Invertebrate Zoology Bio 230 Dr. O'neal Final Exam Sg

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Invertebrate Zoology Bio 230 Dr. O

Test will encompass all of semester information including: Evolution, Protists, Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelmintes, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthoropda
Lophophorata, Echinodermata, Chordata.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Define Natural Selection.

  • 2. 

    Which of the following are evidence of Evolution?

    • A.

      Homology

    • B.

      Direct Observation

    • C.

      Biogeography

    • D.

      Indirect Observation

    • E.

      Fossil Record

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Homology
    B. Direct Observation
    C. Biogeography
    E. Fossil Record
    Explanation
    Homology, direct observation, biogeography, and the fossil record are all evidence of evolution. Homology refers to the similarity in structure or genetic sequence between different species, indicating a common ancestry. Direct observation involves witnessing evolutionary changes in real-time, such as the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Biogeography studies the distribution of species and how it relates to their evolutionary history. The fossil record provides physical evidence of past life forms and their transitions over time, documenting the changes that have occurred throughout evolution.

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  • 3. 

    Order the following from MOST ADAPTED to LEAST ADAPTED?

    • A.

      Hinged Jaw > Vertebral Column > Four Legs > Amnion > Hair

    • B.

      Hair > Amnion > Four Legs > Hinged Jaw > Vertebral Column

    • C.

      Vertebral Column > Hinged Jaw > Four Legs > Amnion > Hair

    • D.

      Amnion > Hair > Four Legs > Hinged Jaw > Vertebral Column

    Correct Answer
    B. Hair > Amnion > Four Legs > Hinged Jaw > Vertebral Column
    Explanation
    The correct order from MOST ADAPTED to LEAST ADAPTED is Hair, Amnion, Four Legs, Hinged Jaw, and Vertebral Column. Hair is the most adapted because it provides insulation, camouflage, and sensory functions. Amnion is next because it protects the developing embryo in amniotic eggs. Four legs come after as they provide stability and mobility. Hinged Jaw is less adapted as it allows for a wider range of feeding strategies. Finally, the Vertebral Column is the least adapted as it is a basic feature found in many animals but does not provide specific advantages on its own.

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  • 4. 

    Morphology are ______ traits shared by separate species. 

    Correct Answer
    physical
    physcal
    phisycal
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "physical." Morphology refers to the study of the form and structure of organisms. It involves examining the physical characteristics and traits that are shared by different species. The variations in the spelling of "physical" in the options provided are likely typographical errors.

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  • 5. 

    Using this table as a reference, Which of the following are more closely related?

    • A.

      Frog & Turtle

    • B.

      Bass & Turtle

    Correct Answer
    A. Frog & Turtle
    Explanation
    Frogs and turtles are more closely related because they both belong to the class Reptilia. Although turtles are often mistaken for amphibians, they are actually reptiles, just like frogs. Both frogs and turtles have similar characteristics and adaptations that allow them to live in aquatic environments, such as webbed feet and the ability to breathe through their skin. Bass, on the other hand, belong to the class Actinopterygii, which includes ray-finned fish. Therefore, frogs and turtles share a closer evolutionary relationship compared to bass and turtles.

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  • 6. 

    Convergent evolution is the process in which organisms resemble each other and are directly related. Both evolved similiar due to same or close environments. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Organisms are not directly related.

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  • 7. 

    What is the relationship between phylogenetic trees and the fossil record?  What is this hypothesis called?

  • 8. 

    Evidence of first Photosynthetic Organism. Check all that Apply.

    • A.

      Rusted rocks with Iron Oxide

    • B.

      Microscopic traces of oil with sterols

    • C.

      Oxygen biological origin during "Oxygen Revolution"

    • D.

      Grypania spiralis

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Rusted rocks with Iron Oxide
    C. Oxygen biological origin during "Oxygen Revolution"
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Rusted rocks with Iron Oxide" and "Oxygen biological origin during 'Oxygen Revolution'". Rusted rocks with Iron Oxide can provide evidence of the presence of photosynthetic organisms because iron oxide is a byproduct of oxygen production during photosynthesis. Oxygen biological origin during the "Oxygen Revolution" is also a valid evidence as it refers to the period in Earth's history when photosynthetic organisms first evolved and released significant amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere.

