I-o Phd Chair APA Knowledge Test

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I-O PhD Chair APA Knowledge Test


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which one of the following is not an acceptable example for how to cite a source in text when paraphrasing?

    • A.

      In 2013, Miller’s study of college students revealed that…

    • B.

      Miller (2013) found in a study of college students that…

    • C.

      Today, college students are more informed (Miller).

    • D.

      College students today are more informed (Miller, 2013).

    Correct Answer
    C. Today, college students are more informed (Miller).
    Explanation
    The given answer, "Today, college students are more informed (Miller)," is not an acceptable example for how to cite a source in text when paraphrasing because it does not include any specific information about the study or the year it was conducted. In-text citations should include the author's last name and the year of publication to provide proper credit to the original source.

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  • 2. 

    Which one of the following examples reflects the correct format for citing an in-text citation the first time when there are six authors?  

    • A.

      According to Jones, Peters, Kane, Smith, Wiley, and Rope (2013), college students...

    • B.

      According to Jones et al. (2013), college students…

    • C.

      According to Jones et al., (2013), college students…

    • D.

      According to Jones, A. S. (2013), college students…

    Correct Answer
    B. According to Jones et al. (2013), college students…
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "According to Jones et al. (2013), college students..." because it follows the proper format for citing an in-text citation when there are six authors.

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  • 3. 

    Which one of the following is the correct format for parenthetically citing two or more works together?

    • A.

      College students today are more informed (Jones; Kessler)

    • B.

      College students today are more informed (Jones, 2013, Kessler, 2009)

    • C.

      College students today are more informed (Kessler, 2009; Jones, 2013)

    • D.

      College students today are more informed (Jones, 2013; Kessler, 2009)

    Correct Answer
    D. College students today are more informed (Jones, 2013; Kessler, 2009)
    Explanation
    The correct format for parenthetically citing two or more works together is to list the authors' last names and the years of publication in parentheses, separated by semicolons. In this case, the correct format is "College students today are more informed (Jones, 2013; Kessler, 2009)."

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  • 4. 

    A student finds a 2013 article that does not have an author.  The title of the article is “What Every College Student Should Know About 20th Century Skills.” Which one of the following is the most appropriate format for parenthetically citing the article?

    • A.

      (“What Every,” 2013)

    • B.

      (“What Every College Student Should Know About 20th Century Skills,” 2013)

    • C.

      (Unknown, 2013)

    • D.

      (“Unknown,” 2013)

    Correct Answer
    A. (“What Every,” 2013)
    Explanation
    The most appropriate format for parenthetically citing the article is ("What Every," 2013) because it includes the first few words of the title in quotation marks, followed by the year of publication in parentheses. This format is commonly used when the article does not have an author.

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  • 5. 

    A student finds a journal article on ProQuest that she wants to cite.  What should the student include at the end of the reference entry?

    • A.

      Nothing. She should just end the reference with the article page numbers.

    • B.

      The URL within ProQuest where she retrieved the article.

    • C.

      The doi or the journal homepage URL if no doi.

    • D.

      The journal homepage URL.

    Correct Answer
    C. The doi or the journal homepage URL if no doi.
    Explanation
    The student should include the doi (digital object identifier) or the journal homepage URL if no doi at the end of the reference entry. This is because dois are unique identifiers that provide a persistent link to the article, ensuring that it can be accessed even if the URL changes. If the article does not have a doi, the student should include the journal homepage URL instead.

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  • 6. 

    Which one of the following reflects incorrect use of numbers?

    • A.

      Twenty-five participants completed the survey.

    • B.

      The participant was a 5-year old.

    • C.

      The participants returned the surveys within 2 weeks.

    • D.

      All six of the 12 participants agreed with the statement.

    Correct Answer
    D. All six of the 12 participants agreed with the statement.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All six of the 12 participants agreed with the statement." This statement is incorrect because it is combining two different numbers in a way that does not make sense. It should either be "All six participants agreed with the statement" or "12 out of the 12 participants agreed with the statement." The combination of "all six" and "12 participants" is contradictory and incorrect.

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  • 7. 

    With the exception of some p values, most statistics should be rounded to how many decimal places?

    • A.

      One

    • B.

      Two

    • C.

      Three

    • D.

      Four

    Correct Answer
    B. Two
    Explanation
    Most statistics should be rounded to two decimal places. This is because rounding to two decimal places provides a good balance between maintaining accuracy and presenting the data in a concise and readable format. Rounding to one decimal place may result in losing important information, while rounding to three or four decimal places may lead to unnecessary precision and make the data harder to interpret. Therefore, rounding to two decimal places is generally recommended in statistical analysis.

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  • 8. 

    Which one of the following is false about APA style headings?

    • A.

      Headings are indicated without numbers or letters.

    • B.

      The introduction never has a heading.

    • C.

      The headings should always be used in order.

    • D.

      There are four levels of headings.

    Correct Answer
    D. There are four levels of headings.
    Explanation
    The false statement about APA style headings is that there are four levels of headings. In APA style, there are actually five levels of headings. The levels are formatted differently and are used to organize and structure the content of the paper. The correct order of headings should always be followed, but the introduction does not have a specific heading. Headings are indicated without numbers or letters, but they are formatted with bold and centered text.

