Kinesiology Of The Hip: Trivia Quiz!

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Kinesiology Of The Hip: Trivia Quiz! - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Acetabulum is formed by what structures?

    • A.

      Ilium

    • B.

      Ischium

    • C.

      Femor

    • D.

      Pubis

    • E.

      Coccyx

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Ilium
    B. Ischium
    D. Pubis
    Explanation
    The acetabulum is a cup-shaped socket in the pelvis that forms the hip joint. It is formed by the fusion of three bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis. These three bones come together to create a deep socket that securely holds the head of the femur (thigh bone) in place, allowing for stability and movement at the hip joint. The coccyx, also known as the tailbone, is not involved in the formation of the acetabulum.

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  • 2. 

    The socket of the acetabulum faces what directions?

    • A.

      Medially, slightly inferior, and anteriorly

    • B.

      Medially, slightly superior, and posteriorly

    • C.

      Laterally, slightly superior, and posteriorly

    • D.

      Laterally, slightly inferior, and anteriorly

    • E.

      Laterally, slightly inferior, and posteriorly

    Correct Answer
    D. Laterally, slightly inferior, and anteriorly
    Explanation
    The socket of the acetabulum faces laterally, slightly inferior, and anteriorly.

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  • 3. 

    The articular surface of the hip joint is located where?

    • A.

      On the inferior surface

    • B.

      Along the rim

    • C.

      Along the head of the femur

    • D.

      On the posterior surface

    • E.

      Along the medial and lateral sides of the joint capsule

    Correct Answer
    B. Along the rim
    Explanation
    The articular surface of the hip joint is located along the rim. This means that the surface where the hip joint connects to the acetabulum (socket) is found along the outer edge or border of the joint.

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  • 4. 

    The floor of the hip joint is ...

    • A.

      Thin and nonarticular

    • B.

      Thick and articular

    • C.

      Thin and articular

    • D.

      Thick and nonarticular

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Thin and nonarticular
    Explanation
    The floor of the hip joint is described as thin and nonarticular. This means that it is not thick and does not have a joint surface. The thinness suggests that it may not provide much support or stability to the joint, and the nonarticular nature implies that it does not directly participate in the movement or articulation of the joint.

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  • 5. 

    The hip joint is deepened by which structure?

    • A.

      Ligaments

    • B.

      Muscles of the hip

    • C.

      Acetabulum

    • D.

      Femur

    • E.

      Labrum

    Correct Answer
    E. Labrum
    Explanation
    The labrum is a ring of cartilage that surrounds the acetabulum (socket) of the hip joint. It deepens the socket and provides stability to the joint. The ligaments and muscles of the hip also contribute to the stability of the joint, but the labrum specifically plays a role in deepening the hip joint. The femur is the thigh bone and does not directly deepen the hip joint.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following is a type of connective tissue that helps form the joint capsule?

    • A.

      Ligaments

    • B.

      Tendons

    • C.

      Muscles

    • D.

      Labrum

    • E.

      Synovial fluid

    Correct Answer
    D. Labrum
    Explanation
    The labrum is a type of connective tissue that helps form the joint capsule. It is a ring of fibrocartilage that surrounds the edge of the joint socket, providing stability and cushioning to the joint. It helps hold the bones in place and allows for smooth movement within the joint.

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  • 7. 

    Ratio between the diameter of the acetabulum and depth is lowest when?

    • A.

      At birth

    • B.

      Puberity

    • C.

      After skeletal maturity (early-mid 20s)

    • D.

      After age 40

    • E.

      After age 65

    Correct Answer
    A. At birth
    Explanation
    The ratio between the diameter of the acetabulum and depth is lowest at birth. This is because the acetabulum, which is the socket of the hip joint, is relatively shallow in newborns compared to adults. As a person grows and develops, the acetabulum deepens and becomes more proportionate to the diameter, reaching its maximum depth in early-mid 20s. After that, the depth of the acetabulum may decrease slightly with age, but it remains relatively stable until around age 40 when degenerative changes may occur. Therefore, the ratio is lowest at birth when the acetabulum is shallowest.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following describes the shape of the head of the femur?

