Ultimate Quiz On Immunity Test

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Ultimate Quiz On Immunity Test - Quiz

Test Banks Immunity


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is not a function of the lymphatic and immune system?

    • A.

      Draining excess interstitial fluid

    • B.

      Maintaining water homeostasis in the body

    • C.

      Transporting dietary lipids

    • D.

      Carrying out immune responses

    Correct Answer
    B. Maintaining water homeostasis in the body
    Explanation
    The lymphatic and immune system is responsible for several functions in the body, including draining excess interstitial fluid, transporting dietary lipids, and carrying out immune responses. However, maintaining water homeostasis in the body is not one of its functions. Water homeostasis is primarily regulated by the kidneys through processes such as filtration, reabsorption, and excretion. The lymphatic and immune system plays a crucial role in defending the body against pathogens and maintaining fluid balance, but it does not directly regulate water homeostasis.

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  • 2. 

    What is the major difference between lymph and interstitial fluid?

    • A.

      Composition of electrolytes

    • B.

      White blood cells are present in lymph

    • C.

      Location

    • D.

      Types of proteins present

    • E.

      Red blood cells are present in interstitial fluid

    Correct Answer
    C. Location
    Explanation
    The major difference between lymph and interstitial fluid is their location. Lymph is found within the lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes, while interstitial fluid is found in the spaces between cells and tissues.

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  • 3. 

    Lack of resistance is also known as:

    • A.

      Pathogenic

    • B.

      Innate

    • C.

      Specific

    • D.

      Susceptibility

    • E.

      Lymphatic

    Correct Answer
    D. Susceptibility
    Explanation
    Susceptibility refers to a lack of resistance or vulnerability to a particular disease or infection. It implies that an individual is more likely to contract the disease or be affected by it due to a weakened immune system or other factors. This term is commonly used in the context of public health and epidemiology to describe the susceptibility of a population or group to a specific disease.

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  • 4. 

    What causes lymph from the small intestines to appear white?

    • A.

      Proteins

    • B.

      WBC

    • C.

      RBC

    • D.

      Lipids

    • E.

      Fats

    Correct Answer
    D. Lipids
    Explanation
    Lipids cause lymph from the small intestines to appear white. This is because lipids are insoluble in water and are transported in the lymphatic system in the form of chylomicrons. Chylomicrons are large lipid droplets that give the lymph a milky appearance, making it appear white.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following is not considered an organ of the immune system?

    • A.

      Spleen

    • B.

      Lymph node

    • C.

      Red bone marrow

    • D.

      Thymus

    • E.

      Pancreas

    Correct Answer
    E. Pancreas
    Explanation
    The pancreas is not considered an organ of the immune system because its primary function is to produce digestive enzymes and regulate blood sugar levels, rather than directly participating in immune responses. The spleen, lymph nodes, red bone marrow, and thymus are all organs that play important roles in the immune system by producing and maturing immune cells, filtering out pathogens, and coordinating immune responses.

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  • 6. 

    The left subclavian vein receives lymph from

    • A.

      Left axillary vein

    • B.

      Lumbar trunk

    • C.

      Jugular trunk

    • D.

      Thoracic duct

    • E.

      Right lymphatic duct

    Correct Answer
    D. Thoracic duct
    Explanation
    The left subclavian vein receives lymph from the thoracic duct. The thoracic duct is the largest lymphatic vessel in the body and it drains lymph from the lower body, left upper body, and left side of the head and neck. It then empties into the left subclavian vein, where the lymph is returned to the bloodstream.

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  • 7. 

    The lymph from the right foot empties into the

    • A.

      Left axillary vein

    • B.

      Lumbar trunk

    • C.

      Jugular trunk

    • D.

      Thoracic duct

    • E.

      Right lymphatic duct

    Correct Answer
    D. Thoracic duct
    Explanation
    The thoracic duct is the largest lymphatic vessel in the body and is responsible for draining lymph from the lower limbs, abdomen, left side of the thorax, left upper limb, and left side of the head and neck. Therefore, it makes sense that the lymph from the right foot would empty into the thoracic duct, as it is responsible for draining lymph from the left side of the body.

