Medical Ethics Practice Questions And Answers

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Medical Ethics Practice Questions And Answers - Quiz

Are you looking for some practice questions and answers based on medical ethics? Do you want to check your knowledge and understanding of medical law and ethics as a medical student? Look no further; start playing the quiz below. Here, we will ask questions related to case series, cohort studies, and random reports. Let's see how well you answer them all. Don't forget to share this quiz with others who are working or (want to) in the healthcare sector.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which of the following is not the required current knowledge of medical practice?

    • A.

      Understanding prognosis with and without treatment

    • B.

      Disease processes and identification

    • C.

      Controlling and altering the disease course

    • D.

      Anaphylaxis

    • E.

      Prophylaxis

    Correct Answer
    D. Anaphylaxis
    Explanation
    Anaphylaxis is not a required current knowledge of medical practice. Anaphylaxis refers to a severe allergic reaction that can be life-threatening. While it is important for medical professionals to be aware of anaphylaxis and its treatment, it is not considered a fundamental or core knowledge requirement for medical practice. Understanding prognosis with and without treatment, disease processes and identification, controlling and altering the disease course, and prophylaxis are all essential components of medical practice.

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  • 2. 

    A research study question should begin and end with the following questions:

    • A.

      How much?; What is this?

    • B.

      What if?; So what?

    • C.

      Who?; Where?

    • D.

      When?; How?

    Correct Answer
    B. What if?; So what?
    Explanation
    The given answer states that a research study question should begin with "What if?" and end with "So what?". This implies that a research study should explore potential hypothetical scenarios and their implications or consequences. By asking "What if?", researchers can consider different possibilities and variables, while asking "So what?" helps to determine the significance and relevance of the research findings. These questions help researchers to delve deeper into the subject matter and understand the potential impact or importance of their study.

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  • 3. 

    What are declarative statements that can be refuted? 

    • A.

      Research questions

    • B.

      Theories

    • C.

      Hypotheses

    • D.

      Prophylaxis

    Correct Answer
    C. Hypotheses
    Explanation
    Declarative statements that can be refuted are hypotheses. Hypotheses are statements that propose a possible explanation or prediction based on limited evidence or observations. They are testable and can be proven false through empirical research or experimentation. Unlike research questions or theories, hypotheses are specific and can be either supported or refuted by evidence. Prophylaxis, on the other hand, refers to preventive measures or treatments to prevent disease, and is not a type of declarative statement.

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  • 4. 

    What is termed a sub-group of the population to study:

    • A.

      Small population

    • B.

      Sample

    • C.

      Group

    • D.

      Species

    • E.

      Genus

    Correct Answer
    B. Sample
    Explanation
    A sample is a sub-group of the population that is selected to represent the entire population in a study. It is a smaller portion of the population that is chosen in order to gather data and make inferences about the entire population. By studying a sample, researchers can save time and resources compared to studying the entire population. Additionally, a well-designed sample should be representative of the population, meaning that it accurately reflects the characteristics and diversity of the population being studied.

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  • 5. 

    The null hypothesis is:

    • A.

      A declarative statement in which an intervention will make a difference

    • B.

      A declarative statement in which an intervention does not make a difference

    • C.

      A declarative statement that can be tested based on the origins of a research question

    • D.

      A declarative statement that can be tested based on a population that is large enough.

    Correct Answer
    B. A declarative statement in which an intervention does not make a difference
    Explanation
    The null hypothesis is a declarative statement in which an intervention does not make a difference. In other words, it assumes that there is no effect or relationship between the variables being studied. The null hypothesis is typically tested against an alternative hypothesis, which suggests that there is a difference or relationship. By testing the null hypothesis, researchers can determine whether there is enough evidence to reject it and support the alternative hypothesis.

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  • 6. 

    The _________________ variables are those which respond to the manipulation of, or variations in, the _______________  variable. 

    • A.

      Independent, dependent,

    • B.

      Independent, independent,

    • C.

      Dependent, independent

    • D.

      Dependent, dependent

    Correct Answer
    C. Dependent, independent
    Explanation
    Dependent variables are those that are influenced or affected by changes in the independent variable. In an experiment, the independent variable is manipulated or varied by the researcher, while the dependent variable is the outcome or response that is measured or observed. Therefore, the correct answer is "dependent, independent."

