Invertebrate Zoology Bio 230 Dr. O'neal Final Exam Sg

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Invertebrate Zoology Bio 230 Dr. O

Test will encompass all of semester information including: Evolution, Protists, Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelmintes, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthoropda Lophophorata, Echinodermata, Chordata.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 
    Define Natural Selection.
  • 2. 
  • 3. 
    Describe the Endosymbiont Theory. When is it first seen and evidence in support of this theory. 
  • 4. 
    Decribe reproduction in sponges.
  • 5. 
    Explain Synchornized Coral Spawning.
  • 6. 
    Describe the life cycle of Trematoda. What adaptations occur within host?
  • 7. 
    Describe the Water Vascular System and what is its purpose or uses?
  • 8. 
    List the Characteristics of Phylum Arthropoda.
  • 9. 
    Which of the following are evidence of Evolution?
    • A. 

      Homology

    • B. 

      Direct Observation

    • C. 

      Biogeography

    • D. 

      Indirect Observation

    • E. 

      Fossil Record

  • 10. 
    • A. 

      Hinged Jaw > Vertebral Column > Four Legs > Amnion > Hair

    • B. 

      Hair > Amnion > Four Legs > Hinged Jaw > Vertebral Column

    • C. 

      Vertebral Column > Hinged Jaw > Four Legs > Amnion > Hair

    • D. 

      Amnion > Hair > Four Legs > Hinged Jaw > Vertebral Column

  • 11. 
    Morphology are ______ traits shared by separate species. 
  • 12. 
    Using this table as a reference, Which of the following are more closely related?
    • A. 

      Frog & Turtle

    • B. 

      Bass & Turtle

  • 13. 
    Convergent evolution is the process in which organisms resemble each other and are directly related. Both evolved similiar due to same or close environments. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 14. 
    Evidence of first Photosynthetic Organism. Check all that Apply.
    • A. 

      Rusted rocks with Iron Oxide

    • B. 

      Microscopic traces of oil with sterols

    • C. 

      Oxygen biological origin during "Oxygen Revolution"

    • D. 

      Grypania spiralis

  • 15. 
    Characteristics of FIRST eukaryotes.
    • A. 

      Grypania spiralis nature

    • B. 

      Rocks containing oil with sterols

    • C. 

      Amoeba-like creatures

    • D. 

      2.7 Bya

  • 16. 
    Which of the following are characteristics of Protists?
    • A. 

      Mostly Multicellular

    • B. 

      Eukaryotes

    • C. 

      Not Plants, Fungi, nor Animals

    • D. 

      Most Morphological Simple Eukaryotes

    • E. 

      Most Simple at Cellular Level

    • F. 

      Autotrophs, Heterotrophs, Mixotrophs

  • 17. 
    In Ophisthokonts, nucleariids gave rise to animals and choanoflagellates gave rise to fungi.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 18. 
    Porifera Characteristics. Check all that apply.
    • A. 

      Unicellular

    • B. 

      Eukaryotes

    • C. 

      Heterotrophic

    • D. 

      Prokaryotes

    • E. 

      Multicellular

    • F. 

      True Tissues

    • G. 

      Tissues Developed from embryo

    • H. 

      First True Animals

  • 19. 
    Phylum Porifera Morphology and Characteristics. Check all that apply.
    • A. 

      No Fixed Shape

    • B. 

      Symmetrical

    • C. 

      Pore Bearing

    • D. 

      Spicules-Composed Skeleton

    • E. 

      Nerves and Muscles are found

    • F. 

      Sessile and Immobile

    • G. 

      Most are Marine

  • 20. 
    Reversible cell differentiation, found on phylum Porifera, is the ability of cells to change type after maturity.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 21. 
    _________ is the top opening for sponges where water is expulsed. 
  • 22. 
    Which of the following are the classes of phylum Porifera?
    • A. 

      Calcarea

    • B. 

      Grypania

    • C. 

      Hexactinellida

    • D. 

      Archaeplastida

    • E. 

      Demospongiae

  • 23. 
    (Porifera) Sponges can alter the rate of movement the flagella beat, larvae flagella stiffens when swims towards sunlight, and they are able to close their oscula when air is sensed. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 24. 
    Which of the following are Evolutionary Adaptations of Porifera?
    • A. 

      Can grow into any shape

    • B. 

      Biotoxins

    • C. 

      Camouflage

    • D. 

      Apisomatic/Bright Colors

    • E. 

      Growth Inhibiting Chemicals

    • F. 

      Hermaphroditic

  • 25. 
    Phylum Cnidaria has maintained a simple body plan with radial symmetry and triploblastic tissue layers.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 26. 
    Cnidaria Characteristics Include: (Check All that Apply)
    • A. 

      Herbivorous

    • B. 

      Tentacles to capture food

    • C. 

      Neamtocysts stinging cells

    • D. 

      Two Body Stages

    • E. 

      Complex Body Plan

    • F. 

      Diploblastic

    • G. 