    • A.

      Complete sphere

    • B.

      1/3 sphere

    • C.

      2/3 sphere

    • D.

      Cylindrical

    • E.

      Ball

    Correct Answer
    C. 2/3 sphere
    Explanation
    The head of the femur is described as a 2/3 sphere. This means that it is rounded and curved, resembling a sphere, but only covers about two-thirds of a complete sphere. This shape allows for smooth movement and rotation within the hip joint.

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  • 9. 

    What makes the head of the femur more spherical?

    • A.

      Hyaline cartilage

    • B.

      Articular cartilage

    • C.

      Ligaments

    • D.

      Tendons

    • E.

      Acetabulum

    Correct Answer
    B. Articular cartilage
    Explanation
    The head of the femur is more spherical due to the presence of articular cartilage. Articular cartilage is a smooth and slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint. It helps to reduce friction and allows for smooth movement of the joint. In the case of the femur, the articular cartilage covers the head of the bone, making it more spherical in shape. This shape is important for proper articulation and movement within the hip joint.

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  • 10. 

    In what direction does the femoral head face?

    • A.

      Medially and anteriorly

    • B.

      Laterally and posteriorly

    • C.

      Superiorly and medially

    • D.

      Superiorly and anteriorly

    • E.

      Medially and posteriorly

    Correct Answer
    D. Superiorly and anteriorly
    Explanation
    The femoral head faces superiorly and anteriorly. This means that it is positioned towards the top and front of the hip joint.

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  • 11. 

    Articular cartilage is the thickest where?

    • A.

      Inside the acetabulum

    • B.

      Head of the femur

    • C.

      Neck of the femur

    • D.

      On the rim of acetabulum

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Head of the femur
    Explanation
    The articular cartilage is the thickest in the head of the femur. This is because the head of the femur is the part that fits into the acetabulum, forming the hip joint. The articular cartilage in this area needs to be thicker to provide cushioning and support for the joint during movement.

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  • 12. 

    Overall congruence of the hip joint does what to the femroal head and acetabulum?

    • A.

      Decreases stress between femoral head and acetabulum

    • B.

      Allows for the joint to follow the convex-concave rule

    • C.

      Increases forces between femoral head and acetabulum

    • D.

      Increases stability

    • E.

      Provides a larger moment arm

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Decreases stress between femoral head and acetabulum
    D. Increases stability
    Explanation
    The overall congruence of the hip joint decreases stress between the femoral head and acetabulum. It also increases stability.

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  • 13. 

    Large bending moments in the neck of the femur are sustained by what?

    • A.

      Articular cartilage

    • B.

      Ligaments

    • C.

      Joint capsule

    • D.

      Trabecular bone

    • E.

      Calcaneous bone

    Correct Answer
    D. Trabecular bone
    Explanation
    Trabecular bone is the correct answer because it is responsible for sustaining large bending moments in the neck of the femur. Trabecular bone, also known as cancellous or spongy bone, is found at the ends of long bones and provides structural support. It is highly porous and contains a network of trabeculae, which helps to distribute forces and absorb impact. In the neck of the femur, where significant bending moments occur, trabecular bone plays a crucial role in maintaining stability and preventing fractures.

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  • 14. 

    The hip joint is (check all that apply)...

    • A.

      Triaxial

    • B.

      Ball and socket

    • C.

      Synovial

    • D.

      Synarthrosis

    • E.

      Hinge

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Triaxial
    B. Ball and socket
    C. Synovial
    Explanation
    The hip joint is triaxial because it allows movement in three planes - flexion/extension, abduction/adduction, and internal/external rotation. It is also a ball and socket joint, which means that the rounded head of the femur fits into the cup-shaped socket of the pelvis, allowing for a wide range of motion. Additionally, the hip joint is synovial, meaning it is surrounded by a synovial membrane that produces synovial fluid to lubricate and nourish the joint.

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  • 15. 

    The joint capsule of the hip.....

    • A.

      Surrounds the acetabulum

    • B.

      Attaches to the greater and lesser trochanters

    • C.