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  • 8. 

    The skeletal muscle and respiratory pumps are used in

    • A.

      Lymphatic system

    • B.

      Cardiovascular system

    • C.

      Immune system

    • D.

      Lymphatic and Immune systems only

    • E.

      Lymphatic, Immune and Cardiovascular systems

    Correct Answer
    E. Lymphatic, Immune and Cardiovascular systems
    Explanation
    The skeletal muscle and respiratory pumps are used in the lymphatic, immune, and cardiovascular systems. The skeletal muscles help to contract and squeeze the lymphatic vessels, assisting in the movement of lymph fluid throughout the body. This helps to remove waste products, toxins, and pathogens from tissues, and also aids in the transportation of immune cells. The respiratory pumps, which involve the movement of the diaphragm and rib muscles during breathing, help to create pressure changes in the thoracic cavity. This facilitates the flow of both lymph and blood through the cardiovascular system, ensuring efficient oxygenation and nutrient delivery to tissues.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the below produces the hormone that promotes maturation of T cells?

    • A.

      Spleen

    • B.

      Lymph node

    • C.

      Red bone marrow

    • D.

      Thymus

    • E.

      Pancreas

    Correct Answer
    D. Thymus
    Explanation
    The thymus produces the hormone that promotes maturation of T cells. T cells are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. The thymus is a specialized organ located in the chest, near the heart, and it is responsible for the development and maturation of T cells. The hormone produced by the thymus, called thymosin, helps in the maturation process of T cells, allowing them to become fully functional and capable of recognizing and fighting off pathogens.

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  • 10. 

    In the thymus, where is it speculated that T cells die.

    • A.

      Capsule

    • B.

      Trabeculae

    • C.

      Epithelial cells

    • D.

      Hasall’s corpuscles

    • E.

      T cells do not die in the thymus

    Correct Answer
    D. Hasall’s corpuscles
    Explanation
    Hasall's corpuscles are speculated to be the site where T cells die in the thymus. These corpuscles are clusters of epithelial cells found in the medulla of the thymus. They are thought to play a role in the removal of dying T cells and the regulation of their development. Therefore, it is believed that T cells undergo cell death within Hasall's corpuscles in the thymus.

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  • 11. 

    This portion of the lymph node does not contain any lymphatic nodules.

    • A.

      Inner cortex

    • B.

      Outer cortex

    • C.

      Medulla

    • D.

      Sinuses

    • E.

      Trabeculae

    Correct Answer
    A. Inner cortex
    Explanation
    The inner cortex of the lymph node does not contain any lymphatic nodules. Lymphatic nodules are small, rounded structures that contain lymphocytes and are responsible for filtering and trapping foreign substances in the lymph. The inner cortex, on the other hand, is mainly composed of lymphocytes and reticular fibers. It functions as a site for the proliferation and maturation of lymphocytes. Therefore, it does not contain any lymphatic nodules.

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is a function of the spleen?

    • A.

      Removes worn out blood cells

    • B.

      Circulates lymph

    • C.

      Cleanses interstitial fluid

    • D.

      Cleanses lymph

    • E.

      Traps microbes with mucus

    Correct Answer
    A. Removes worn out blood cells
    Explanation
    The spleen is responsible for removing worn out blood cells from the body. It filters the blood and identifies and removes old or damaged red blood cells, helping to maintain the overall health and functionality of the blood.

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  • 13. 

    Which of these does NOT provide a physical or chemical barrier?

    • A.

      Macrophages

    • B.

      Saliva

    • C.

      Urine

    • D.

      Mucus

    • E.

      Stratified squamous epithelium

    Correct Answer
    A. Macrophages
    Explanation
    Macrophages are immune cells that play a crucial role in the body's defense against pathogens. They are responsible for engulfing and destroying foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. Unlike the other options listed, macrophages do not provide a physical or chemical barrier. Instead, they actively participate in the immune response by identifying and eliminating pathogens. Therefore, macrophages are the correct answer as they do not function as a physical or chemical barrier.

