) gas molecules, small particulates, and moisture.

    Correct Answer
    D. D) gas molecules, small particulates, and moisture.
    Explanation
    The atmosphere is composed of gas molecules, small particulates, and moisture. Gas molecules, such as nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, make up the majority of the atmosphere. Small particulates, such as dust, pollen, and smoke, are suspended in the air. Moisture refers to water vapor, which is also present in the atmosphere. This combination of gas molecules, small particulates, and moisture creates the atmospheric composition.

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  • 11. 

    Carbon dioxide is an important variable gas because:

    • A.

      A) it is widely distributed throughout the atmosphere.

    • B.

      B) it has been increasing steadily since the early 900s.

    • C.

      C) it is a "greenhouse" gas.

    • D.

      D) all of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. D) all of the above
    Explanation
    Carbon dioxide is an important variable gas because it is widely distributed throughout the atmosphere, meaning it can be found in various locations and concentrations. Additionally, it has been increasing steadily since the early 900s, which is significant as it indicates a long-term trend of rising carbon dioxide levels. Lastly, carbon dioxide is a "greenhouse" gas, meaning it helps trap heat in the Earth's atmosphere, contributing to the greenhouse effect and climate change. Therefore, all of these reasons make carbon dioxide an important variable gas.

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  • 12. 

    Ozone is found primarily in the ________ and is important because of ________.

    • A.

      A) mesosphere; it makes the mid-levels of the atmosphere cold

    • B.

      B) troposphere; it enhances thunderstorm development

    • C.

      C) thermosphere; it makes the upper levels of the atmosphere very warm

    • D.

      D) stratosphere; its interaction with ultraviolet radiation

    Correct Answer
    D. D) stratosphere; its interaction with ultraviolet radiation
    Explanation
    Ozone is found primarily in the stratosphere and is important because of its interaction with ultraviolet radiation. Ozone in the stratosphere acts as a protective layer, absorbing most of the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This prevents the majority of UV rays from reaching the Earth's surface, where they can cause damage to living organisms and increase the risk of skin cancer. Therefore, the presence of ozone in the stratosphere is crucial for maintaining a safe environment for life on Earth.

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  • 13. 

    The four layers of the atmosphere from the top down are: .

    • A.

      A) stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, troposphere.

    • B.

      B) thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere

    • C.

      C) troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere.

    • D.

      D) thermosphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, troposphere.

    Correct Answer
    B. B) thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere
    Explanation
    The correct answer is B) thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere. This is the correct order of the layers of the atmosphere from top to bottom. The thermosphere is the outermost layer, followed by the mesosphere, stratosphere, and troposphere. The thermosphere is the layer where the temperature increases with altitude due to the absorption of high-energy solar radiation. The mesosphere is the layer where the temperature decreases with altitude and where meteors burn up upon entering the atmosphere. The stratosphere is the layer where the ozone layer is located and where the temperature increases with altitude. The troposphere is the lowest layer where weather occurs and where temperature generally decreases with altitude.

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  • 14. 

    The "stratosphere" warms because of: .

    • A.

      A) the injection of moisture by high-flying jet aircraft.

    • B.

      B) dust and dirt deposited by volcanoes

    • C.

      C) the injection of moisture by meteors.

    • D.

      D) the interaction of ozone and ultraviolet light

    Correct Answer
    D. D) the interaction of ozone and ultraviolet light
    Explanation
    The stratosphere warms due to the interaction of ozone and ultraviolet light. Ozone is a molecule made up of three oxygen atoms and is present in the stratosphere. When ultraviolet (UV) light from the Sun reaches the stratosphere, it breaks apart oxygen molecules and releases free oxygen atoms. These free oxygen atoms can then combine with other oxygen molecules to form ozone. This process releases heat, which warms the stratosphere. The ozone layer in the stratosphere acts as a shield, absorbing most of the Sun's harmful UV radiation and preventing it from reaching the Earth's surface.

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  • 15. 