      Encloses the femoral head and most of the neck

    • D.

      Attaches to the intertrochanteric line and crest

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Surrounds the acetabulum
    C. Encloses the femoral head and most of the neck
    D. Attaches to the intertrochanteric line and crest
    Explanation
    The joint capsule of the hip surrounds the acetabulum, encloses the femoral head and most of the neck, and attaches to the intertrochanteric line and crest. This means that the joint capsule completely encompasses the hip joint, providing stability and support to the joint. Additionally, the attachment to the intertrochanteric line and crest helps to anchor the joint capsule to the surrounding bones, further enhancing its function in maintaining joint integrity.

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  • 16. 

    The primary blood supply to the femoral head comes from where?

    • A.

      Femoral artery

    • B.

      Neck of the femur

    • C.

      Arterioles surrounding the head of the femur

    • D.

      Femoral vein

    • E.

      Sciatic nerve

    Correct Answer
    B. Neck of the femur
    Explanation
    The primary blood supply to the femoral head comes from the neck of the femur. The femoral head receives its blood supply from the medial and lateral circumflex femoral arteries, which branch off from the profunda femoris artery. These arteries travel through the neck of the femur and provide the necessary blood flow to the femoral head.

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  • 17. 

    Ligaments of the hip joint provide which of the following functions?

    • A.

      Limit hyperextension ROM and reinforce anterior capsule

    • B.

      Limit ROM in all directions and reinforce anterior capsule

    • C.

      Limit hyperextension ROM and reinforce posterior capsule

    • D.

      Limit ROM in all directions and reinforce posterior capsule

    • E.

      Limits hyperextension only

    Correct Answer
    A. Limit hyperextension ROM and reinforce anterior capsule
    Explanation
    The ligaments of the hip joint limit hyperextension range of motion (ROM) and reinforce the anterior capsule. This means that they prevent excessive backward movement of the hip joint and provide additional support to the front part of the joint.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following characteristics describe the Iliofemoral ligament (check all the apply)?

    • A.

      Strongest ligament

    • B.

      Y shaped, with anterior and posterior portions

    • C.

      Limits extension and abduction

    • D.

      Limits extension and internal rotation

    • E.

      Anterior fibers limit extension and external rotation, while superior fibers limit adduction

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Strongest ligament
    B. Y shaped, with anterior and posterior portions
    E. Anterior fibers limit extension and external rotation, while superior fibers limit adduction
    Explanation
    The Iliofemoral ligament is the strongest ligament in the body. It is y-shaped, with anterior and posterior portions. The ligament limits extension and abduction of the hip joint. Additionally, the anterior fibers of the ligament limit extension and external rotation, while the superior fibers limit adduction of the hip joint.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following characteristics describes the Ischialfemoral ligament (check all the apply)?

    • A.

      Strongest ligament

    • B.

      Y shaped, with anterior and posterior portions

    • C.

      Limits extension and abduction

    • D.

      Limits extension and internal rotation

    • E.

      Anterior fibers limit extension and external rotation, while superior fibers limit adduction

    Correct Answer
    D. Limits extension and internal rotation
    Explanation
    The Ischialfemoral ligament limits extension and internal rotation.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following characteristics describes the Pubofemoral ligament (check all the apply)?

    • A.

      Strongest ligament

    • B.

      Y shaped, with anterior and posterior portions

    • C.

      Limits extension and abduction

    • D.

      Limits extension and internal rotation

    • E.

      Anterior fibers limit extension and external rotation, while superior fibers limit adduction

    Correct Answer
    C. Limits extension and abduction
    Explanation
    The Pubofemoral ligament is described as limiting extension and abduction.

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  • 21. 

    The ligament to the head of the femur

    • A.

      Provides mechanical support and blood supply to femoral head

    • B.

      Provides stabilization and limits hip extension

    • C.

      Provides little mechanical support and helps stabilize the hip joint

    • D.

      Provides lirrle mechanical support and inadequate blood supply to femoral head

    • E.