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  • 14. 

    Which of these provides a non-specific cellular disease resistance mechanism?

    • A.

      Macrophages

    • B.

      T lymphocytes

    • C.

      B lymphocytes

    • D.

      Memory B cells

    • E.

      Stratified squamous epithelium

    Correct Answer
    A. Macrophages
    Explanation
    Macrophages provide a non-specific cellular disease resistance mechanism. Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune system's response to infection. They engulf and destroy pathogens, foreign substances, and dead cells through a process called phagocytosis. Unlike T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes, which are specific immune cells that target specific pathogens, macrophages act as the first line of defense against a wide range of pathogens and provide a general defense mechanism against diseases. Memory B cells, on the other hand, are specific immune cells that provide long-term immunity to previously encountered pathogens. Stratified squamous epithelium is a type of tissue that acts as a physical barrier against pathogens but does not provide a cellular disease resistance mechanism.

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  • 15. 

    These anti-microbial substances will diffuse to uninfected cells and reduce production of viral proteins.

    • A.

      Transferrins

    • B.

      Perforins

    • C.

      Complement proteins

    • D.

      Defensins

    • E.

      Interferons

    Correct Answer
    E. Interferons
    Explanation
    Interferons are anti-viral substances produced by infected cells in response to viral infection. They have the ability to diffuse to uninfected cells and inhibit viral replication by reducing the production of viral proteins. This helps to limit the spread of the virus to other cells and control the infection. Therefore, interferons are the correct answer as they specifically target viral proteins and have a broad antiviral activity.

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  • 16. 

    These anti-microbial substances promote cytolysis, phagocytosis and inflammation.

    • A.

      Transferrins

    • B.

      Perforins

    • C.

      Complement proteins

    • D.

      Defensins

    • E.

      Interferons

    Correct Answer
    C. Complement proteins
    Explanation
    Complement proteins are a group of proteins that play a crucial role in the immune response. They enhance the immune system's ability to fight off infections by promoting cytolysis (the destruction of cells), phagocytosis (the engulfment and digestion of pathogens by immune cells), and inflammation (a response that helps recruit immune cells to the site of infection). Therefore, complement proteins are able to effectively eliminate pathogens and protect the body from infections.

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  • 17. 

    These are mainly used to kill infectious microbes and tumor cells.

    • A.

      Natural killer cells

    • B.

      Perforins

    • C.

      Platelets

    • D.

      Mucus

    • E.

      Antimicrobial proteins

    Correct Answer
    A. Natural killer cells
    Explanation
    Natural killer cells are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune system's defense against infectious microbes and tumor cells. They are able to recognize and kill abnormal cells in the body, including virus-infected cells and cancer cells, without the need for prior activation. Natural killer cells release toxic substances called perforins, which create pores in the target cell's membrane, leading to cell death. Therefore, natural killer cells are an important component of the body's innate immune response against pathogens and abnormal cells.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the following is NOT a sign of inflammation?

    • A.

      Redness

    • B.

      Pain

    • C.

      Heat

    • D.

      Mucus production

    • E.

      Swelling

    Correct Answer
    D. Mucus production
    Explanation
    Mucus production is not a sign of inflammation. Inflammation is a response of the body's immune system to injury or infection, characterized by redness, pain, heat, and swelling. Mucus production, on the other hand, is a normal bodily function that helps to protect and lubricate the respiratory and digestive systems. While increased mucus production can occur during certain infections or allergies, it is not directly associated with inflammation.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following intensifies the effect of interferons and promotes the rate of repair?

    • A.

      Complement proteins

    • B.

      Perforin

    • C.

      Fever

    • D.

      Macrophages

    • E.