    The atmosphere consists of a mixture of gas molecules and precipitation

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the atmosphere is indeed composed of a mixture of gas molecules and precipitation. The atmosphere contains gases such as nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of other gases. Precipitation, on the other hand, refers to water in its liquid or solid form that falls from the atmosphere to the Earth's surface, including rain, snow, sleet, and hail. Therefore, the atmosphere is a combination of both gas molecules and precipitation.

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  • 16. 

    Large volcanic eruptions are more likely to bring a cooler climate than a warmer climate

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Large volcanic eruptions release a significant amount of ash and gases into the atmosphere, including sulfur dioxide. These particles and gases can block sunlight from reaching the Earth's surface, leading to a decrease in temperature. Additionally, sulfur dioxide can react with water vapor in the atmosphere to form sulfate aerosols, which also contribute to cooling the climate. Therefore, large volcanic eruptions are more likely to bring a cooler climate rather than a warmer one.

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  • 17. 

    The Coriolis Effect is zero at:

    • A.

      A) sunrise

    • B.

      B) the Poles

    • C.

      C) the upper atmosphere

    • D.

      D) the Equator

    Correct Answer
    D. D) the Equator
    Explanation
    The Coriolis Effect is zero at the Equator because this is the point on Earth where the rotational velocity is at its maximum. As one moves away from the Equator towards the Poles, the rotational velocity decreases, resulting in the Coriolis Effect becoming more pronounced. Therefore, at the Equator, the Coriolis Effect is negligible, and its impact on the movement of objects is minimal.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following are processes that occur under the Hydrologic Cycle?  

    • A.

      A) evaporation

    • B.

      B) infiltration

    • C.

      C) precipitation

    • D.

      D) all of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. D) all of the above
    Explanation
    The Hydrologic Cycle is the continuous movement of water on, above, and below the Earth's surface. It involves various processes, including evaporation, infiltration, and precipitation. Evaporation is the process by which water changes from a liquid to a gas, usually from the surface of bodies of water. Infiltration is the process of water seeping into the ground and becoming groundwater. Precipitation refers to any form of water that falls from the atmosphere to the Earth's surface, such as rain, snow, sleet, or hail. Therefore, all of the given processes (evaporation, infiltration, and precipitation) occur under the Hydrologic Cycle.

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  • 19. 

    As the temperature increases, generally, the relative humidity:

    • A.

      A) is unaffected

    • B.

      B) decreases.

    • C.

      C) is erratic.

    • D.

      D) increases

    Correct Answer
    B. B) decreases.
    Explanation
    As the temperature increases, the air has the capacity to hold more moisture. This means that the relative humidity, which is the amount of moisture in the air compared to the maximum amount it can hold at a given temperature, decreases. So, as the temperature increases, the relative humidity decreases.

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  • 20. 

    Adiabatic processes:

    • A.

      A) are usually not reversible.

    • B.

      B) often involve changes both in temperature and pressure.

    • C.

      C) are relatively uncommon in the atmosphere.

    • D.

      D) occur with the addition or loss of energy.

    Correct Answer
    B. B) often involve changes both in temperature and pressure.
    Explanation
    Adiabatic processes refer to a type of thermodynamic process where there is no exchange of heat between the system and its surroundings. This means that the energy of the system remains constant. The given answer, B) often involve changes both in temperature and pressure, is correct because in an adiabatic process, the temperature and pressure of the system can change due to the compression or expansion of the system. This occurs without any heat transfer, resulting in changes in temperature and pressure.

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  • 21. 

    A parcel of rising air is least likely to do this:

    • A.

      A) reach the lifting condensation level

    • B.

      B) contract.

    • C.

      C) reach an area of lower pressure.

    • D.

      D) cool.

    Correct Answer
    B. B) contract.
    Explanation
    When a parcel of air rises, it expands due to the decrease in atmospheric pressure. As the air expands, it cools adiabatically. This cooling process is known as adiabatic cooling. Therefore, the correct answer is B) contract, because rising air does not contract but expands as it rises.

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  • 22. 

    Air that contains as much water as it can hold:

    • A.

      A) has a very low relative humidity

    • B.

      . B) is very heavy.

    • C.

