Human Performance And Limitations (L)

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Human Performance And Limitations (L) - Quiz

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Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Which statement is true regarding alcohol in the human system?

    • A.

      (1) Alcohol renders a pilot more susceptible to hypoxia.

    • B.

      (2) Small amounts of alcohol will not impair flying skills.

    • C.

      (3) Coffee helps metabolize alcohol and alleviates a hangover.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) Alcohol renders a pilot more susceptible to hypoxia.
    Explanation
    Alcohol renders a pilot more susceptible to hypoxia because it impairs the body's ability to absorb and utilize oxygen. This can be extremely dangerous during flight, as hypoxia can lead to impaired judgment, decreased coordination, and loss of consciousness. It is important for pilots to abstain from alcohol before flying to ensure their safety and the safety of others.

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  • 2. 

    If advice is needed concerning possible flight with an illness, a pilot should contact

    • A.

      (1) an Aviation Medical Examiner.

    • B.

      (2) their family doctor.

    • C.

      (3) the nearest hospital.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) an Aviation Medical Examiner.
    Explanation
    When a pilot needs advice regarding a possible flight with an illness, they should contact an Aviation Medical Examiner. Aviation Medical Examiners are specialized doctors who are authorized by the aviation authorities to conduct medical examinations on pilots and issue medical certificates. They have the expertise and knowledge to assess the pilot's medical condition and determine if it is safe for them to fly. Consulting with an Aviation Medical Examiner ensures that the pilot receives accurate and appropriate advice based on their specific situation and the requirements of aviation regulations.

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  • 3. 

    Which will always affect your ability to fly?

    • A.

      (1) Over-the-counter analgesics and antihistamines.

    • B.

      (2) Antibiotics and anesthetics drugs.

    • C.

      (3) Prescription analgesics and antihistamines.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) Prescription analgesics and antihistamines.
    Explanation
    Prescription analgesics and antihistamines can affect your ability to fly because they may cause drowsiness or dizziness as side effects. These medications can impair your cognitive and motor skills, making it unsafe for you to operate an aircraft. It is important to follow the instructions and warnings provided by your healthcare provider when taking these medications, especially if you plan to fly.

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  • 4. 

    As a pilot, flying for long periods in hot summer temperatures increases the susceptibilityof dehydration since the

    • A.

      (1) dry air at altitude tends to increase the rate of water loss from the body.

    • B.

      (2) moist air at altitude helps retain the body´s moisture.

    • C.

      (3) temperature decreases with altitude.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) dry air at altitude tends to increase the rate of water loss from the body.
    Explanation
    Flying at high altitudes means being exposed to low humidity and dry air, which can lead to increased water loss from the body. When the air is dry, it tends to draw moisture from the body, including water from the skin, eyes, and respiratory system. This can result in dehydration, especially when combined with the already dehydrating effects of high temperatures. Therefore, option (1) is the correct answer as it explains why flying in hot summer temperatures can increase the susceptibility of dehydration for pilots.

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  • 5. 

    Motion sickness is caused by

    • A.

      (1) continued stimulation of the tiny portion of the inner ear which controls sense of balance.

    • B.

      (2) an instability in the brain cells which affect balance and will generally be overcome with experience.

    • C.

      (3) the movement of an aircraft causing the stomach to create an acid substance which causes the stomach lining to contract.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) continued stimulation of the tiny portion of the inner ear which controls sense of balance.
    Explanation
    Motion sickness is caused by continued stimulation of the tiny portion of the inner ear which controls the sense of balance. This stimulation can occur when there is a disconnect between what the eyes see and what the inner ear senses, such as when reading in a moving vehicle. This conflicting information can lead to feelings of dizziness, nausea, and vomiting. This explanation aligns with the understanding that motion sickness is primarily influenced by the inner ear's role in balance and spatial orientation.

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  • 6. 

    What suggestion could you make to your pilot fellow who is experiencing motionsickness?

    • A.

      (1) Recommend taking medication to prevent motion sickness.

    • B.

      (2) Lower her/his head, shut her/his eyes, and take deep breaths.

    • C.

      (3) Avoid unnecessary head movement and to keep her/his eyes on a point outside the aircraft.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) Avoid unnecessary head movement and to keep her/his eyes on a point outside the aircraft.
    Explanation
    Motion sickness is caused by a conflict between the visual and vestibular systems. By avoiding unnecessary head movements and keeping the eyes focused on a point outside the aircraft, the pilot can reduce the conflicting sensory inputs that contribute to motion sickness. This helps to stabilize the visual field and provide a consistent reference point, reducing the symptoms of motion sickness. Medication can be an option, but it may have side effects that can affect the pilot's performance, so it is not the first recommendation. Lowering the head and shutting the eyes may provide temporary relief but does not address the underlying cause of motion sickness.

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  • 7. 

    In an unpressurised aircraft, at high altitudes the amount of oxygen that diffuses acrossthe lung membranes into the blood is

    • A.

      (1) decreased because of the low partial pressure of oxygen.