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  • 9. 

    Characteristics of FIRST eukaryotes.

    • A.

      Grypania spiralis nature

    • B.

      Rocks containing oil with sterols

    • C.

      Amoeba-like creatures

    • D.

      2.7 Bya

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Rocks containing oil with sterols
    C. Amoeba-like creatures
    D. 2.7 Bya
    Explanation
    The characteristics mentioned in the question, such as rocks containing oil with sterols, amoeba-like creatures, and the time period of 2.7 billion years ago, suggest the presence of eukaryotes. Eukaryotes are organisms that have complex cells with a nucleus and other organelles. The presence of oil with sterols indicates the presence of eukaryotes, as sterols are a type of lipid molecule that is found in the cell membranes of eukaryotic cells. The mention of amoeba-like creatures further supports the presence of eukaryotes, as amoebas are a type of eukaryotic microorganism. The time period of 2.7 billion years ago aligns with the emergence of eukaryotes on Earth.

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  • 10. 

    Describe the Endosymbiont Theory. When is it first seen and evidence in support of this theory. 

  • 11. 

    Which of the following are characteristics of Protists?

    • A.

      Mostly Multicellular

    • B.

      Eukaryotes

    • C.

      Not Plants, Fungi, nor Animals

    • D.

      Most Morphological Simple Eukaryotes

    • E.

      Most Simple at Cellular Level

    • F.

      Autotrophs, Heterotrophs, Mixotrophs

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Eukaryotes
    C. Not Plants, Fungi, nor Animals
    D. Most Morphological Simple Eukaryotes
    F. Autotrophs, Heterotrophs, Mixotrophs
    Explanation
    Mostly Unicellular
    Most Complex at Cellular Level

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  • 12. 

    In Ophisthokonts, nucleariids gave rise to animals and choanoflagellates gave rise to fungi.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Nucleariids= Fungi
    Choanoflagellates= Animals

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  • 13. 

    Porifera Characteristics. Check all that apply.

    • A.

      Unicellular

    • B.

      Eukaryotes

    • C.

      Heterotrophic

    • D.

      Prokaryotes

    • E.

      Multicellular

    • F.

      True Tissues

    • G.

      Tissues Developed from embryo

    • H.

      First True Animals

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Eukaryotes
    C. Heterotrophic
    E. Multicellular
    G. Tissues Developed from embryo
    H. First True Animals
    Explanation
    Porifera, also known as sponges, are multicellular organisms that belong to the kingdom Animalia. They are eukaryotes, meaning their cells have a true nucleus enclosed within a membrane. Sponges are heterotrophic, meaning they obtain their nutrients by consuming organic matter. They are the first true animals, as they lack true tissues and organs. However, they do develop specialized cell types that perform specific functions, even though they do not form true tissues. These specialized cells are derived from the embryo during development.

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  • 14. 

    Phylum Porifera Morphology and Characteristics. Check all that apply.

    • A.

      No Fixed Shape

    • B.

      Symmetrical

    • C.

      Pore Bearing

    • D.

      Spicules-Composed Skeleton

    • E.

      Nerves and Muscles are found

    • F.

      Sessile and Immobile

    • G.

      Most are Marine

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. No Fixed Shape
    C. Pore Bearing
    D. Spicules-Composed Skeleton
    F. Sessile and Immobile
    G. Most are Marine
    Explanation
    Porifera, also known as sponges, exhibit a variety of morphological characteristics. They do not have a fixed shape and can take on various forms. They are pore bearing, meaning they have numerous small openings called pores through which water enters their bodies. They have a skeleton composed of spicules, which are tiny, needle-like structures made of calcium carbonate or silica. Sponges are sessile and immobile, meaning they are attached to a substrate and cannot move. Most sponges are found in marine environments.

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  • 15. 

    Reversible cell differentiation, found on phylum Porifera, is the ability of cells to change type after maturity.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Reversible cell differentiation refers to the ability of cells to change their type even after they have reached maturity. This process is found in the phylum Porifera, which includes organisms like sponges. Therefore, the statement that reversible cell differentiation is found in Porifera and allows cells to change type after maturity is true.

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  • 16. 