      Provides stabilization and inadeqaute blood supply to femoral head

    Correct Answer
    D. Provides lirrle mechanical support and inadequate blood supply to femoral head
    Explanation
    The ligament to the head of the femur provides little mechanical support and inadequate blood supply to the femoral head. This means that while it does offer some support and stabilization to the hip joint, it is not the primary source of mechanical support. Additionally, the blood supply it provides to the femoral head is insufficient, which can lead to issues such as avascular necrosis.

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  • 22. 

    The stability of the hip joint is provided by what?

    • A.

      Bony surfaces and strong ligaments

    • B.

      Joints 

    • C.

      Muscles that surround the joint

    • D.

      Joints and strong ligaments

    • E.

      Both A and C

    Correct Answer
    E. Both A and C
    Explanation
    The stability of the hip joint is provided by bony surfaces, strong ligaments, and muscles that surround the hip joint. So, the correct answer is “bony surfaces, strong ligaments, and muscles that surround the hip joint”.

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  • 23. 

    What is the normal femoral neck angle?

    • A.

      15 degress

    • B.

      45 degrees

    • C.

      90 degrees

    • D.

      125 degress

    • E.

      150 degress

    Correct Answer
    D. 125 degress
    Explanation
    The normal femoral neck angle is typically around 125 degrees. This angle is important because it helps to determine the stability and function of the hip joint. A femoral neck angle that is significantly greater or smaller than 125 degrees can indicate certain conditions or abnormalities, such as hip dysplasia or femoral neck fractures. Therefore, it is important for healthcare professionals to measure and assess the femoral neck angle to diagnose and treat these conditions effectively.

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  • 24. 

    What is the difference between coxa valga and coxa vara?

    • A.

      Coxa valga descrives excessive femoral neck angle and coxa vara describes normal femoral neck angle.

    • B.

      Coxa valga describes excessive femoral neck angle and coxa vara describes a lack in femoral neck angle

    • C.

      Coxa valga describes normal femoral neck angle and coxa vara describes excessive femoral neck angle

    • D.

      Coxa valga describes normal femoral neck angle and coxa vera describes a lack in femoral neck angle

    • E.

      Coxa valga describes a lack in femoral neck angle and coxa vara describes excessive femroal neck angle

    Correct Answer
    B. Coxa valga describes excessive femoral neck angle and coxa vara describes a lack in femoral neck angle
    Explanation
    Coxa valga refers to an excessive femoral neck angle, where the angle between the femoral neck and the shaft of the femur is greater than normal. On the other hand, coxa vara describes a lack in femoral neck angle, where the angle between the femoral neck and the shaft of the femur is smaller than normal.

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  • 25. 

    Mechanical effects of coxa valgus and coxa vara include all of the following except:

    • A.

      Altered muscle moment arm

    • B.

      Altered joint reaction force alignment

    • C.

      Altered arrangement of cancellous bone arrays

    • D.

      Decreased stabilty of the hip joint

    • E.

      All of the above are mechanical effects

    Correct Answer
    D. Decreased stabilty of the hip joint
    Explanation
    The mechanical effects of coxa valgus and coxa vara include altered muscle moment arm, altered joint reaction force alignment, and altered arrangement of cancellous bone arrays. These changes can affect the biomechanics of the hip joint, potentially leading to instability. Therefore, the correct answer is that decreased stability of the hip joint is not a mechanical effect of coxa valgus and coxa vara.

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  • 26. 

    Normal transverse plain alignment includes:

    • A.

      Slight anteversion of 25 degrees

    • B.

      Slight anteversion of 20 degrees

    • C.

      Slight anteversion of 15 degrees

    • D.

      Slight anteversion of 10 degress

    • E.

      Slight anteversion of 5 degrees

    Correct Answer
    C. Slight anteversion of 15 degrees
    Explanation
    Normal transverse plain alignment includes a slight anteversion of 15 degrees. This means that the angle between the axis of the bone and the frontal plane is 15 degrees. Anteversion refers to the forward rotation of a bone or joint. In this case, a slight forward rotation of 15 degrees is considered normal for the transverse plane alignment.

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  • 27. 