      C) cannot be lifted very high.

    • D.

      D) is saturated.

    Correct Answer
    D. D) is saturated.
    Explanation
    The air that contains as much water as it can hold is considered saturated. This means that the air is unable to hold any more water vapor and any additional moisture will result in condensation. The term "saturated" indicates that the air is at its maximum capacity for holding water vapor.

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  • 23. 

    The chief source of Los Angeles air pollution is:

    • A.

      A) fog from the ocean.

    • B.

      B) coal-burning electricity plants.

    • C.

      C) automobile exhaust

    • D.

      . D) industrial pollutants.

    Correct Answer
    C. C) automobile exhaust
    Explanation
    Automobile exhaust is the chief source of air pollution in Los Angeles because the city has a high number of vehicles on the road, resulting in a significant amount of emissions from cars. These emissions contain pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter, which contribute to poor air quality. The concentration of automobile exhaust in the city is higher compared to other sources like fog from the ocean, coal-burning electricity plants, and industrial pollutants, making it the primary cause of air pollution in Los Angeles.

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  • 24. 

    Small suspended solids and liquids are called:

    • A.

      A) precipitation.

    • B.

      B) smog.

    • C.

      C) particulates

    • D.

      D) all of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. C) particulates
    Explanation
    Small suspended solids and liquids are commonly referred to as particulates. This term is used to describe tiny particles that are suspended in air or water. These particles can include dust, smoke, ash, soot, and other pollutants. They can have harmful effects on human health and the environment. Precipitation refers to the process of water falling from the atmosphere to the ground in the form of rain, snow, sleet, or hail. Smog is a type of air pollution that is characterized by a mixture of smoke and fog. Therefore, the correct answer is C) particulates.

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  • 25. 

    The following types of fog would be associated with areas where smoke combines with damp air.

    • A.

      A) London-type smog.

    • B.

      B) Albequerque-type fog.

    • C.

      C) Los Angeles-type smog

    • D.

      D) Cairo-type fog.

    Correct Answer
    A. A) London-type smog.
    Explanation
    London-type smog is characterized by the combination of smoke and damp air. This type of fog occurs in areas where there is a high concentration of pollutants, such as smoke, and the air is moist. In London-type smog, the pollutants react with moisture in the air to form a thick, yellowish fog. This type of fog is often associated with industrial areas and can have negative effects on air quality and human health.

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  • 26. 

    Los Angeles type smog is primarily a result of: . .

    • A.

      A) smoke

    • B.

      B) advected coastal fog laden with salt crystals

    • C.

      C) photochemical reactions.

    • D.

      D) fog.

    Correct Answer
    C. C) photochemical reactions.
    Explanation
    Los Angeles type smog is primarily a result of photochemical reactions. This type of smog, also known as photochemical smog, is formed when sunlight reacts with pollutants such as nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. These reactions produce a mixture of harmful pollutants including ozone, which is a major component of smog. This type of smog is commonly seen in urban areas with high levels of vehicle emissions and industrial activities. It is different from smog caused by smoke or fog, as it is primarily a result of chemical reactions rather than physical particles.

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  • 27. 

    This is the largest source of atmospheric pollutants:

    • A.

      A) volcanic eruptions

    • B.

      B) heavy winds in dry deserts.

    • C.

      C) forest fires.

    • D.

      D) human activities.

    Correct Answer
    D. D) human activities.
    Explanation
    Human activities, such as industrial processes, transportation, and energy production, are the largest source of atmospheric pollutants. These activities release various pollutants, including carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter, into the atmosphere. These pollutants contribute to air pollution, climate change, and negative impacts on human health and the environment. Volcanic eruptions, heavy winds in dry deserts, and forest fires also release pollutants into the atmosphere, but their overall contribution is much smaller compared to human activities.

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  • 28. 

    Of the following pollutants the greatest percentage of this one comes from fuel combustion: .

    • A.

      A) sulfur dioxide

    • B.

      B) volatile organic compounds

    • C.

      C) nitrogen oxides.

    • D.