    _________ is the top opening for sponges where water is expulsed. 

    Correct Answer
    osculum
    Osculum
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "osculum" or "Osculum". The term "osculum" refers to the top opening of a sponge where water is expelled. This opening allows water to flow out of the sponge after it has been filtered and processed. The osculum is an essential part of the sponge's anatomy and plays a crucial role in maintaining its overall health and function.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following are the classes of phylum Porifera?

    • A.

      Calcarea

    • B.

      Grypania

    • C.

      Hexactinellida

    • D.

      Archaeplastida

    • E.

      Demospongiae

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Calcarea
    C. Hexactinellida
    E. Demospongiae
    Explanation
    The classes of phylum Porifera are Calcarea, Hexactinellida, and Demospongiae. These classes represent different types of sponges within the phylum. Calcarea sponges have calcium carbonate spicules, Hexactinellida sponges have six-rayed silica spicules, and Demospongiae sponges have siliceous spicules or spongin fibers. Grypania and Archaeplastida are not classes of phylum Porifera.

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  • 18. 

    Decribe reproduction in sponges.

  • 19. 

    (Porifera) Sponges can alter the rate of movement the flagella beat, larvae flagella stiffens when swims towards sunlight, and they are able to close their oscula when air is sensed. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Sponges, belonging to the phylum Porifera, have the ability to alter the rate of movement of their flagella. This means that they can control the speed at which their flagella beat, allowing them to adapt to different environmental conditions. Additionally, when the larvae of sponges swim towards sunlight, their flagella stiffen, aiding in their movement towards the light source. Furthermore, sponges are also able to close their oscula, which are the openings through which water exits their bodies, when they sense the presence of air. All of these statements indicate that the given answer, True, is correct.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following are Evolutionary Adaptations of Porifera?

    • A.

      Can grow into any shape

    • B.

      Biotoxins

    • C.

      Camouflage

    • D.

      Apisomatic/Bright Colors

    • E.

      Growth Inhibiting Chemicals

    • F.

      Hermaphroditic

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Can grow into any shape
    B. Biotoxins
    D. Apisomatic/Bright Colors
    E. Growth Inhibiting Chemicals
    Explanation
    Porifera, commonly known as sponges, have the ability to grow into any shape, which is an evolutionary adaptation that allows them to occupy different ecological niches. They also produce biotoxins, which serve as a defense mechanism against predators. Apisomatic/bright colors are another adaptation seen in some species of Porifera, helping them to deter predators or attract prey. Growth inhibiting chemicals are produced by certain sponges to prevent overgrowth and competition with other organisms. These adaptations contribute to the survival and success of Porifera in their respective habitats.

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  • 21. 

    Phylum Cnidaria has maintained a simple body plan with radial symmetry and triploblastic tissue layers.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Cnidarians have simple body plans, radial symmetry, diploblastic tissue layers.

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  • 22. 

    Cnidaria Characteristics Include: (Check All that Apply)

    • A.

      Herbivorous

    • B.

      Tentacles to capture food

    • C.

      Neamtocysts stinging cells

    • D.

      Two Body Stages

    • E.

      Complex Body Plan

    • F.

      Diploblastic

    • G.

      Triploblastic

    Correct Answer(s)
    B. Tentacles to capture food
    C. Neamtocysts stinging cells
    D. Two Body Stages
    F. Diploblastic
    Explanation
    Cnidaria is a phylum of animals that includes jellyfish, sea anemones, and corals. The characteristics of Cnidaria include tentacles to capture food, which are used to catch and immobilize prey. They also possess nematocysts, which are specialized stinging cells that inject venom into their prey. Cnidaria have two body stages, a polyp stage where they are attached to a substrate, and a medusa stage where they are free-swimming. They are diploblastic, meaning they have two germ layers, the ectoderm and endoderm.

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  • 23. 

    Choose One. (Simple / Complex) ________ contractile tissues and nerves in which microfilaments are arranged into contractile fibers are found in Cnidaria. 

    Correct Answer(s)
    Simple
    simple
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Simple". In Cnidaria, contractile tissues and nerves are present. These tissues contain microfilaments that are arranged into contractile fibers. This implies that the contractile tissues and nerves in Cnidaria are simple in nature.

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  • 24. 