      Natural killer cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Fever
    Explanation
    Fever is the correct answer because it is known to intensify the effect of interferons and promote the rate of repair. When the body experiences an infection or inflammation, it raises its temperature to create an environment that is less favorable for the growth and reproduction of pathogens. This elevated temperature stimulates the production and activity of interferons, which are proteins that help to inhibit viral replication and enhance the immune response. Additionally, fever increases the metabolic rate, which can accelerate tissue repair and healing processes.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the below do NOT induce vasodilation and permeability (increased fluid flow) to an infection site.

    • A.

      Histamines

    • B.

      Kinins

    • C.

      Perforin

    • D.

      Leukotrienes

    • E.

      Complement

    Correct Answer
    C. Perforin
    Explanation
    Perforin does not induce vasodilation and permeability to an infection site. Perforin is a protein that is released by cytotoxic T cells and natural killer cells to create pores in the cell membrane of target cells, leading to their destruction. It is not involved in the process of increasing fluid flow and promoting inflammation at an infection site.

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  • 21. 

    When B and T cells are fully developed and mature, they are known to be

    • A.

      Immunocompetent

    • B.

      Pluripotent stem cells

    • C.

      Primary lymphatic cells

    • D.

      Specifically promoted

    • E.

      Germ cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Immunocompetent
    Explanation
    When B and T cells are fully developed and mature, they are considered to be immunocompetent. This means that they have acquired the ability to recognize and respond to specific antigens, thus playing a crucial role in the immune response against pathogens. Immunocompetent cells are capable of producing specific antibodies (B cells) or directly killing infected cells (T cells), thereby contributing to the overall immune defense of the body.

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  • 22. 

    This induces production of a specific antibody.

    • A.

      Phagocytosis

    • B.

      Antigen

    • C.

      Antibody

    • D.

      Defensin

    • E.

      Imunnoglobulin

    Correct Answer
    B. Antigen
    Explanation
    An antigen is a foreign substance that enters the body and triggers an immune response. When an antigen enters the body, it stimulates the production of specific antibodies by the immune system. These antibodies are produced by B cells and are designed to recognize and bind to the antigen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells. Therefore, the presence of an antigen induces the production of a specific antibody to combat the foreign substance.

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  • 23. 

    This can only stimulate an immune response if attached to a large carrier molecule.

    • A.

      Epitope

    • B.

      Antigen

    • C.

      Hapten

    • D.

      MHC

    • E.

      CD8

    Correct Answer
    C. Hapten
    Explanation
    A hapten is a small molecule that can bind to an antibody but cannot stimulate an immune response on its own. However, when a hapten is attached to a large carrier molecule, it can elicit an immune response. This is because the immune system recognizes the hapten-carrier complex as foreign and mounts a response against it. Therefore, a hapten can only stimulate an immune response if it is attached to a large carrier molecule.

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  • 24. 

    Which of the following is responsible for diversity in the immune system?

    • A.

      Antigen receptors

    • B.

      MHC

    • C.

      Hapten

    • D.

      MHC and antigen receptors

    • E.

      Epitopes

    Correct Answer
    D. MHC and antigen receptors
    Explanation
    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and antigen receptors are responsible for diversity in the immune system. The MHC molecules present antigens to T cells, allowing them to recognize and respond to a wide range of pathogens. Antigen receptors, such as the B cell receptor and T cell receptor, are highly diverse and can recognize specific antigens. Together, the MHC and antigen receptors contribute to the diversity of the immune system by allowing it to recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and antigens.

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  • 25. 

    This class of cells includes macrophages, B cells and dendritic cells.

    • A.

      Antigen presenting cells

    • B.

      Primary lymphocytes

    • C.

      T cells

    • D.

      RBC

    • E.

      Epitope cells

    Correct Answer
    A. Antigen presenting cells
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Antigen presenting cells". These cells, including macrophages, B cells, and dendritic cells, play a crucial role in the immune response by presenting antigens to T cells. This presentation allows T cells to recognize and respond to foreign substances, such as pathogens or cancer cells. Antigen presenting cells are essential for initiating and coordinating immune responses.

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  • 26. 