      D) suspended particulate matter

    Correct Answer
    A. A) sulfur dioxide
    Explanation
    Sulfur dioxide is the correct answer because it is mainly produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal and oil. When these fuels are burned, sulfur compounds present in them are converted into sulfur dioxide. This pollutant is a major contributor to air pollution and can have harmful effects on human health and the environment.

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  • 29. 

    Transportation is the source for 77 percent of this pollutant:

    • A.

      A) carbon monoxide

    • B.

      B) volatile organic compounds.

    • C.

      C) sulfur dioxide.

    • D.

      D) nitrogen oxides.

    Correct Answer
    A. A) carbon monoxide
    Explanation
    Transportation is the source for 77 percent of carbon monoxide. This is because carbon monoxide is primarily emitted by vehicles, especially those that burn fossil fuels. When fuel is burned, carbon monoxide is released into the air as a byproduct. Since transportation heavily relies on the combustion of fossil fuels, such as gasoline and diesel, it becomes the major contributor to carbon monoxide emissions.

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  • 30. 

    Air is often much cleaner after a rain primarily because: .

    • A.

      A) droplets and crystals scavenge particulates.

    • B.

      B) the lower temperature increases the efficiency of automobile engines

    • C.

      C) particulates act as condensation nuclei.

    • D.

      D) gravitational settling works faster when the air is saturated.

    Correct Answer
    A. A) droplets and crystals scavenge particulates.
    Explanation
    After rain, the air tends to be cleaner because the droplets and crystals in the rainwater act as scavengers, collecting and removing particulates from the air. This process helps to purify the air and reduce the concentration of pollutants. The other options, such as the lower temperature increasing engine efficiency or particulates acting as condensation nuclei, do not directly relate to the purification of the air after rain. Gravitational settling, mentioned in option D, may play a role in removing particulates from the air, but it is not the primary reason for the air being cleaner after rain.

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  • 31. 

    The most important source of carbon monoxide emissions in the United States is:

    • A.

      A) natural emissions.

    • B.

      B) industrial processes.

    • C.

      C) coal-fired energy plants

    • D.

      D) automobile engines

    Correct Answer
    D. D) automobile engines
    Explanation
    Automobile engines are the most important source of carbon monoxide emissions in the United States. This is because when fuel is burned in the engine, carbon monoxide is produced as a byproduct. As there are millions of vehicles on the road, the collective emissions from automobile engines contribute significantly to the overall carbon monoxide levels in the country. Industrial processes and coal-fired energy plants also emit carbon monoxide, but the sheer number of vehicles and their continuous operation make automobile engines the primary source of these emissions.

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  • 32. 

    This chemical tightly binds to hemoglobin, blocking its ability to deliver oxygen to red blood cells:

    • A.

      A) sulfuric acid.

    • B.

      B) carbon monoxide.

    • C.

      C) nitrogen dioxide.

    • D.

      D) sulfur dioxide.

    Correct Answer
    B. B) carbon monoxide.
    Explanation
    Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas that binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells with a higher affinity than oxygen. This binding is strong and prevents the hemoglobin from carrying oxygen to the body's tissues, leading to oxygen deprivation and potential organ damage. This explains why carbon monoxide poisoning can be life-threatening, as it interferes with the body's ability to transport and utilize oxygen effectively.

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  • 33. 

    Atmospheric sulfur compounds:

    • A.

      A) occur primarily in the form of sulfur monoxide.

    • B.

      B) originate primarily from natural sources.

    • C.

      C) do not have a role in acid precipitation.

    • D.

      D) occur only in the gaseous form.

    Correct Answer
    B. B) originate primarily from natural sources.
    Explanation
    Atmospheric sulfur compounds primarily originate from natural sources such as volcanic eruptions, forest fires, and the decay of organic matter. These natural sources release sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere, which can then react with other compounds to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and contribute to acid precipitation. However, it is important to note that human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and industrial processes, also contribute to the release of sulfur compounds into the atmosphere.

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  • 34. 

    Sulfur dioxide:

    • A.

      A) is produced primarily through the burning of fossil fuels.

    • B.

