IB Biology: Cell Theory

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IB Biology: Cell Theory - Quiz

Cell theory, functions of life, sizes of common biological structures, magnification, limitations to cell size


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is a statement which comprises part of the modern cell theory?

    • A.

      All organisms are composed of one or more cells

    • B.

      Cells are the smallest units of life

    • C.

      All cells come from pre-existing cells

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The modern cell theory states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells, cells are the smallest units of life, and all cells come from pre-existing cells. This means that all living things are made up of cells, cells are the basic building blocks of life, and new cells are produced through cell division. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above."

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following is a statement which comprises part of the modern cell theory?

    • A.

      All organisms are composed of one or more cells

    • B.

      Cells are the basic unit of study in biology

    • C.

      All cells are alive

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. All organisms are composed of one or more cells
    Explanation
    The modern cell theory states that all organisms are composed of one or more cells. This means that every living organism, from the simplest bacteria to complex multicellular organisms like humans, is made up of cells. This statement is a fundamental principle of biology and is widely accepted by scientists. It highlights the importance of cells as the building blocks of life and emphasizes their role in the functioning and organization of living organisms.

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  • 3. 

    Which of the following is a statement which comprises part of the modern cell theory?

    • A.

      Cells were created in prebiotic Earth by chemical reactions catalyzed by lightning

    • B.

      Cells are made up of a number of different subunits

    • C.

      Cells are the smallest units of life

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Cells are the smallest units of life
    Explanation
    The statement "Cells are the smallest units of life" is a part of the modern cell theory. This theory states that all living organisms are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living organisms, and new cells arise from pre-existing cells. Therefore, the statement aligns with the concept that cells are the fundamental building blocks of life.

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  • 4. 

    Which of the following is a statement which comprises part of the modern cell theory?

    • A.

      All cells come from pre-existing cells

    • B.

      Cells maintain homeostasis to stay alive

    • C.

      Cell reproduction involves hereditary molecules that can be passed to offspring

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. All cells come from pre-existing cells
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All cells come from pre-existing cells." This statement is part of the modern cell theory, which states that all cells arise from pre-existing cells through cell division. This concept is known as biogenesis and is a fundamental principle in biology. It contradicts the previously held belief of spontaneous generation, which stated that living organisms could arise from non-living matter. The modern cell theory also includes other statements such as cells being the basic unit of life and all living organisms being composed of cells.

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  • 5. 

    Who first observed cells in 1665 while observing cork with a microscope he built himself?

    • A.

      Mathias Schlieden

    • B.

      Robert Hooke

    • C.

      Antione van Leeuvenhoek

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Robert Hooke
    Explanation
    Robert Hooke is the correct answer because he was the first person to observe cells in 1665 while examining a piece of cork using a microscope he constructed. His observations led to the discovery of cells and the development of the cell theory.

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  • 6. 

    Who observed the first living cells and referred to them as "animalcules" (little animals)?

    • A.

      Mathias Schlieden

    • B.

      Robert Hooke

    • C.

      Theodore Schwann

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. He observed the first living cells using a microscope and referred to them as "animalcules" because they appeared to him like little animals.

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  • 7. 

    Who observed the first living cells and referred to them as "animalcules" (little animals)?

    • A.

      Antione van Leeuvenhoek

    • B.

      Robert Hooke

    • C.

      Theodore Schwann

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Antione van Leeuvenhoek
    Explanation
    Antione van Leeuvenhoek observed the first living cells and referred to them as "animalcules" (little animals).

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  • 8. 

    Who first observed cells in 1665 while observing cork with a microscope he built himself?

    • A.

      Theodore Schwann

    • B.

      Robert Hooke

    • C.

      Antione van Leeuvenhoek

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Robert Hooke
    Explanation
    Robert Hooke is the correct answer because he was the first person to observe cells in 1665 while examining a thin slice of cork under a microscope that he had constructed. He coined the term "cell" to describe the small, box-like structures he observed, which reminded him of the cells (rooms) in a monastery. This discovery laid the foundation for the field of cell biology and our understanding of the basic unit of life.

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  • 9. 

    Who observed the first living cells and referred to them as "animalcules" (little animals)?

    • A.