    This can only become activated when bound to a foreign antigen and simultaneously receiving a co stimulate.

    • A.

      B Cell

    • B.

      T Cell

    • C.

      Interferon

    • D.

      MHC

    • E.

      Antigen presenting cell

    Correct Answer
    A. B Cell
    Explanation
    B cells are a type of white blood cell that play a crucial role in the immune response. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that can recognize and bind to specific foreign antigens. In order for a B cell to become activated and start producing antibodies, it needs to bind to a foreign antigen and receive a co-stimulatory signal. This co-stimulatory signal is usually provided by T cells, which interact with the B cell and help activate it. Therefore, the given statement accurately describes the activation process of B cells.

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  • 27. 

    These display CD 4 in their membrane and are associated with MHC class II molecules.

    • A.

      Cytotoxic T cells

    • B.

      Helper T Cells

    • C.

      Memory T Cells

    • D.

      MHC

    • E.

      B cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Helper T Cells
    Explanation
    Helper T cells, also known as CD4+ T cells, display CD4 on their membrane and are associated with MHC class II molecules. They play a crucial role in the immune response by activating other immune cells, such as B cells and cytotoxic T cells, through the release of cytokines. Helper T cells are important for coordinating and regulating the immune response, making them an essential component of the adaptive immune system.

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  • 28. 

    T Cells secrete this toxin that is used to fragment DNA.

    • A.

      Perforin

    • B.

      Tumor antigen

    • C.

      Interferons

    • D.

      Lymphotoxin

    • E.

      Toxin T

    Correct Answer
    D. Lymphotoxin
    Explanation
    Lymphotoxin is secreted by T cells and is known to have the ability to fragment DNA. It is a cytotoxic protein that plays a role in immune responses, particularly in the destruction of target cells. Lymphotoxin is a potent mediator of inflammation and can induce cell death in certain types of cells. Therefore, it is the most suitable option among the given choices for a toxin secreted by T cells that is used to fragment DNA.

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  • 29. 

    This class of antibodies is mainly found in sweat, tears, breast milk and GI secretions.

    • A.

      IgG

    • B.

      IgA

    • C.

      IgM

    • D.

      IgD

    • E.

      IgE

    Correct Answer
    B. IgA
    Explanation
    IgA antibodies are mainly found in sweat, tears, breast milk, and GI secretions. These antibodies play a crucial role in protecting the mucosal surfaces of the body, such as the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts, from pathogens. They help prevent the attachment and invasion of bacteria and viruses, neutralize toxins, and promote the elimination of pathogens through the mucosal secretions. IgA antibodies are particularly important for the defense against infections in the mucosal areas, making them the correct answer in this case.

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  • 30. 

    This will lead to inflammation, enhancement of phagocytosis and bursting of microbes.

    • A.

      Classical complement system

    • B.

      Alternative complement system

    • C.

      Apoptosis

    • D.

      Classical and Alternative complement systems

    • E.

      Hapten activation

    Correct Answer
    D. Classical and Alternative complement systems
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Classical and Alternative complement systems. The given explanation suggests that the activation of both the classical and alternative complement systems will lead to inflammation, enhancement of phagocytosis, and bursting of microbes. These complement systems are part of the immune response and work together to eliminate pathogens and enhance immune defense.

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  • 31. 

    This action makes microbes more susceptible to phagocytosis.

    • A.

      Opsonization

    • B.

      Cytolysis

    • C.

      Inflammation

    • D.

      Complement

    • E.

      Hybridoma

    Correct Answer
    A. Opsonization
    Explanation
    Opsonization is the process by which pathogens or other foreign particles are marked for destruction by immune cells. This process involves the coating of the pathogen with opsonins, such as antibodies or complement proteins, which enhances the recognition and engulfment of the pathogen by phagocytic cells. By coating the pathogen, opsonization makes it more susceptible to phagocytosis, leading to its destruction.

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  • 32. 

    This is a self-responsive cell that is inactive.

    • A.

      Deleted cell

    • B.

      Hybridoma cell

    • C.