      B) does not have any established detrimental effects on humans.

    • C.

      C) is yellowish in color.

    • D.

      D) is not corrosive

    Correct Answer
    A. A) is produced primarily through the burning of fossil fuels.
    Explanation
    Sulfur dioxide is primarily produced through the burning of fossil fuels. This is because sulfur is present in fossil fuels, such as coal and oil, and when these fuels are burned, sulfur dioxide is released into the atmosphere. This is a significant source of sulfur dioxide emissions, which can contribute to air pollution and have negative effects on human health and the environment.

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  • 35. 

    Sulfur trioxide: .

    • A.

      A) easily combines with water to form sulfuric acid.

    • B.

      B) most commonly enters the atmosphere as a primary pollutant.

    • C.

      C) helps counter the effects of acid rain

    • D.

      D) is one of the major components of air pollution.

    Correct Answer
    A. A) easily combines with water to form sulfuric acid.
    Explanation
    Sulfur trioxide is known to easily combine with water to form sulfuric acid. This reaction occurs when sulfur trioxide reacts with water vapor in the atmosphere, leading to the formation of sulfuric acid droplets. Sulfuric acid is a strong acid that is responsible for the acidity of acid rain. Therefore, option A is the correct answer as it accurately describes the reaction of sulfur trioxide with water.

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  • 36. 

    Acid precipitation:

    • A.

      A) reaches lakes and rivers primarily by leaching through soil.

    • B.

      B) is caused by only one compound.

    • C.

      C) is less of a problem in Scandinavia than in northern Canada.

    • D.

      D) is less of a problem downwind of areas that burn large amounts of coal

    Correct Answer
    A. A) reaches lakes and rivers primarily by leaching through soil.
    Explanation
    Acid precipitation, also known as acid rain, refers to rain, snow, or any form of precipitation that has a pH level lower than 5.6. This acidity is primarily caused by the presence of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the atmosphere, which are released from various human activities such as burning fossil fuels. When acid rain falls, it can be absorbed by the soil, and the acidic water can leach through the soil and reach lakes and rivers. This process is known as leaching, and it is the primary way in which acid precipitation affects bodies of water.

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  • 37. 

    In the United States, acid precipitation is least likely to be related to compounds of:

    • A.

      A) sulfur.

    • B.

      B) nitrogen

    • C.

      C) oxygen.

    • D.

      D) carbon.

    Correct Answer
    D. D) carbon.
    Explanation
    Acid precipitation refers to rainfall or any form of precipitation that has a low pH level, making it acidic. This is commonly caused by the presence of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the atmosphere, which react with water to form sulfuric acid and nitric acid. These compounds are released into the air through industrial processes, vehicle emissions, and the burning of fossil fuels. Oxygen, being a component of the atmosphere, does not directly contribute to the formation of acid precipitation. Carbon, on the other hand, is not typically associated with the production of acidic compounds in the atmosphere, making it the least likely to be related to acid precipitation.

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  • 38. 

    This area of the United States has the greatest acidity in its precipitation:

    • A.

      A) Northeast.

    • B.

      B) northern Plains

    • C.

      C) Southeast.

    • D.

      . D) West.

    Correct Answer
    A. A) Northeast.
    Explanation
    The Northeast region of the United States experiences the greatest acidity in its precipitation. This could be due to a combination of factors such as industrial pollution, emissions from vehicles, and power plants in the area. These activities release pollutants into the atmosphere, which can react with water vapor and form acidic compounds. Additionally, the Northeast region is downwind of major industrial areas and cities, which can contribute to the high acidity levels in its precipitation.

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  • 39. 

    Nitric oxide: .

    • A.

      A) is a highly toxic compound.

    • B.

      B) primarily affects the pulmonary system.v

    • C.

      C) takes thousands of years to break down once released into the atmosphere

    • D.

      D) easily oxidizes to form nitrogen dioxide.

    Correct Answer
    D. D) easily oxidizes to form nitrogen dioxide.
    Explanation
    Nitric oxide is a highly reactive gas that easily combines with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide. This process of oxidation occurs quickly and easily, making it a characteristic property of nitric oxide.