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  • 9. 

    For ease of reading comprehension, how many spaces should we include at the end of a sentence in the body of an APA style paper?

    • A.

      0

    • B.

      1

    • C.

      2

    • D.

      3

    Correct Answer
    C. 2
    Explanation
    In APA style papers, it is recommended to include two spaces at the end of a sentence for ease of reading comprehension. This allows for better visual separation between sentences and helps the reader to easily identify the end of each sentence.

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  • 10. 

    When writing, students should use a font that is clear and highly readable. What font does APA recommend?

    • A.

      Arial 12

    • B.

      Calibri 12

    • C.

      Cambria 12

    • D.

      Times New Roman 12

    Correct Answer
    D. Times New Roman 12
    Explanation
    APA (American Psychological Association) recommends using Times New Roman 12 as the font for writing. This font is widely accepted and considered to be clear and highly readable. It is a standard choice for academic and professional writing because of its legibility and readability.

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  • 11. 

    Which one of the follow is false about APA style tables and figures?

    • A.

      The font should be 8 to 12 point for tables and 8 to 14 point for figures.

    • B.

      The table text must be double spaced.

    • C.

      A sans serif font such as Aria or Helvetica is required for figures.

    • D.

      A serif font of Times New Roman is recommended for tables.

    Correct Answer
    B. The table text must be double spaced.
    Explanation
    According to APA style guidelines, the table text should not be double spaced. It should be single spaced.

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  • 12. 

    Students often include tables and figures in their dissertation milestone documents. Which one of the follow is true about including tables or figures that are reprinted or adapted from others’ work?

    • A.

      Students can freely insert tables reprinted from other sources, as long as they properly cite the source.

    • B.

      Students can freely insert figures reprinted from other sources, as long as they properly cite the source.

    • C.

      Students must, in most cases, obtain permission to reprint, but not adapt, tables or figures from other sources.

    • D.

      Students must, in most cases, obtain permission to reprint or adapt tables or figures from other sources.

    Correct Answer
    D. Students must, in most cases, obtain permission to reprint or adapt tables or figures from other sources.
    Explanation
    Students must, in most cases, obtain permission to reprint or adapt tables or figures from other sources. This is because tables and figures are considered intellectual property and are protected by copyright laws. Even if students properly cite the source, they still need to obtain permission to use someone else's work. This ensures that the original creator's rights are respected and acknowledged.

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  • 13. 

    Students often include lists within their dissertation milestone documents. How should students identify elements in a series within a paragraph?

    • A.

      Using lowercase letters in parentheses (e.g., (a) text, (b) text, and (c) text.)

    • B.

      Using lowercase letters with closed parentheses (e.g., a) text, b) text, and c) text.)

    • C.

      Using bulleted lists to separate three or more elements

    • D.

      Using numbered lists (e.g., 1. text, 2. text, 3. text)

    Correct Answer
    A. Using lowercase letters in parentheses (e.g., (a) text, (b) text, and (c) text.)
    Explanation
    Students should identify elements in a series within a paragraph by using lowercase letters in parentheses. This format helps to clearly separate and label each element in the series, making it easier for readers to understand and follow.

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  • 14. 

    You are reviewing a student’s milestone document and notice the student is using the following format for all journal articles he retrieved online: Ramey, L. A. (2013). Employers flunk quiz about today’s college students, Journal of Knowledge, 23(4), 86-89. What would be the most appropriate feedback to provide to the student?

    • A.

      “Nice job! You have included the correct formatting for journal articles retrieved online.”

    • B.

      “Please ensure you include the URL of the database you retrieved the journal article from.”

    • C.

      “Please ensure you include the journal ISSN number at the end of the reference.”

    • D.

      “Please ensure you include the doi number. If no doi number, include the URL of the journal homepage.”

    Correct Answer
    D. “Please ensure you include the doi number. If no doi number, include the URL of the journal homepage.”
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Please ensure you include the doi number. If no doi number, include the URL of the journal homepage." This is because when citing journal articles retrieved online, it is important to include the doi number if available. If there is no doi number, the URL of the journal homepage should be included instead. Including the URL of the database or the journal ISSN number is not necessary in this case.

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  • 15. 

    You are reviewing a student’s milestone document and notice the student is using a specific format for all books cited: Ramey, L. A. (2013). Employers flunk quiz about today’s college students. Thousand Oaks: SAGE. What would be the most appropriate feedback to provide to the student?

    • A.

      “Nice job! You have included the correct formatting for books.”

    • B.

      “Please ensure you capitalize the first letter of each major word in book titles.”

    • C.

      “Please ensure you include the publisher city and state in book references.”

    • D.

      “Please ensure you do not italicize book titles in book references.”

    Correct Answer
    C. “Please ensure you include the publisher city and state in book references.”
    Explanation
    The student's citation format is correct except for the missing information of the publisher's city and state. To improve their citation, they should include the publisher's location in the book references.

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