      Triploblastic

  • 27. 
    Choose One. (Simple / Complex) ________ contractile tissues and nerves in which microfilaments are arranged into contractile fibers are found in Cnidaria. 
  • 28. 
    The gastrovascular cavity in Cnidaria acts as a hydrostatic skeleton.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 29. 
    Coordinates movements and sensory structures on Cnidaria.. 
    • A. 

      True Nerves

    • B. 

      Nerve Net

    • C. 

      Nerve Notochord

  • 30. 
    • A. 

      Bilateral

    • B. 

      Radial

    • C. 

      Asymmetrical

  • 31. 
    Radial symmetry in Platyhelminthes move actively while Bilateral symmetry move passively and show cephalization.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 32. 
    Platyhelminthes and higher organism show Triploblastic tissue layers. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 33. 
    Which of the following are characterisitcs of  "worms"?
    • A. 

      Soft Bodied

    • B. 

      Paired Legs

    • C. 

      Length < Width

    • D. 

      Worm-like Body

    • E. 

      Hydrostatic Locomotion Skeleton

    • F. 

      Triploblastic

    • G. 

      Directional Focus Commonly

  • 34. 
    Phyla Platyhelminthes remove waste and undergo gas exchange by diffusion. They have no circulatory system and use excretory tubules called protonephridia.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 35. 
    Which of the following is the most advanced body cavity?
    • A. 

      Pseudocoelomates

    • B. 

      Coelomates

    • C. 

      Acoelomates

  • 36. 
    Platyhelminthes Characteristics Include: (Check all that Apply)
    • A. 

      Flatworms

    • B. 

      Hermaphroditic

    • C. 

      Internal Fertilization

    • D. 

      No Larval Stage

    • E. 

      Bi-Flagellated Sperm

    • F. 

      Parasitic and Free Living Examples

  • 37. 
    Free living Rhabditophora (Planarians) are aquatic predators and move using ventral cilia and mucus. They have incomplete digestive tract where mouth is entrance and exit. Parasitic are small and inactiveand have small means of distributing food an oxygen. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 38. 
    Platyhelminthes Classes include:
    • A. 

      Rhabditophora

    • B. 

      Annelida

    • C. 

      Nematoda

    • D. 

      Trematoda

    • E. 

      Cestoda

  • 39. 
    Cestoda Characteristics:
    • A. 

      Many Proglottids

    • B. 

      Absorption through osmosis

    • C. 

      Adults live mostly in Vertebrates

    • D. 

      Anterior End with suckers and hooks

    • E. 

      Separate Sexes

    • F. 

      Hermaphroditic

    • G. 

      Tapeworms

  • 40. 
    Phylum Annelida is composed of 15,000 species, are diploblastic coelomates, and have segmented bodies.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 41. 
    Segmentation is a primary advantage for which of the following reasons?
    • A. 

      Allows for external fertilization

    • B. 

      Allows for protection

    • C. 

      Allows body to stretch and escape predation

    • D. 

      It is fast

  • 42. 
    Phylum Echinodermata have ______ symmetry in adult and ______ symmetry in larvae.
    • A. 

      Radial; Asymmetrical

    • B. 

      Asymmetrical; Bilateral

    • C. 

      Radial; Bilateral

    • D. 

      Bilateral; Radial

  • 43. 
  • 44. 
    Which of the following characteristics pertain to Echinodermata?
    • A. 

      Spiny Skin

    • B. 

      No Head

    • C. 

      Protostome Development

    • D. 

      Water Vascular System

  • 45. 
    In Deutorostome Development, mouth develops from the blastophore and anus develops in Protostome Development. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 46. 
    Skeletal System of Echinoderms is individual ossicles that allows for growth without molting.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 47. 
  • 48. 
    • A. 

      Notochord

    • B. 

      Dorsal hollow Nerve Cord

    • C. 

      Pharyngeal Slits

    • D. 

      Nerve Net

    • E. 

      Muscular Post Anal Tail

    • F. 

      Protostome Development

  • 49. 
    Tunicates are the most closely related organism to vertebrates. Chordate Characteristics are more present in larvae. Sessile Adult.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 50. 
    Lancelet larvae feed on plankton in water columns by traping throuh pharynx. After metamorphosis, adult remain active above water.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 51. 
    Arthropoda are 90% of all known species who occupy every niche and have variable body forms. 
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 52. 
    Cuticle Characteristics.
    • A. 

      Hard over Joints

    • B. 

      Hard over Claws

    • C. 

      Soft over Joints

    • D. 

      Hard Over Joints

    • E. 

      Hardened by Calcium Salts in Crustacea

    • F. 

      Ecdysis is required for new Cuticle and Growth

    • G. 

      Three Layers: Epicuticle, Exocuticle, Endocuticle

    • H. 

      Used in Thermoregulation

    • I. 

      Prevents Water Absorption

    • J. 

      Its Molting Requires Hormones

  • 53. 
    Two main Subphyla of Arthropoda. Separate answers with coma and space. (, )
  • 54. 
    Class Crustacea are predominately marine, have 2 pairs of antennae, hardened cuticle, and nauplius larvae to reduce competition.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False

  • 55. 
    Four Sublclasses of Crustacea include: Malacostraca, Copepoda, Cirripeda, and Branchiopoda.
    • A. 

      True

    • B. 

      False