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  • 40. 

    This compound or group of compounds is primarily responsible for the yellow to reddish-brown color of Los Angeles smog: .

    • A.

      A) carbon monoxide

    • B.

      B) sulfur dioxide.

    • C.

      C) volatile organic compounds

    • D.

      D) nitrogen dioxide.

    Correct Answer
    D. D) nitrogen dioxide.
    Explanation
    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is primarily responsible for the yellow to reddish-brown color of Los Angeles smog. NO2 is a major component of photochemical smog, which forms when sunlight reacts with pollutants like nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. The reaction of NO2 with sunlight leads to the formation of ozone, which gives smog its characteristic color. Carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide do not contribute directly to the color of smog, while volatile organic compounds play a role in its formation but are not primarily responsible for the color.

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  • 41. 

    Hydrocarbons: . .

    • A.

      A) are released into the atmosphere primarily through natural processes.

    • B.

      B) cause substantial health problems in cities with high levels of air pollution.

    • C.

      C) typically contain other elements besides carbon and hydrogen

    • D.

      D) occur only in particulate forms

    Correct Answer
    A. A) are released into the atmosphere primarily through natural processes.
    Explanation
    Hydrocarbons are compounds composed only of carbon and hydrogen atoms. They are released into the atmosphere through natural processes such as the decomposition of organic matter, volcanic activities, and the emission from plants and trees. Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and industrial processes, also contribute to the release of hydrocarbons into the atmosphere. Therefore, option A is the correct answer as it states that hydrocarbons are primarily released through natural processes.

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  • 42. 

    Photochemical smog:

    • A.

      A) is caused by primary pollutants.

    • B.

      B) has few if any health effects.

    • C.

      C) includes ozone as a component.

    • D.

      D) is a major component of London type smog.

    Correct Answer
    C. C) includes ozone as a component.
    Explanation
    Photochemical smog is a type of smog that is formed when sunlight reacts with pollutants in the atmosphere. This reaction leads to the formation of ozone as a component of the smog. Ozone is a harmful pollutant that can have detrimental effects on human health, such as respiratory issues and irritation. Therefore, option C is the correct answer as it accurately describes one of the components of photochemical smog.

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  • 43. 

    The effect of winds on pollution dispersal is such that: .

    • A.

      A) forced convection decreases with increased wind speed.

    • B.

      B) the concentration of air pollutants is directly proportional to the wind speed

    • C.

      C) changing direction of wind has no significant impact on the rate of pollution dispersal.

    • D.

      D) strong horizontal winds will lead to some vertical distribution of pollutants

    Correct Answer
    D. D) strong horizontal winds will lead to some vertical distribution of pollutants
    Explanation
    Strong horizontal winds can cause the vertical distribution of pollutants. This is because when the wind speed is high, it can create turbulence and mixing in the atmosphere. As a result, pollutants can be lifted vertically and dispersed over a wider area. This vertical distribution helps in diluting the concentration of pollutants and reducing their impact on a specific location. Therefore, strong horizontal winds can play a role in the dispersal of pollutants in the atmosphere.

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  • 44. 

    This type of air leads to the greatest vertical mixing of pollutants:

    • A.

      A) stable air.

    • B.

      B) unstable air.

    • C.

      C) subsidence inversion

    • D.

      . D) radiation inversion.

    Correct Answer
    B. B) unstable air.
    Explanation
    Unstable air leads to the greatest vertical mixing of pollutants because it is characterized by warm air near the surface and colder air aloft. This temperature difference creates instability and causes the warm air to rise rapidly, carrying pollutants with it. As the warm air rises, it mixes with the colder air above, dispersing the pollutants vertically and preventing their accumulation near the surface. This vertical mixing helps to dilute and disperse pollutants, reducing their concentration and potential impact on air quality.

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  • 45. 

    The Environmental Protection Agency considers this city to have the worst ozone pollution: .

    • A.

      A) Chicago

    • B.

      . B) New York.

    • C.

      C) Los Angeles.

    • D.