    Valgus and anteversion

    • A.

      Change during development

    • B.

      Never change

    • C.

      Change in indication of pathological damage to the hip joint

    Correct Answer
    A. Change during development
    Explanation
    During development, both valgus and anteversion can change. Valgus refers to the outward angulation of a bone or joint, while anteversion refers to the inward rotation of a bone or joint. These changes occur as a result of growth and maturation, as the bones and joints adapt to the body's changing needs. Therefore, it is expected that valgus and anteversion will change during development.

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  • 28. 

    Tibial torsion and foot alignment are affected by

    • A.

      Frontal plane alignment

    • B.

      Sagittal plane alignment

    • C.

      Transverse plane alignment

    • D.

      None of the above

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Transverse plane alignment
    Explanation
    Tibial torsion refers to the rotation of the tibia bone in the lower leg, while foot alignment refers to the positioning of the foot. Both of these factors can be influenced by the alignment of the transverse plane, which is the plane that divides the body into upper and lower halves. The transverse plane alignment can affect the rotation and alignment of the tibia and foot, making it the correct answer.

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  • 29. 

    Normal hip motion is linked to:

    • A.

      Pelvic motion

    • B.

      Low back motion

    • C.

      Hip motion

    • D.

      Leg motion

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Pelvic motion
    B. Low back motion
    Explanation
    Normal hip motion is linked to pelvic motion and low back motion. The hip joint is located in close proximity to the pelvis and the lower back, and these areas work together to allow for smooth and coordinated movement of the hip. The pelvis provides a stable base for the hip joint, while the lower back provides support and flexibility. Therefore, any abnormalities or restrictions in pelvic or lower back motion can directly affect hip motion. Overall, all of these factors are interconnected and contribute to normal hip motion.

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  • 30. 

    Normal hip ROM.

    • A.

      Depends on age

    • B.

      Does not vary

    • C.

      Gender has small effect on

    Correct Answer
    C. Gender has small effect on
    Explanation
    Gender has a small effect on normal hip range of motion (ROM). This means that males and females may have slightly different ranges of motion in their hips, but the difference is not significant. Age and other factors may also play a role in determining hip ROM, but this answer specifically focuses on the impact of gender.

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  • 31. 

    What structure of the hip limit ROM?

    • A.

      Ligaments

    • B.

      Muscles

    • C.

      Bony structures (acetabulum and femoral head)

    • D.

      A and B are correct

    • E.

      A and C are correct

    Correct Answer
    D. A and B are correct
    Explanation
    The correct answer is A and B are correct. The ligaments and muscles of the hip joint play a crucial role in limiting the range of motion (ROM). Ligaments are tough bands of tissue that connect bones and help stabilize the joint, preventing excessive movement. Muscles surrounding the hip joint also contribute to limiting ROM by contracting and relaxing to control the movement of the joint. Bony structures, such as the acetabulum (socket) and femoral head (ball), provide the basic structure of the joint but do not directly limit ROM.

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  • 32. 

    Position of the hip is dependant on which of the following?

    • A.

      Pelvis

    • B.

      Femur

    • C.

      Muscles of the pelvis

    • D.

      Ligaments

    • E.

      Articular cartilage

    Correct Answer
    A. Pelvis
    Explanation
    The position of the hip is dependent on the pelvis because the hip joint is formed where the femur (thigh bone) connects with the pelvis. The pelvis provides the socket for the femur, allowing it to move and rotate within the joint. The muscles of the pelvis, ligaments, and articular cartilage also play a role in supporting and stabilizing the hip joint, but the primary determinant of the hip's position is the structure and alignment of the pelvis.

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  • 33. 

    Walking typically uses how much hip flexion?

    • A.

      10-20 degrees

    • B.

      20-30 degrees

    • C.

      30-40 degrees

    • D.

      40-50 degrees

    • E.

      50-60 degrees

    Correct Answer
    B. 20-30 degrees
    Explanation
    Walking typically uses 20-30 degrees of hip flexion. Hip flexion refers to the movement of bringing the thigh towards the chest. During walking, the hip flexors contract to lift the leg off the ground and swing it forward. This movement requires a certain degree of hip flexion to ensure proper stride length and efficient movement. 20-30 degrees is the typical range of hip flexion used during walking, allowing for smooth and coordinated leg movements.