      Epitopic cell

    • D.

      Anergy cell

    • E.

      Natural killer cell

    Correct Answer
    D. Anergy cell
    Explanation
    An anergy cell refers to a self-responsive cell that is inactive. It is a cell that should normally respond to a specific antigen, but fails to do so due to a state of immune tolerance or unresponsiveness. This can occur when the cell encounters the antigen repeatedly without appropriate co-stimulation, leading to a lack of immune response. Anergy cells are characterized by their inability to produce an immune response, making them different from other cell types listed in the options.

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  • 33. 

    This is characterized by the inability of the immune system to protect the body from a pathogen.

    • A.

      Immunodeficiency diseases

    • B.

      Allergy

    • C.

      Autoimmune disease

    • D.

      Transplantations

    • E.

      Transplantations

    Correct Answer
    A. Immunodeficiency diseases
    Explanation
    Immunodeficiency diseases refer to a group of disorders where the immune system is unable to effectively defend the body against pathogens. This can result in recurrent infections, as the immune system is weakened and unable to mount a proper response. Unlike allergies, which are an overreaction of the immune system to harmless substances, immunodeficiency diseases involve a compromised immune system. Autoimmune diseases, on the other hand, occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own cells and tissues. Transplantations involve the transfer of organs or tissues from one person to another, which is not directly related to the inability of the immune system to protect against pathogens.

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  • 34. 

    An acute allergic response can lead to:

    • A.

      Transplantation

    • B.

      Retroviruses

    • C.

      Anaphylactic shock

    • D.

      Passive immunity

    • E.

      Active immunity

    Correct Answer
    C. Anaphylactic shock
    Explanation
    An acute allergic response can lead to anaphylactic shock, which is a severe and potentially life-threatening allergic reaction. Anaphylactic shock occurs when the immune system overreacts to an allergen, such as certain foods, medications, or insect stings. This overreaction causes the release of large amounts of histamine and other chemicals, leading to a sudden drop in blood pressure, difficulty breathing, and other symptoms. Without prompt medical treatment, anaphylactic shock can be fatal.

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  • 35. 

    A natural exposure to an infectious agent leads to:

    • A.

      Passive immunity

    • B.

      Active immunity

    • C.

      Both a and b

    • D.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Active immunity
    Explanation
    Active immunity refers to the immune response that occurs when the body is exposed to a pathogen naturally, such as through infection or exposure to the pathogen in the environment. This exposure triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells, which provide long-lasting protection against future infections from the same pathogen. Therefore, the correct answer is active immunity. Passive immunity, on the other hand, refers to the temporary immunity that is acquired from another source, such as through the transfer of antibodies from a mother to her baby during pregnancy.

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  • 36. 

    This class of antibodies is produced after an initial exposure to antigens.

    • A.

      IgA

    • B.

      IgE

    • C.

      IgM

    • D.

      IgD

    • E.

      IgG

    Correct Answer
    C. IgM
    Explanation
    IgM antibodies are produced after an initial exposure to antigens.

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  • 37. 

    Of the following which is considered the body’s second major defense.

    • A.

      Mucous cells

    • B.

      Germ cells

    • C.

      Lymphocytes

    • D.

      Natural killer cells

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Lymphocytes
    Explanation
    Lymphocytes are considered the body's second major defense because they play a crucial role in the immune system. These white blood cells are responsible for recognizing and attacking foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses, in the body. They are also involved in the production of antibodies, which help to neutralize harmful pathogens. Lymphocytes are a key component of the adaptive immune response, which provides long-term protection against specific pathogens. Therefore, they are an important defense mechanism in the body's immune system.

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  • 38. 

    Lymphocytes can recognize

    • A.

      Self cells

    • B.

      Foreign cells

    • C.

      B cells

    • D.

      T cells

    • E.