      D) Phoenix

    Correct Answer
    C. C) Los Angeles.
    Explanation
    Los Angeles is considered to have the worst ozone pollution by the Environmental Protection Agency. This is likely due to a combination of factors such as its large population, high levels of vehicle emissions, and geographical location. Los Angeles has a high number of cars on the road, which contributes to air pollution and the formation of ozone. Additionally, its location in a basin surrounded by mountains can trap pollutants and prevent them from dispersing, leading to higher levels of ozone pollution.

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  • 46. 

    Carbon monoxide is:

    • A.

      A) a solid that can be filtered

    • B.

      B)an extremely deadly gas because it emulates oxygen in the blood stream

    • C.

      C) a particulate that settles via gravity

    • D.

      D) a non-lethal gas that forms as the result of combustion.

    Correct Answer
    B. B)an extremely deadly gas because it emulates oxygen in the blood stream
    Explanation
    Carbon monoxide is an extremely deadly gas because it emulates oxygen in the blood stream. When inhaled, carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in the red blood cells, preventing oxygen from being carried throughout the body. This can lead to oxygen deprivation in vital organs, such as the brain and heart, causing severe health complications and even death. It is important to have proper ventilation and carbon monoxide detectors in place to prevent exposure to this dangerous gas.

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  • 47. 

    Acid rain is the result of:

    • A.

      A) particulates deposited on buildings and then being brought into solution by rain water.

    • B.

      B) the dioxides of carbon going into solution with rain water.

    • C.

      C) carbon monoxide.

    • D.

      D) the dioxides of sulfur going into solution with rain water.

    Correct Answer
    D. D) the dioxides of sulfur going into solution with rain water.
    Explanation
    Acid rain is caused by the dioxides of sulfur, such as sulfur dioxide (SO2), going into solution with rainwater. When sulfur dioxide is released into the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels, it reacts with oxygen and water vapor to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4). This sulfuric acid then falls back to the ground as acid rain, causing environmental damage to plants, animals, buildings, and bodies of water.

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  • 48. 

    Smog is: .

    • A.

      A) a combination of smoke and organic waste.

    • B.

      B) more of a nuisance than a threat to health.

    • C.

      C) a combination of smoke and fog

    • D.

      D) only found in California.

    Correct Answer
    C. C) a combination of smoke and fog
    Explanation
    Smog is a combination of smoke and fog. This occurs when pollutants, such as smoke or exhaust from vehicles, mix with fog in the atmosphere. This combination creates a thick, hazy air pollution that can be harmful to human health and the environment. Smog is not limited to California and can be found in other areas with high levels of pollution.

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  • 49. 

    An effective way to deal with air pollution is to:

    • A.

      A) change manufacturing processes to produce less pollution.

    • B.

      B) make smoke stacks higher.

    • C.

      C) limit the amount of pollution in a particular location.

    • D.

      D) add filters to polluting stacks.

    • E.

      E) all of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. E) all of the above
    Explanation
    An effective way to deal with air pollution is to change manufacturing processes to produce less pollution, make smoke stacks higher, limit the amount of pollution in a particular location, and add filters to polluting stacks. By implementing all of these measures, it is possible to reduce the amount of pollution being released into the air, thereby improving air quality.

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  • 50. 

    Atmospheric stability:

    • A.

      A) can have a tremendous effect on pollution concentration.

    • B.

      B) has no effect on pollution concentration.

    • C.

      C) will effect the concentration rate but not the settling rate of pollutants.

    • D.

      D) is only a problem during periods of low pressure systems.

    Correct Answer
    A. A) can have a tremendous effect on pollution concentration.
    Explanation
    Atmospheric stability refers to the ability of the atmosphere to resist vertical motion. It determines the vertical mixing of pollutants in the atmosphere. When the atmosphere is stable, pollutants tend to accumulate near the surface, leading to higher pollution concentrations. On the other hand, when the atmosphere is unstable, pollutants are more likely to disperse and mix vertically, resulting in lower pollution concentrations. Therefore, atmospheric stability can indeed have a tremendous effect on pollution concentration.

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