    The gastrovascular cavity in Cnidaria acts as a hydrostatic skeleton.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The gastrovascular cavity in Cnidaria acts as a hydrostatic skeleton because it provides support and structure to the body. The cavity is filled with fluid, which can be controlled by the muscles surrounding it, allowing the organism to maintain its shape and move. This hydrostatic skeleton enables Cnidaria, such as jellyfish and sea anemones, to move and contract their bodies, facilitating various functions like locomotion and capturing prey.

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  • 25. 

    Coordinates movements and sensory structures on Cnidaria.. 

    • A.

      True Nerves

    • B.

      Nerve Net

    • C.

      Nerve Notochord

    Correct Answer
    B. Nerve Net
    Explanation
    A nerve net is a network of interconnected neurons that coordinates movements and sensory structures in Cnidaria. Unlike true nerves, which are found in more complex organisms, a nerve net allows for decentralized control and communication throughout the body. This interconnected network allows for rapid responses to stimuli and the coordination of various body functions in Cnidaria.

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  • 26. 

    Explain Synchornized Coral Spawning.

  • 27. 

    What types of Symmetry are found in Platyhelminthes? (Check All that Apply)

    • A.

      Bilateral

    • B.

      Radial

    • C.

      Asymmetrical

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Bilateral
    B. Radial
    C. Asymmetrical
    Explanation
    Platyhelminthes exhibit bilateral symmetry, which means that their bodies can be divided into two equal halves along a single plane. They also display radial symmetry, where their body parts are arranged around a central axis, like the spokes of a wheel. Additionally, some species of Platyhelminthes are asymmetrical, meaning that their body lacks any kind of symmetry. Therefore, all three types of symmetry - bilateral, radial, and asymmetrical - can be found in Platyhelminthes.

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  • 28. 

    Radial symmetry in Platyhelminthes move actively while Bilateral symmetry move passively and show cephalization.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Bilateral= Actively & show Cephalization
    Radial= Passively

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  • 29. 

    Platyhelminthes and higher organism show Triploblastic tissue layers. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Platyhelminthes and higher organisms exhibit triploblastic tissue layers. This means that their bodies are composed of three primary germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. These layers give rise to various tissues and organs in the organism. In contrast, organisms with only two germ layers are called diploblastic, while those with more than three germ layers are called polyphyletic. Therefore, the statement that Platyhelminthes and higher organisms show triploblastic tissue layers is true.

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  • 30. 

    Which of the following are characterisitcs of  "worms"?

    • A.

      Soft Bodied

    • B.

      Paired Legs

    • C.

      Length < Width

    • D.

      Worm-like Body

    • E.

      Hydrostatic Locomotion Skeleton

    • F.

      Triploblastic

    • G.

      Directional Focus Commonly

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Soft Bodied
    D. Worm-like Body
    E. Hydrostatic Locomotion Skeleton
    F. Triploblastic
    G. Directional Focus Commonly
    Explanation
    Legth > Width
    Legless Body

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  • 31. 

    Phyla Platyhelminthes remove waste and undergo gas exchange by diffusion. They have no circulatory system and use excretory tubules called protonephridia.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Platyhelminthes, also known as flatworms, do not have a circulatory system. Instead, they rely on diffusion for gas exchange and removal of waste products. They use excretory tubules called protonephridia to eliminate metabolic waste. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 32. 

    Which of the following is the most advanced body cavity?

    • A.

      Pseudocoelomates

    • B.

      Coelomates

    • C.

      Acoelomates

    Correct Answer
    B. Coelomates
    Explanation
    Coelomates are the most advanced body cavity because they possess a true coelom, which is a fluid-filled cavity completely lined by mesoderm. This allows for the development of complex organ systems and provides support and protection to the internal organs. Pseudocoelomates have a body cavity that is only partially lined by mesoderm, while acoelomates lack a body cavity altogether. Therefore, coelomates are considered the most advanced in terms of body cavity development.

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  • 33. 

    Platyhelminthes Characteristics Include: (Check all that Apply)

    • A.

      Flatworms

    • B.

      Hermaphroditic

    • C.

      Internal Fertilization

    • D.

      No Larval Stage

    • E.

      Bi-Flagellated Sperm

    • F.