      Theodore Schwann

    • B.

      Louis Pasteur

    • C.

      Antione van Leeuvenhoek

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Antione van Leeuvenhoek
    Explanation
    Antione van Leeuvenhoek observed the first living cells and referred to them as "animalcules" (little animals). He was a Dutch scientist who was the first to use a microscope to observe and describe single-celled organisms. His observations laid the foundation for the field of microbiology and greatly contributed to our understanding of the microscopic world.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is considered a function of life?

    • A.

      Metabolism

    • B.

      Growth

    • C.

      Reproduction

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed - metabolism, growth, and reproduction - are considered functions of life. Metabolism refers to the chemical processes that occur within an organism to maintain life, such as the conversion of food into energy. Growth is the process of increasing in size or complexity. Reproduction involves the production of offspring, ensuring the continuation of a species. Therefore, all of these functions are essential for the maintenance and perpetuation of life.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is considered a function of life?

    • A.

      Response

    • B.

      Homeostasis

    • C.

      Nutrition

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the above options are considered functions of life. Homeostasis refers to the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment, while nutrition is the process of obtaining and using food for energy and growth. Both homeostasis and nutrition are essential for the survival and functioning of living organisms. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above."

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  • 12. 

    Which of the following is considered a function of life?

    • A.

      Homeostasis

    • B.

      Response

    • C.

      Metabolism

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed - homeostasis, response, and metabolism - are considered functions of life. Homeostasis refers to the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment. Response refers to the ability to react to stimuli from the external environment. Metabolism refers to the chemical processes that occur within an organism to sustain life. Therefore, all of these options can be considered functions of life.

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  • 13. 

    Which of the following is considered a function of life?

    • A.

      Growth

    • B.

      Response

    • C.

      Reproduction

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed - growth, response, and reproduction - are considered functions of life. Growth refers to the increase in size or number of cells in an organism, response refers to the ability to react to stimuli in the environment, and reproduction refers to the ability to produce offspring. All three of these functions are fundamental characteristics of living organisms and are essential for their survival and continuation of the species.

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  • 14. 

    Which function of life iincludes all of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism?

    • A.

      Homeostasis

    • B.

      Metabolism

    • C.

      Nutrition

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Metabolism
    Explanation
    Metabolism includes all of the chemical reactions that occur within an organism. It involves processes such as breaking down food to obtain energy, synthesizing molecules for growth and repair, and eliminating waste products. Homeostasis refers to the maintenance of a stable internal environment, while nutrition refers to the process of obtaining and using food. Therefore, both homeostasis and nutrition are not comprehensive enough to encompass all the chemical reactions within an organism, making metabolism the correct answer.

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  • 15. 

    If something has its growth limited, is it still considered alive?

    • A.

      Yes

    • B.

      No

    • C.

      Only while it is growing

    • D.

      It depends on the circumstances

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Yes
    Explanation
    If something has its growth limited, it can still be considered alive because being alive does not solely depend on growth. Growth is just one aspect of life, and there are other factors such as metabolism, reproduction, and response to stimuli that determine whether something is alive or not. Therefore, even if growth is limited, the entity can still exhibit other characteristics of life and be considered alive.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the functions of life involves hereditary molecules that can be passed to offspring?

    • A.

      Reproduction

    • B.

      Response

    • C.

      Growth

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Reproduction
    Explanation
    Reproduction involves the production of offspring and the passing of hereditary molecules, such as DNA, to the next generation. This process ensures that genetic information is transmitted from parent to offspring, allowing for the continuation of species and the inheritance of traits. Reproduction is a fundamental function of life that ensures the survival and diversity of organisms.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the functions of life involves maintaining a constant internal environment?

    • A.

      Metabolism

    • B.

      Response

    • C.

      Nutrition

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "None of the above" because maintaining a constant internal environment is a characteristic of homeostasis, which is not specifically mentioned as a function of life in the given options. Metabolism refers to the chemical processes that occur within an organism, response refers to the ability to react to stimuli, and nutrition refers to obtaining and processing nutrients. While homeostasis is a crucial aspect of maintaining life, it is not explicitly stated as a separate function in the given options.

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  • 18. 