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following terms is the basis for stating that a change in the dependent variable is ONLY the result of the manipulation in the independent variable?

    • A.

      Internal validity

    • B.

      External validity

    • C.

      Inside validity

    • D.

      Null validity

    Correct Answer
    A. Internal validity
    Explanation
    Internal validity is the basis for stating that a change in the dependent variable is ONLY the result of the manipulation in the independent variable. It refers to the degree to which a study accurately demonstrates a cause-and-effect relationship between the independent and dependent variables, without the influence of confounding variables. In other words, internal validity ensures that any observed changes in the dependent variable can be attributed solely to the manipulation of the independent variable, rather than other factors.

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  • 8. 

    Which of the following terms is the generalizability of a study to the real world population. In simpler terms, "can the results of this study be used in life life with real people?"

    • A.

      Internal validity

    • B.

      External validity

    • C.

      Efficacy

    • D.

      Independent and dependent variables

    Correct Answer
    B. External validity
    Explanation
    External validity refers to the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to the real world population. It assesses whether the findings of a study can be applied to a broader population beyond the specific sample that was studied. In other words, it determines if the results are applicable and can be used in real-life situations with real people.

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  • 9. 

    True or False? Greater internal validity means greater external validity. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Greater validity means less external validity, and the reverse.

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  • 10. 

    Choosing a random selection of subjects ensures that: 

    • A.

      There will be greater internal validity for the study

    • B.

      The results of the study can be maximally generalized

    • C.

      That the independent variable will be manipulated much less than the dependent variable

    • D.

      The results of the study will not have a high applicability to real life.

    Correct Answer
    B. The results of the study can be maximally generalized
    Explanation
    Choosing a random selection of subjects ensures that the results of the study can be maximally generalized. Random selection helps to minimize bias and increase the representativeness of the sample, allowing for the findings to be applied to a larger population. By selecting subjects randomly, the study's results are more likely to be applicable to real-life situations and can be generalized to a broader context.

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  • 11. 

    True of False? Study participants are truly randomly selected from the population they are meant to represent. *More of less, are they really randomly selected or do they typically comprised by convenience? 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    False, subjects are typically comprised based on convenience, so college students, nursing home patients may be used but will appear as a "random" choosing.

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  • 12. 

    Case Series/Studies/Reports are generally reports on:

    • A.

      An entire population

    • B.

      An entire hospital facility/doctor's office

    • C.

      A single patient

    • D.

      An entire sample

    Correct Answer
    C. A single patient
    Explanation
    Case series/studies/reports are generally reports that provide detailed information about a specific patient or a small group of patients. These reports aim to describe the clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes of the individual or group being studied. They are not focused on an entire population, hospital facility, doctor's office, or sample, but rather provide in-depth analysis of a single patient or a small group of patients.

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  • 13. 

    Case series and case reports do not have statistical validity because: 

    • A.

      They are not randomly selected

    • B.

      They are voluntary

    • C.

      They are involuntary

    • D.

      They use no control groups against which to compare outcomes

    Correct Answer
    D. They use no control groups against which to compare outcomes
    Explanation
    Case series and case reports do not have statistical validity because they do not use control groups against which to compare outcomes. Control groups are essential in research to establish causality and determine the true effect of an intervention or exposure. Without control groups, it is difficult to attribute outcomes solely to the intervention or exposure being studied, as other factors may be influencing the results. Therefore, case series and case reports provide valuable information about rare or unique cases but do not provide strong evidence for causality or generalizability.

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  • 14. 

    What is the gold standard for common study designs?

    • A.

      Cohort studies

    • B.

      Case studies

    • C.

      Cross-sectional studies

    • D.

      Case-control studies

    • E.

      Randomized control studies

    Correct Answer
    E. Randomized control studies
    Explanation
    Randomized control studies are considered the gold standard for common study designs because they involve randomly assigning participants into different groups, with one group receiving the intervention or treatment being studied and the other group serving as a control. This randomization helps to minimize bias and ensures that any observed differences between the groups can be attributed to the intervention. Randomized control studies are known for their ability to establish cause-and-effect relationships and are widely used in medical and scientific research to evaluate the efficacy of interventions or treatments.

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  • 15. 

    Which of the following is considered a "snap-shot" study in which all data is collected at one point.

    • A.

      Cohort study

    • B.