      Parasitic and Free Living Examples

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Flatworms
    B. Hermaphroditic
    C. Internal Fertilization
    D. No Larval Stage
    E. Bi-Flagellated Sperm
    F. Parasitic and Free Living Examples
    Explanation
    Platyhelminthes, also known as flatworms, have several characteristics. They are flatworms, meaning they have a flattened body shape. They are hermaphroditic, which means that they have both male and female reproductive organs. They practice internal fertilization, where fertilization occurs inside the body. They do not have a larval stage in their life cycle. Their sperm is bi-flagellated, meaning it has two flagella for movement. Platyhelminthes include both parasitic and free-living examples, meaning that some species live as parasites on other organisms while others are able to live independently.

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  • 34. 

    Free living Rhabditophora (Planarians) are aquatic predators and move using ventral cilia and mucus. They have incomplete digestive tract where mouth is entrance and exit. Parasitic are small and inactiveand have small means of distributing food an oxygen. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Free living Rhabditophora, also known as Planarians, are indeed aquatic predators and they move by using ventral cilia and mucus. They have an incomplete digestive tract where the mouth serves as both the entrance and exit. On the other hand, parasitic Planarians are small and inactive, and they have limited means of obtaining food and oxygen. Therefore, the given statement that "Free living Rhabditophora are aquatic predators and move using ventral cilia and mucus" is true.

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  • 35. 

    Platyhelminthes Classes include:

    • A.

      Rhabditophora

    • B.

      Annelida

    • C.

      Nematoda

    • D.

      Trematoda

    • E.

      Cestoda

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Rhabditophora
    D. Trematoda
    E. Cestoda
    Explanation
    The Platyhelminthes Classes include Rhabditophora, Trematoda, and Cestoda. Rhabditophora is a class of free-living flatworms that includes planarians. Trematoda is a class of parasitic flatworms commonly known as flukes. Cestoda is a class of parasitic flatworms commonly known as tapeworms. These three classes are all part of the phylum Platyhelminthes, which consists of flatworms with soft, flattened bodies.

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  • 36. 

    Describe the life cycle of Trematoda. What adaptations occur within host?

  • 37. 

    Cestoda Characteristics:

    • A.

      Many Proglottids

    • B.

      Absorption through osmosis

    • C.

      Adults live mostly in Vertebrates

    • D.

      Anterior End with suckers and hooks

    • E.

      Separate Sexes

    • F.

      Hermaphroditic

    • G.

      Tapeworms

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Many Proglottids
    C. Adults live mostly in Vertebrates
    D. Anterior End with suckers and hooks
    F. Hermaphroditic
    G. Tapeworms
    Explanation
    Absorption through diffusion.

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  • 38. 

    Phylum Annelida is composed of 15,000 species, are diploblastic coelomates, and have segmented bodies.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Annelida is triploblastic.

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  • 39. 

    Segmentation is a primary advantage for which of the following reasons?

    • A.

      Allows for external fertilization

    • B.

      Allows for protection

    • C.

      Allows body to stretch and escape predation

    • D.

      It is fast

    Correct Answer
    C. Allows body to stretch and escape predation
    Explanation
    Segmentation allows the body to stretch and escape predation because it provides flexibility and mobility. Each segment can move independently, allowing the organism to contort its body and maneuver through narrow spaces or away from predators. This ability to elongate or contract specific segments provides an advantage in escaping from potential threats and predators.

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  • 40. 

    Phylum Echinodermata have ______ symmetry in adult and ______ symmetry in larvae.

    • A.

      Radial; Asymmetrical

    • B.

      Asymmetrical; Bilateral

    • C.

      Radial; Bilateral

    • D.

      Bilateral; Radial

    Correct Answer
    C. Radial; Bilateral
    Explanation
    In adult echinoderms, such as starfish and sea urchins, the body plan exhibits radial symmetry, which means that the body parts are arranged around a central axis. This allows them to be equally balanced and have multiple planes of symmetry. However, in their larvae stage, echinoderms display bilateral symmetry, where the body can be divided into two equal halves along a single plane. This symmetry allows for efficient movement and navigation in the water.

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  • 41. 

    What is the name for the larvae form of Echinodermata?