    Which of the functions of life involves maintaining a constant internal environment?

    • A.

      Metabolism

    • B.

      Homeostasis

    • C.

      Growth

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Homeostasis
    Explanation
    Homeostasis is the correct answer because it refers to the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment despite external changes. It involves regulating various physiological processes such as temperature, pH, and nutrient levels within a narrow range to ensure optimal functioning of cells and tissues. This process is essential for the survival and proper functioning of living organisms. Metabolism and growth are important functions of life, but they do not specifically involve maintaining a constant internal environment like homeostasis does.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is maintained through homeostasis?

    • A.

      Reproduction

    • B.

      Growth

    • C.

      Temperature

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Temperature
    Explanation
    Temperature is maintained through homeostasis because the body constantly works to regulate its internal temperature within a narrow range. This is achieved through various mechanisms such as sweating or shivering to cool or warm the body, respectively. Homeostasis ensures that the body's temperature remains stable despite external temperature fluctuations, allowing cells and organs to function optimally. Reproduction and growth, on the other hand, are not directly regulated by homeostasis.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following is maintained through homeostasis?

    • A.

      Internal temperature

    • B.

      External temperature

    • C.

      Temperature gradients

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Internal temperature
    Explanation
    Homeostasis is the process by which an organism maintains a stable internal environment despite external changes. Internal temperature is a crucial aspect of homeostasis as it needs to be maintained within a narrow range for proper functioning of the body's enzymes and metabolic processes. External temperature and temperature gradients, on the other hand, are not directly regulated by homeostasis as they are external factors that can influence the internal temperature but are not maintained by the body itself. Therefore, the correct answer is internal temperature.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following is maintained through homeostasis?

    • A.

      Temperature

    • B.

      Salt-water balance

    • C.

      PH

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    Homeostasis is the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment. Temperature, salt-water balance, and pH are all regulated through homeostasis. The body works to keep the temperature within a narrow range, maintain the balance of salt and water in the body, and regulate the pH levels to ensure proper functioning of cells and organs. Therefore, all of the given options are maintained through homeostasis.

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  • 22. 

    Which of the functions of life involves providing a source of compounds which provide an organism with energy and chemical compounds to maintain life?

    • A.

      Metabolism

    • B.

      Nutrition

    • C.

      Homeostasis

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Nutrition
    Explanation
    Nutrition is the correct answer because it refers to the process by which organisms obtain and use food to support their growth, metabolism, and overall health. It involves the ingestion, digestion, absorption, and utilization of nutrients from food sources. Nutrition provides the necessary compounds, such as carbohydrates, proteins, and fats, which are broken down and converted into energy and other chemical compounds needed for the organism to maintain life.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the functions of life involves the reaction of organisms to environmental stimuli?

    • A.

      Reproduction

    • B.

      Response

    • C.

      Homeostasis

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Response
    Explanation
    The function of life that involves the reaction of organisms to environmental stimuli is called response. Organisms have the ability to detect and respond to changes in their environment, such as temperature, light, or sound. This response can be in the form of movement, changes in behavior, or physiological changes. Reproduction is the function of life related to the production of offspring, while homeostasis refers to the maintenance of a stable internal environment. Therefore, the correct answer is response.

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  • 24. 

    The regulation of internal temperature is an example of which of the functions of life?

    • A.

      Homeostasis

    • B.

      Metabolism

    • C.

      Nutrition

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Homeostasis
    Explanation
    Homeostasis refers to the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment despite changes in the external environment. The regulation of internal temperature is a crucial aspect of homeostasis as it ensures that the body maintains a constant temperature suitable for proper functioning. This process involves various mechanisms such as sweating or shivering to adjust the body temperature as needed. Therefore, the regulation of internal temperature falls under the function of homeostasis.

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  • 25. 

    The regulation of pH levels in an organism is an example of which of the functions of life?

    • A.

      Metabolism

    • B.

      Response

    • C.

      Growth

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The regulation of pH levels in an organism is not an example of any of the functions of life listed in the options. Metabolism refers to the chemical processes that occur within an organism to maintain life, while response refers to the ability of an organism to react to stimuli. Growth refers to the increase in size or number of cells in an organism. However, the regulation of pH levels is a specific function that helps maintain homeostasis within an organism, ensuring that the internal environment remains stable.