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  • 34. 

    What are some differences in the hip joint from the shoulder joint?

    • A.

      Hip is more stable and less mobile than shoulder joint

    • B.

      Shoulder joint has more stability from muscles than hip joint

    • C.

      Hip joint is more congruent than the shoulder joint

    • D.

      All of the above are differences

    • E.

      None of the above are differences

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above are differences
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above are differences." This means that all of the statements provided in the options are true and represent differences between the hip joint and the shoulder joint. The hip joint is indeed more stable and less mobile than the shoulder joint. The shoulder joint does have more stability from muscles compared to the hip joint. Additionally, the hip joint is more congruent (better fitting) than the shoulder joint.

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  • 35. 

    Hip flexors include which of the following one joint muscles?

    • A.

      Psoas Major and Minor

    • B.

      Iliacus

    • C.

      Tensor Fascia Latae

    • D.

      Sartorius

    • E.

      Rectus Femoris

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Psoas Major and Minor
    B. Iliacus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Psoas Major and Minor, Iliacus. These muscles are part of the hip flexor group and are responsible for flexing the hip joint. The Psoas Major and Minor muscles originate from the lumbar spine and insert into the femur, while the Iliacus muscle originates from the iliac fossa and also inserts into the femur. Together, these muscles work to bring the thigh towards the abdomen and play a crucial role in activities such as walking, running, and climbing stairs.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following are two joint hip flexors?

    • A.

      Psoas Major and Minor

    • B.

      Iliacus

    • C.

      Rectus Femoris

    • D.

      Tensor Fascia Latae

    • E.

      Sartorius

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Rectus Femoris
    D. Tensor Fascia Latae
    E. Sartorius
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Rectus Femoris, Tensor Fascia Latae, and Sartorius. These three muscles are all hip flexors. The Rectus Femoris is one of the quadriceps muscles located in the front of the thigh. The Tensor Fascia Latae is a small muscle on the outside of the hip that helps to stabilize and flex the hip joint. The Sartorius is the longest muscle in the body and runs from the hip to the inner knee. All three of these muscles work together to flex the hip joint and help with movements such as walking, running, and climbing stairs.

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  • 37. 

    One joint hip extensors include which of the following?

    • A.

      Quads

    • B.

      Hamstrings

    • C.

      Gluteus maximus

    • D.

      Gluteus Minimus

    • E.

      Adductor magnus

    Correct Answer(s)
    C. Gluteus maximus
    E. Adductor magnus
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Gluteus maximus and Adductor magnus. The hip extensors are the muscles responsible for extending the hip joint, which means they help to move the thigh backward. The gluteus maximus is the largest muscle in the buttocks and is a powerful hip extensor. The adductor magnus is a large muscle located on the inner thigh that also contributes to hip extension. Both of these muscles play a significant role in extending the hip joint.

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  • 38. 

    Two joint hip extensors include which of the following?

    • A.

      Quads

    • B.

      Hamstrings

    • C.

      Gluteus Maximus

    • D.

      Gluteus Minimus

    • E.

      Adductor Magnus

    Correct Answer
    B. Hamstrings
    Explanation
    The hamstrings are a group of muscles located at the back of the thigh that help in extending the hip joint. They work in conjunction with other muscles to perform movements such as running, jumping, and bending the knee. The quads, gluteus maximus, gluteus minimus, and adductor magnus are not hip extensors, but rather have different functions such as knee extension, hip abduction, and hip adduction respectively. Therefore, the correct answer is hamstrings.

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  • 39. 

    Primary hip abductors include which of the following?

    • A.

      Gluteus Maximus

    • B.

      Gluteus Minimus

    • C.

      Gluteus Medius

    • D.

      Sartorious

    • E.