      Natural killer cells

    Correct Answer
    B. Foreign cells
    Explanation
    Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune system. They are responsible for recognizing and attacking foreign cells, such as bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, in order to protect the body from infection and disease. Lymphocytes have receptors on their surface that allow them to identify and bind to specific molecules on the surface of foreign cells, triggering an immune response. This recognition and response to foreign cells is essential for the body's defense against pathogens.

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  • 39. 

    In B cell receptors, the light/heavy variable regions are located

    • A.

      Transmembrane region

    • B.

      Tips of the molecules

    • C.

      There is no variable region on a B cell receptor

    • D.

      Depends on the type of B cell

    • E.

      There are only constant regions

    Correct Answer
    B. Tips of the molecules
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "Tips of the molecules." B cell receptors have variable regions located at the tips of their molecules. These variable regions are responsible for binding to specific antigens, allowing B cells to recognize and respond to different pathogens. The variable regions contain a diverse repertoire of antigen-binding sites, which enables B cells to produce a wide range of antibodies with different specificities. The transmembrane region is responsible for anchoring the receptor to the cell membrane, and there are also constant regions in B cell receptors that provide structural stability.

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  • 40. 

    What is the most polymorphic molecule in the immune system?

    • A.

      Lymphocytes

    • B.

      Monocytes

    • C.

      MHC

    • D.

      WBC

    • E.

      RBC

    Correct Answer
    C. MHC
    Explanation
    MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) is the most polymorphic molecule in the immune system. It plays a crucial role in presenting antigens to T cells, which helps in initiating an immune response. MHC molecules are highly diverse and vary among individuals, allowing the immune system to recognize a wide range of antigens. This polymorphism is important for the immune system to effectively respond to various pathogens and adapt to different environmental challenges.

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  • 41. 

    The primary response will peak how many days after an exposure?

    • A.

      1 day or less

    • B.

      2-7

    • C.

      10-17

    • D.

      20-30

    • E.

      Over a month

    Correct Answer
    C. 10-17
    Explanation
    The primary response will peak 10-17 days after an exposure. This means that the body's immune response to the exposure will reach its highest level during this time period. It is important to note that this is a general timeframe and can vary depending on the specific infection or disease.

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  • 42. 

    Which type of immunity defends against any type of invader?

    • A.

      Nonspecific

    • B.

      Specific

    • C.

      Cell mediated

    • D.

      Antibody mediated immunity

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Nonspecific
    Explanation
    Nonspecific immunity, also known as innate immunity, is the type of immunity that defends against any type of invader. It is the first line of defense and includes physical barriers such as the skin, as well as cellular and chemical components that work to eliminate pathogens. This type of immunity is not specific to any particular invader and provides a general defense mechanism against a wide range of pathogens.

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  • 43. 

    This is the ability of an antigen to react specifically with the antibodies or cells it has provoked.

    • A.

      Specificity

    • B.

      Immunogenicity

    • C.

      Reactivity

    • D.

      Epitopes

    • E.

      Immune Response

    Correct Answer
    C. Reactivity
    Explanation
    Reactivity refers to the ability of an antigen to specifically react with the antibodies or cells it has provoked. It indicates the antigen's ability to elicit a response from the immune system. This term describes the specific interaction between antigens and the immune system, highlighting the antigen's capacity to provoke a targeted immune response.

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  • 44. 

    This is a small hormone that can stimulate or inhibit many normal cell functions.

    • A.

      Enzyme

    • B.

      Kinins

    • C.

      Cytokine

    • D.

      MHC

    • E.

      Leukocyte

    Correct Answer
    C. Cytokine
    Explanation
    Cytokines are small hormone-like proteins that can either stimulate or inhibit various cell functions. They play a crucial role in cell signaling and immune responses. They are involved in regulating inflammation, immune cell development, and communication between cells. Cytokines can be produced by various cell types, including immune cells, and they act as messengers to coordinate the body's response to infection, injury, or disease. Therefore, cytokines are the correct answer as they fit the description of being small hormones that can stimulate or inhibit cell functions.

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Quiz Review Timeline +

Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Jun 14, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Apr 28, 2012
    Quiz Created by
    Mywickedream
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