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  • 26. 

    The regulation of salt and water levels within an organism is an example of which of the functions of life?

    • A.

      Growth

    • B.

      Nutrition

    • C.

      Metabolism

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The regulation of salt and water levels within an organism is an example of homeostasis, which is the ability of an organism to maintain a stable internal environment. This function ensures that the body's salt and water levels are kept within a narrow range, allowing cells to function properly. While growth, nutrition, and metabolism are important functions of life, they do not specifically pertain to the regulation of salt and water levels. Therefore, the correct answer is "None of the above".

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  • 27. 

    A lizard basking on a rock to warm up is an example of which of the functions of life?

    • A.

      Metabolism

    • B.

      Response

    • C.

      Homeostasis

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Homeostasis
    Explanation
    The lizard basking on a rock to warm up is an example of homeostasis. Homeostasis refers to the ability of an organism to regulate its internal environment and maintain a stable condition. In this case, the lizard is using the external environment (the sun-warmed rock) to regulate its body temperature and maintain a stable internal temperature. This is an important function of life as it allows organisms to survive and function properly in their environment.

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  • 28. 

    A baby learning to walk is an example of which of the functions of life?

    • A.

      Growth

    • B.

      Response

    • C.

      Homeostasis

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Growth
    Explanation
    A baby learning to walk is an example of the function of growth because it involves the physical development and increase in size of the baby's muscles, bones, and coordination skills.

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  • 29. 

    An embryo developing a heart valve is an example of which of the functions of life?

    • A.

      Homeostasis

    • B.

      Growth

    • C.

      Response

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Growth
    Explanation
    The development of a heart valve in an embryo is an example of growth. Growth refers to the increase in size or complexity of an organism over time, and the development of a heart valve in an embryo represents an increase in complexity.

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  • 30. 

    An embryo developing fingers from flippers is an example of which of the functions of life?

    • A.

      Response

    • B.

      Homeostasis

    • C.

      Metabolism

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    The development of fingers from flippers in an embryo is an example of growth and development, which is not included in the given options. Homeostasis refers to the ability to maintain a stable internal environment, while metabolism refers to the chemical processes that occur within an organism. Therefore, the correct answer is None of the above.

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  • 31. 

    A venus flytrap closing its trap in response to a fly is an example of which of the functions of life?

    • A.

      Response

    • B.

      Metabolism

    • C.

      Nutrition

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Response
    Explanation
    The venus flytrap closing its trap in response to a fly is an example of the function of life called "response". This function refers to the ability of an organism to react to stimuli from its environment. In this case, the flytrap is responding to the presence of a fly by closing its trap, which is an adaptive behavior that allows it to capture and consume its prey. This response is a vital aspect of the flytrap's survival and is characteristic of living organisms.

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  • 32. 

    A person pulling fingers back from a hot stove is an example of which of the functions of life?

    • A.

      Homeostasis

    • B.

      Response

    • C.

      Reproduction

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Response
    Explanation
    When a person pulls their fingers back from a hot stove, it is an example of the response function of life. This function refers to the ability of an organism to react to stimuli in its environment. In this situation, the stimulus is the heat from the stove, and the person's response is to quickly remove their fingers to avoid injury. This response is a protective mechanism that helps to maintain the person's well-being and prevent harm.

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  • 33. 

    Which of the following is larger than an organelle?

    • A.

      Membrane

    • B.

      Virus

    • C.

      Bacterium

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    None of the options provided - membrane, virus, and bacterium - are larger than an organelle. An organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that performs a specific function. Membranes are thin structures that enclose organelles and other cellular components. Viruses are much smaller than cells and cannot be considered larger than organelles. Bacteria, although larger than viruses, are still smaller than most organelles found within eukaryotic cells. Therefore, the correct answer is none of the above.

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  • 34. 

    Which of the following is larger than a bacterium?

    • A.

      Organelle

    • B.

      Virus

    • C.

      Membrane

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Organelle
    Explanation
    An organelle is larger than a bacterium. Organelles are specialized structures within a cell that perform specific functions. They are typically larger than bacteria, which are microscopic single-celled organisms. Viruses are smaller than bacteria and cannot be considered larger. Membranes, on the other hand, can vary in size and are not necessarily larger than bacteria. Therefore, the correct answer is organelle.