      Tensor Fascia Latae

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Gluteus Minimus
    C. Gluteus Medius
    Explanation
    The primary hip abductors include the Gluteus Minimus and Gluteus Medius. These muscles are responsible for moving the leg away from the midline of the body. The Gluteus Minimus is located deep to the Gluteus Medius and helps to stabilize the hip joint. Both muscles work together to provide stability and control during activities such as walking and running.

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  • 40. 

    Muscles that assist in hip abduction include:

    • A.

      Gluteus Maximus

    • B.

      Gluteus Minimus

    • C.

      Gluteus Medius

    • D.

      Sartorius

    • E.

      Tensor Fascia Latae

    Correct Answer(s)
    D. Sartorius
    E. Tensor Fascia Latae
    Explanation
    The muscles that assist in hip abduction are the Sartorius and Tensor Fascia Latae. These muscles are responsible for moving the leg away from the midline of the body. The Sartorius is a long, thin muscle that runs diagonally across the front of the thigh, while the Tensor Fascia Latae is a small muscle located on the outer side of the hip. Both of these muscles work together to help with hip abduction and contribute to the overall movement and stability of the hip joint.

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  • 41. 

    One joint hip adductors include:

    • A.

      Gracilis

    • B.

      Pectineus

    • C.

      Adductor Brevis

    • D.

      Adductor Longus

    • E.

      Adductor Magnus

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Pectineus
    C. Adductor Brevis
    D. Adductor Longus
    E. Adductor Magnus
    Explanation
    The correct answer includes the muscles Pectineus, Adductor Brevis, Adductor Longus, and Adductor Magnus. These muscles are all part of the hip adductors, which are responsible for bringing the thigh towards the midline of the body. The Gracilis muscle is also a hip adductor, but it is not included in the correct answer.

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  • 42. 

    Two joint muscles in hip adduction include:

    • A.

      Gracilis

    • B.

      Adductor Brevis

    • C.

      Adductor Longus

    • D.

      Adductor Magnus

    • E.

      Pectineus

    Correct Answer
    A. Gracilis
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Gracilis. The question is asking for two joint muscles in hip adduction, and the Gracilis is one of them. The other muscles listed, including Adductor Brevis, Adductor Longus, Adductor Magnus, and Pectineus, are also muscles in the hip region, but they are not specifically mentioned as being involved in hip adduction. Therefore, the Gracilis is the only muscle listed that fits the criteria of the question.

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  • 43. 

    External Rotators of the hip include:

    • A.

      Piriformis

    • B.

      Obturators

    • C.

      Quadratus femoris

    • D.

      Gemellis superior and inferior

    • E.

      Medial hamstrings

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Piriformis
    B. Obturators
    C. Quadratus femoris
    D. Gemellis superior and inferior
    Explanation
    The external rotators of the hip are a group of muscles that are responsible for rotating the thigh bone outward. These muscles include the piriformis, obturators, quadratus femoris, gemellis superior and inferior, and medial hamstrings. These muscles work together to help with movements such as turning the leg outwards or crossing one leg over the other.

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  • 44. 

    Muscles that assist in internal rotations include:

    • A.

      Medial Hamstrings

    • B.

      Sartorius

    • C.

      Tensor Fascia Latae

    • D.

      Pectineus

    • E.

      Piriformis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Medial Hamstrings
    C. Tensor Fascia Latae
    Explanation
    The muscles that assist in internal rotations are the medial hamstrings and the tensor fascia latae. The medial hamstrings, which include the semitendinosus and semimembranosus muscles, are located on the back of the thigh and help to internally rotate the hip joint. The tensor fascia latae is a small muscle located on the side of the hip and also aids in internal rotation. These muscles work together to generate the necessary force for internal rotation movements.

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  • 45. 

    Weak hip flexors cause:

    • A.

      Decreased hip extension

    • B.

      Decreased hip flexion

    • C.

      Decreased hip abduction

    • D.

      Decreased hip adduction

    • E.

      Decreased hip rotation

    Correct Answer
    B. Decreased hip flexion
    Explanation
    Weak hip flexors can lead to decreased hip flexion, which refers to the movement of bringing the thigh towards the abdomen. Hip flexors are responsible for initiating this movement, and if they are weak, it can result in limited range of motion and difficulty in performing activities that require lifting the leg or bending at the hip joint. This can affect various daily activities such as walking, running, and climbing stairs. Therefore, decreased hip flexion is a common consequence of weak hip flexors.