    Correct Answer
    Bipinnaria Larvae
    Bipinnaria Larva
    Bipanaria
    Bipinaria
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Bipinnaria Larvae, Bipinnaria Larva, Bipanaria, Bipinaria. The larvae form of Echinodermata is known as Bipinnaria Larvae or Bipinnaria Larva. Bipanaria and Bipinaria are likely misspellings of the correct term.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following characteristics pertain to Echinodermata?

    • A.

      Spiny Skin

    • B.

      No Head

    • C.

      Protostome Development

    • D.

      Water Vascular System

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Spiny Skin
    B. No Head
    D. Water Vascular System
    Explanation
    Deuterstome Development.

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  • 43. 

    In Deutorostome Development, mouth develops from the blastophore and anus develops in Protostome Development. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    In Deuterostome development, the blastopore develops into the anus, while the mouth forms from a secondary opening. This is the opposite of what happens in Protostome development, where the blastopore becomes the mouth and the anus forms later. Therefore, the statement is false.

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  • 44. 

    Describe the Water Vascular System and what is its purpose or uses?

  • 45. 

    Skeletal System of Echinoderms is individual ossicles that allows for growth without molting.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The skeletal system of echinoderms is made up of individual ossicles, which are small, calcified structures that provide support and protection. Unlike other animals, echinoderms do not molt their exoskeletons to accommodate growth. Instead, they have the ability to add new ossicles to their existing skeletal structure, allowing for continuous growth throughout their lifespan. Therefore, the statement that the skeletal system of echinoderms allows for growth without molting is true.

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  • 46. 

    What are the three classes in Phylum Chordata? Sperate answers by coma and space (, )

    Correct Answer
    Cephalochordata, Tunicata, Craniata
    Explanation
    The three classes in Phylum Chordata are Cephalochordata, Tunicata, and Craniata. These classes are characterized by the presence of a notochord, a hollow nerve cord, and pharyngeal slits at some point during their development. Cephalochordata includes the lancelets, which are small, fish-like marine organisms. Tunicata, also known as urochordates or sea squirts, are marine animals that have a tough outer covering called a tunic. Craniata includes all vertebrates, which are animals with a backbone or spinal column.

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  • 47. 

    What are the Shared traits of Chordata? Check all that Apply.

    • A.

      Notochord

    • B.

      Dorsal hollow Nerve Cord

    • C.

      Pharyngeal Slits

    • D.

      Nerve Net

    • E.

      Muscular Post Anal Tail

    • F.

      Protostome Development

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Notochord
    B. Dorsal hollow Nerve Cord
    C. Pharyngeal Slits
    E. Muscular Post Anal Tail
    Explanation
    The shared traits of Chordata include the presence of a notochord, a dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, and a muscular post-anal tail. These characteristics are common to all members of the phylum Chordata, which includes vertebrates such as fish, mammals, and birds. The notochord provides support and structure, the dorsal hollow nerve cord is the precursor to the spinal cord, the pharyngeal slits are used for filter feeding or respiration, and the muscular post-anal tail aids in locomotion.

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  • 48. 

    Tunicates are the most closely related organism to vertebrates. Chordate Characteristics are more present in larvae. Sessile Adult.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Tunicates, also known as sea squirts, are indeed the most closely related organisms to vertebrates. They belong to the phylum Chordata, which is characterized by the presence of a notochord, dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, and a post-anal tail. While these chordate characteristics are more prominent in the larval stage of tunicates, they are still present in the adult stage, although in a reduced form. Tunicate adults are sessile, meaning they are attached to a substrate and do not move, which further supports their close relationship to vertebrates. Therefore, the statement "Tunicates are the most closely related organism to vertebrates" is true.

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  • 49. 

    Lancelet larvae feed on plankton in water columns by traping throuh pharynx. After metamorphosis, adult remain active above water.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Adult bury into sediment becoming passive and Sessile.

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  • 50. 

    Arthropoda are 90% of all known species who occupy every niche and have variable body forms. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Arthropoda is a phylum that includes a vast number of species, estimated to be around 90% of all known species on Earth. They are incredibly diverse and can be found in almost every ecological niche, from the deepest oceans to the highest mountains. Arthropods also exhibit a wide range of body forms, from insects with six legs to crustaceans with multiple appendages. Therefore, the statement that Arthropoda are 90% of all known species and occupy every niche while having variable body forms is true.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 22, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 13, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Jose.01.92_
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