      Case report/studies

    • C.

      Case-control study

    • D.

      Cross-sectional study

    Correct Answer
    D. Cross-sectional study
    Explanation
    A cross-sectional study is considered a "snap-shot" study because it collects data from a population at a single point in time. It aims to gather information about the prevalence of a certain condition or characteristic in a population at a specific moment. This type of study does not follow individuals over time but rather captures a snapshot of the population at a given time, providing a snapshot of the relationship between variables at that specific moment.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following study methods collects data from patients who already have a certain condition in which the design of the study is retrospective? 

    • A.

      Cohort study

    • B.

      Cross-sectional study

    • C.

      Case-control study

    • D.

      Case report/series

    • E.

      Randomized controlled trails

    Correct Answer
    C. Case-control study
    Explanation
    A case-control study collects data from patients who already have a certain condition and compares them to a control group without the condition. The design of the study is retrospective because it looks back in time to determine the exposure or risk factors that may have contributed to the development of the condition. This type of study is useful for investigating rare diseases or conditions where it may be difficult or unethical to conduct a prospective study.

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  • 17. 

    True or false? For a case-control study, the endpoint occurs after the study begins.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    False. In a case-control study, the endpoint refers to the outcome or event being studied, such as the development of a disease or condition. The endpoint can occur before, during, or after the study begins, depending on the specific research design and objectives. Therefore, the statement that the endpoint occurs after the study begins is incorrect.

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  • 18. 

    True or false? For a cohort study the endpoint occurs after the study begins.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    In a cohort study, the endpoint refers to the outcome or event being measured or observed. Since the endpoint occurs after the study begins, it implies that the researchers are monitoring the participants over a period of time to determine if and when the endpoint occurs. Therefore, the statement "True" accurately reflects this characteristic of a cohort study.

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  • 19. 

    Cohort studies are typically:

    • A.

      Retrospective

    • B.

      Prospective

    • C.

      Snapshot studies

    • D.

      Considered to be a gold standard

    Correct Answer
    B. Prospective
    Explanation
    Cohort studies are typically prospective, meaning that they follow a group of individuals over a period of time to observe the development of certain outcomes. This allows researchers to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between exposure and outcome. Retrospective studies, on the other hand, look back in time to analyze data and are not as reliable as prospective studies. Snapshot studies, also known as cross-sectional studies, collect data at a single point in time and do not provide information on the progression of outcomes. While cohort studies are considered valuable, they are not necessarily considered the gold standard in all cases.

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  • 20. 

    Which of the following study methods uses subjects who have already been exposed and will be followed over time to observe the differences in outcome between the exposed and non-exposed. (longitudinal study)

    • A.

      Case studies/reviews

    • B.

      Cohort study

    • C.

      Cross-sectional study

    • D.

      Case-control study

    • E.

      Randomized controlled trails

    Correct Answer
    B. Cohort study
    Explanation
    A cohort study is a type of study method that involves following a group of subjects who have already been exposed to a certain factor or condition and observing them over a period of time to compare the outcomes between the exposed and non-exposed individuals. This study design allows researchers to examine the effects of a particular exposure or risk factor on the development of certain outcomes or diseases. Therefore, a cohort study is the appropriate study method for observing the differences in outcome between the exposed and non-exposed individuals over time.

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  • 21. 

    Which of the following study methods uses one or more active test treatments and at least one concurrent control Basically, subjects are divided into two groups, one treatment group and one control group, they are both followed through time and then the outcomes are compared. 

    • A.

      Cohort studies

    • B.

      Case studies/reviews

    • C.

      Cross-sectional study

    • D.

      Case-control study

    • E.

      Randomized controlled trials

    Correct Answer
    E. Randomized controlled trials
    Explanation
    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the study methods that use one or more active test treatments and at least one concurrent control. In RCTs, subjects are divided into two groups - a treatment group and a control group. Both groups are followed through time, and the outcomes are compared to assess the effectiveness of the treatment. RCTs are considered the gold standard in research because they provide a high level of control and minimize bias, allowing for reliable conclusions about cause and effect relationships.

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  • 22. 

    What is step 1 of the key steps for the practice of EBM?

    • A.

      Critically appraising the evidence for it's validity and applicability

    • B.

      Converting clinical scenarios into a structured answerable question

    • C.