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  • 35. 

    Which of the following is larger than a bacterium?

    • A.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • B.

      Vacuole

    • C.

      Animal cell

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed are larger than a bacterium. The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes within the cell that is involved in protein synthesis and lipid metabolism. Vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles that store water, ions, and other molecules in plant and animal cells. An animal cell is a eukaryotic cell that contains various organelles, including the nucleus, mitochondria, and cytoplasm. Therefore, all of these options are larger than a bacterium.

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  • 36. 

    Which of the following is larger than a bacterium?

    • A.

      Plant cell

    • B.

      Animal cell

    • C.

      Organelle

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the above options are larger than a bacterium. A bacterium is a single-celled microorganism, while a plant cell and an animal cell are both multicellular structures that are composed of many individual cells. Additionally, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that performs a specific function, and it is also larger than a bacterium. Therefore, all of the given options are larger than a bacterium.

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  • 37. 

    Which of the following is larger than a bacterium?

    • A.

      Lysosome

    • B.

      Nucleus

    • C.

      Golgi apparatus

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the above options (Lysosome, Nucleus, and Golgi apparatus) are larger than a bacterium. Lysosome is an organelle found in cells that is larger than a bacterium. Nucleus is the central organelle in a cell that contains genetic material and is also larger than a bacterium. Golgi apparatus is another organelle in cells that is responsible for packaging and modifying proteins, and it is also larger than a bacterium. Therefore, all of the above options are correct and larger than a bacterium.

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  • 38. 

    Which of the following is larger than a virus?

    • A.

      Membrane

    • B.

      Lysosome

    • C.

      ATP

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Lysosome
    Explanation
    Lysosome is larger than a virus. Lysosomes are organelles found in cells that contain digestive enzymes. They play a role in breaking down waste materials and cellular debris. Lysosomes are larger in size compared to viruses, which are microscopic infectious agents that can only replicate inside the cells of living organisms. Membrane and ATP are not larger than a virus, so they are not the correct options.

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  • 39. 

    Which of the following is larger than a virus?

    • A.

      Vesicle

    • B.

      Membrane

    • C.

      Calcium ion

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. Vesicle
    Explanation
    A vesicle is larger than a virus. A vesicle is a small membrane-bound sac that can transport and store various substances within a cell. It is larger than a virus, which is a small infectious agent that can only replicate inside the living cells of other organisms. The other options, membrane and calcium ion, do not necessarily refer to a specific size and can vary in size depending on the context.

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  • 40. 

    Which of the following is larger than a virus?

    • A.

      MRNA

    • B.

      Cell membrane

    • C.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Endoplasmic reticulum
    Explanation
    The endoplasmic reticulum is larger than a virus. The endoplasmic reticulum is a membrane-bound organelle found in eukaryotic cells. It is involved in the synthesis, folding, and transport of proteins and lipids. It consists of a network of interconnected tubules and flattened sacs, making it larger in size compared to a virus, which is much smaller and can only be seen under a microscope. mRNA and cell membrane are also smaller than the endoplasmic reticulum.

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  • 41. 

    Which of the following is larger than a virus?

    • A.

      Cell membrane

    • B.

      MRNA

    • C.

      TRNA

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    None of the options listed (cell membrane, mRNA, tRNA) are larger than a virus. A virus is typically larger in size compared to these components. The cell membrane is a thin layer that surrounds the cell and is smaller than a virus. mRNA and tRNA are molecules involved in protein synthesis and are much smaller than a virus. Therefore, the correct answer is none of the above.

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  • 42. 

    Which of the following is larger than a membrane (in diameter)?

    • A.

      Virus

    • B.

      Lysosome

    • C.

      Vacuole

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed (virus, lysosome, and vacuole) are larger than a membrane in diameter. A virus is a microscopic infectious agent that is larger than a membrane. Lysosomes are organelles within cells that contain digestive enzymes and are also larger than a membrane. Vacuoles are membrane-bound sacs found in cells that can vary in size, but they are generally larger than a membrane. Therefore, all of the options provided are larger than a membrane.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following is larger than a membrane (in diameter)?