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  • 46. 

    Increased tightness in hip flexors cause:

    • A.

      Decrease hip flexion

    • B.

      Decrease hip extension

    • C.

      Anterior pelvic tilt in standing, causing lumbar lordosis

    • D.

      Posterior pelvic tilt in standing, causing lumbar kyphodosis

    • E.

      Hanging on the ligament

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Decrease hip extension
    C. Anterior pelvic tilt in standing, causing lumbar lordosis
    Explanation
    Increased tightness in the hip flexors can lead to a decrease in hip extension. This is because tight hip flexors restrict the movement of the hip joint, making it difficult to fully extend the leg backwards. Additionally, tight hip flexors can cause an anterior pelvic tilt in standing, which refers to the pelvis tilting forward and causing an increased curvature in the lower back known as lumbar lordosis. This is because the tight hip flexors pull the pelvis forward, causing an exaggerated arch in the lower back.

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  • 47. 

    The weakness of hip extensors causes:

    • A.

      Decreased hip extension

    • B.

      Decreased hip flexion

    • C.

      Lurch when wallking

    • D.

      Lumbar lordosis

    • E.

      Lumbar kyphodosis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Decreased hip extension
    C. Lurch when wallking
    Explanation
    The weakness of hip extensors can lead to decreased hip extension, which means that the ability to move the hip joint backward is reduced. This can result in difficulties in activities such as walking, as the hip extensors play a crucial role in propelling the body forward during the gait cycle. The lurching motion observed during walking can be attributed to the weakened hip extensors' inability to properly extend the hip joint.

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  • 48. 

    The tightness of hip extensors causes:

    • A.

      Decreaed hip extension

    • B.

      Decreased hip flexion

    • C.

      Decreased external rotation

    • D.

      Decreased internal rotation

    • E.

      Lower back pain

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Decreased hip flexion
    D. Decreased internal rotation
    E. Lower back pain
    Explanation
    Tightness in the hip extensors can lead to decreased hip flexion, decreased internal rotation, and lower back pain. When the hip extensors are tight, they can limit the range of motion in the hip joint, making it difficult to bring the knee towards the chest (hip flexion) and rotate the hip inward (internal rotation). This can result in compensatory movements and increased stress on the lower back, leading to pain.

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  • 49. 

    The weakness of hip abductors causes:

    • A.

      Decreased abduction

    • B.

      Decreased adduction

    • C.

      Instability during single leg stance

    • D.

      Glut medius limp

    • E.

      Lumbar lordosis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Decreased abduction
    C. Instability during single leg stance
    D. Glut medius limp
    Explanation
    The weakness of hip abductors can result in decreased abduction, as these muscles are responsible for moving the leg away from the midline of the body. This weakness can also lead to instability during single leg stance, as the hip abductors help to stabilize the pelvis and maintain balance during this activity. Additionally, a weak hip abductor, specifically the gluteus medius muscle, can cause a limp or a characteristic gait pattern known as a "glute medius limp." However, there is no direct relationship between hip abductor weakness and decreased adduction or lumbar lordosis.

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  • 50. 

    Tightness in hip abduction causes:

    • A.

      Decreased hip abduction

    • B.

      Decreased hip adduction

    • C.

      Pelvic drop during standing

    • D.

      Glut medius limp

    • E.

      Low back pain

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Decreased hip adduction
    C. Pelvic drop during standing
    Explanation
    Tightness in hip abduction causes decreased hip adduction and pelvic drop during standing. When the hip abductors are tight, it limits the range of motion in hip adduction, making it difficult to bring the leg back towards the midline of the body. This can lead to a pelvic drop during standing, as the body compensates for the limited range of motion by tilting the pelvis to the side. This imbalance and compensatory movement can contribute to low back pain and a limp in the glut medius muscle.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Nov 10, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 25, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Kdana0618
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