      Searching the literature to identify the best available evidence to answer the question

    • D.

      Applying the results of the appraisal to clinical practice

    • E.

      Evaluation/assessment of the EBM process

    Correct Answer
    B. Converting clinical scenarios into a structured answerable question
    Explanation
    Converting clinical scenarios into a structured answerable question is the first step in the key steps for the practice of EBM. This involves formulating a clear and focused question that can be answered through evidence-based research. By defining the question, it becomes easier to identify and search for the relevant literature and evidence to address the clinical scenario. This step sets the foundation for the entire EBM process, as it helps guide the subsequent steps of critically appraising the evidence, applying the results to clinical practice, and evaluating the EBM process.

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  • 23. 

    What is step 3 of the key steps for the practice of EBM?

    • A.

      Applying the results of the appraisal to clinical practice

    • B.

      Critically appraising the evidence for it's validity and applicability

    • C.

      Evaluation/assessment of the EBM process

    • D.

      Converting clinical scenarios into a structured answerable question

    • E.

      Searching the literature to identify the best available evidence to answer the question

    Correct Answer
    B. Critically appraising the evidence for it's validity and applicability
    Explanation
    Step 3 of the key steps for the practice of EBM is critically appraising the evidence for its validity and applicability. This involves carefully evaluating the quality and relevance of the evidence obtained in step 2. It includes assessing the study design, methodology, and statistical analysis to determine the reliability and validity of the evidence. Additionally, it involves considering the applicability of the evidence to the specific clinical scenario and patient population. By critically appraising the evidence, healthcare professionals can make informed decisions about its usefulness and relevance to their practice.

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  • 24. 

    What is step 2 of the key steps for the practice of EBM?

    • A.

      Searching the literature to identify the best available evidence to answer the question

    • B.

      Converting clinical scenarios into a structured answerable question

    • C.

      Evaluation/assessment of the EBM process

    • D.

      Critically appraising the evidence for it's validity and applicability

    • E.

      Applying the results of the appraisal to clinical practice

    Correct Answer
    A. Searching the literature to identify the best available evidence to answer the question
    Explanation
    Step 2 of the key steps for the practice of EBM is searching the literature to identify the best available evidence to answer the question. This involves conducting a systematic search of relevant literature sources such as databases, journals, and clinical guidelines to find studies or research that provide evidence to support or inform the clinical question at hand. This step is crucial in ensuring that the evidence used in the practice of EBM is current, reliable, and applicable to the specific clinical scenario.

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  • 25. 

    What is step 4 of the key steps for the practice of EBM?

    • A.

      Converting clinical scenarios into a structured answerable question

    • B.

      Evaluation/assessment of the EBM process

    • C.

      Critically appraising the evidence for it's validity and applicability

    • D.

      Applying the results of the appraisal to clinical practice

    • E.

      Searching the literature to identify the best available evidence to answer the question

    Correct Answer
    D. Applying the results of the appraisal to clinical practice
    Explanation
    Step 4 of the key steps for the practice of EBM is applying the results of the appraisal to clinical practice. This step involves taking the evidence that has been critically appraised and determining how it can be applied to the specific clinical scenario. It requires considering factors such as the patient's individual characteristics, preferences, and values, as well as the feasibility and potential harms or benefits of implementing the evidence-based practice. This step is crucial in ensuring that the best available evidence is translated into effective and appropriate clinical care.

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  • 26. 

    What is step 5 of the key steps for the practice of EBM?

    • A.

      Searching the literature to identify the best available evidence to answer the question

    • B.

      Applying the results of the appraisal to clinical practice

    • C.

      Critically appraising the evidence for it's validity and applicability

    • D.

      Evaluation/assessment of the EBM process

    • E.

      Converting clinical scenarios into a structured answerable question

    Correct Answer
    D. Evaluation/assessment of the EBM process
    Explanation
    Step 5 of the key steps for the practice of EBM is the evaluation/assessment of the EBM process. This step involves reflecting on the entire process of practicing EBM and assessing its effectiveness. It includes evaluating the outcomes of the EBM process, identifying any areas for improvement, and assessing the impact of EBM on clinical practice. This step is crucial in ensuring that EBM is being implemented effectively and that it is resulting in improved patient outcomes.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Aug 27, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Sep 15, 2009
    Quiz Created by
    Hajdukie
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