    • A.

      ATP

    • B.

      Calcium ion

    • C.

      TRNA

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. None of the above
    Explanation
    ATP, calcium ion, and tRNA are all smaller than a membrane in diameter. ATP is a small molecule, calcium ions are single charged particles, and tRNA is a type of RNA molecule. None of these are larger than a membrane.

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  • 44. 

    Which of the following is larger than a membrane (in diameter)?

    • A.

      Animal cell

    • B.

      Endoplasmic reticulum

    • C.

      Vesicle

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options listed (animal cell, endoplasmic reticulum, and vesicle) are larger than a membrane in diameter. An animal cell is a complete unit that contains various organelles, including a membrane. The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of membranes within the cell that is involved in protein synthesis and lipid metabolism. A vesicle is a small, fluid-filled sac that is also surrounded by a membrane. Therefore, all of these options are larger than a single membrane.

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  • 45. 

    Which of the following is larger than a membrane (in diameter)?

    • A.

      ATP

    • B.

      Virus

    • C.

      RRNA

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Virus
    Explanation
    A virus is larger than a membrane in diameter. Viruses are microscopic infectious agents that are composed of genetic material (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat. They are much larger than a membrane, which is a thin layer of molecules that separates the internal and external environments of a cell or organelle. ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and rRNA (ribosomal RNA) are both smaller than a membrane and do not exceed its diameter.

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  • 46. 

    Which of the following is larger than the average molecule?

    • A.

      Virus

    • B.

      Organelle

    • C.

      DNA

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the options mentioned (Virus, Organelle, DNA) are larger than the average molecule. A virus is a complex structure made up of genetic material (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein coat, often with additional components. Organelles are specialized structures within cells that perform specific functions, such as the nucleus or mitochondria. DNA, which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid, is a molecule that carries genetic information in all living organisms. Therefore, all of these options are larger than the average molecule.

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  • 47. 

    Which of the following is larger than tRNA?

    • A.

      Codon

    • B.

      Nucleotide

    • C.

      Virus

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    C. Virus
    Explanation
    Virus is larger than tRNA because tRNA is a small molecule involved in protein synthesis, while viruses are much larger and can be seen under a microscope. Viruses are composed of genetic material (either DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat, and some viruses also have an outer envelope. In contrast, tRNA is a single-stranded RNA molecule that carries amino acids to the ribosome during protein synthesis. Therefore, virus is the correct answer as it is larger than tRNA.

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  • 48. 

    Which of the following is larger than a nucleotide?

    • A.

      Ribosome

    • B.

      Virus

    • C.

      Membrane

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    All of the above options - Ribosome, Virus, and Membrane - are larger than a nucleotide. A nucleotide is a small building block of DNA or RNA, consisting of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Ribosomes are large molecular complexes that are involved in protein synthesis and are composed of RNA and proteins. Viruses are infectious agents that are much larger than nucleotides, consisting of genetic material (DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat. Membranes are thin, flexible structures that surround cells and organelles, and they are composed of lipids and proteins.

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  • 49. 

    Which of the following is larger than a nucleotide?

    • A.

      Calcium ion

    • B.

      Codon

    • C.

      Phosphate

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Codon
    Explanation
    A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides found in DNA or RNA that codes for a specific amino acid. It is larger than a single nucleotide because it consists of three nucleotides. A nucleotide is the basic building block of DNA and RNA, consisting of a sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. Calcium ion and phosphate are not larger than a nucleotide as they are not composed of nucleotides. Therefore, the correct answer is Codon.

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  • 50. 

    Which of the following is larger than a codon?

    • A.

      Nucleotide

    • B.

      Ribosome

    • C.

      ATP

    • D.

      All of the above

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. Ribosome
    Explanation
    A ribosome is larger than a codon. A codon is a sequence of three nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid during protein synthesis. Nucleotides are the building blocks of DNA and RNA, and ATP is a molecule that provides energy for cellular processes. However, ribosomes are complex structures made up of proteins and RNA molecules, and they are responsible for translating the genetic code carried by codons into proteins. Therefore, a ribosome is larger than a codon.

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