    • B.

      (2) decreased because of the lower temperatures.

    • C.

      (3) unchanged to that at sea level.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) decreased because of the low partial pressure of oxygen.
    Explanation
    At high altitudes, the air pressure decreases, resulting in a lower partial pressure of oxygen. The partial pressure of a gas determines the concentration gradient for diffusion, and a lower partial pressure means there is less oxygen available to diffuse across the lung membranes into the blood. Therefore, the amount of oxygen that diffuses into the blood is decreased in an unpressurized aircraft at high altitudes.

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  • 8. 

    During a climb to 18,000 ft, the percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere

    • A.

      (1) increases.

    • B.

      (2) decreases.

    • C.

      (3) remains the same.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) remains the same.
    Explanation
    The percentage of oxygen in the atmosphere remains the same during a climb to 18,000 ft. While the air pressure decreases with altitude, the proportion of oxygen in the atmosphere remains constant at approximately 21%. Therefore, the percentage of oxygen does not change as we climb to higher altitudes.

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  • 9. 

    Although not required, supplemental oxygen is recommended for use when flying atnight above

    • A.

      (1) 1,500 m (5,000 ft).

    • B.

      (2) 3,050 m (10,000 ft).

    • C.

      (3) 3,800 m (12,500 ft).

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) 1,500 m (5,000 ft).
    Explanation
    Supplemental oxygen is recommended when flying at night above 1,500 m (5,000 ft) because at higher altitudes, the air becomes thinner and contains less oxygen. This can lead to hypoxia, a condition where the body does not receive enough oxygen. Flying at night also adds to the risk as it can increase fatigue and impair the body's ability to cope with lower oxygen levels. Therefore, using supplemental oxygen helps to ensure that pilots and passengers receive adequate oxygen levels and reduces the risk of hypoxia-related issues during night flights above 1,500 m (5,000 ft).

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  • 10. 

    Hypoxia is the result of

    • A.

      (1) shortage of oxygen in the body.

    • B.

      (2) insufficient oxygen in the air.

    • C.

      (3) excessive nitrogen in the bloodstream.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) shortage of oxygen in the body.
    Explanation
    Hypoxia is a condition characterized by a shortage of oxygen in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as high altitudes, lung diseases, or a lack of oxygen supply to tissues. Insufficient oxygen in the air or excessive nitrogen in the bloodstream are not the causes of hypoxia.

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  • 11. 

    Which statement best defines hypoxia?

    • A.

      (1) A state of oxygen deficiency in the body.

    • B.

      (2) An abnormal increase in the volume of air breathed.

    • C.

      (3) A condition of gas bubble formation around the joints or muscles.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) A state of oxygen deficiency in the body.
    Explanation
    Hypoxia is defined as a state of oxygen deficiency in the body. This means that there is a decrease in the amount of oxygen available to the tissues and cells. It can be caused by various factors such as high altitudes, lung diseases, or carbon monoxide poisoning. Hypoxia can have serious effects on the body and may lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, confusion, and even organ damage if not treated promptly.

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  • 12. 

    Which statement concerning hypoxia is true?

    • A.

      (1) Hypoxia is caused by nitrogen bubbles in the joints and bloodstream.

    • B.

      (2) Tingling of the skin and a false sense of security may be symptoms of hypoxia.

    • C.

      (3) Forcing oneself to concentrate on the flight instruments will help to overcome the effects of hypoxia.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) Tingling of the skin and a false sense of security may be symptoms of hypoxia.
    Explanation
    Hypoxia is a condition characterized by a lack of oxygen supply to the body's tissues. Tingling of the skin is a symptom of hypoxia because it occurs when the body's cells are not receiving enough oxygen. Additionally, a false sense of security can be a symptom of hypoxia because the brain may become impaired due to lack of oxygen, leading to a decreased ability to recognize and respond to the severity of the situation. Therefore, statement (2) accurately describes symptoms associated with hypoxia.

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  • 13. 

    Which occurs when climbing above 18,000 feet in an unpressurized aircraft withoutsupplemental oxygen?

    • A.

      (1) Gases trapped in the body contract and prevent nitrogen from escaping the bloodstream.

    • B.

      (2) The pressure in the middle ear becomes less than the atmospheric pressure in the cabin.

    • C.

      (3) The oxygen pressure within the lungs cannot be maintained without an increase in inhaled oxygen pressure.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) The oxygen pressure within the lungs cannot be maintained without an increase in inhaled oxygen pressure.
    Explanation
    When climbing above 18,000 feet in an unpressurized aircraft without supplemental oxygen, the oxygen pressure within the lungs cannot be maintained without an increase in inhaled oxygen pressure. This is because at higher altitudes, the air pressure decreases, resulting in lower oxygen pressure. In order to maintain adequate oxygen levels in the lungs, it is necessary to increase the pressure of the inhaled oxygen.

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  • 14. 

    Susceptibility to carbon monoxide poisoning increases as

    • A.

      (1) altitude increases.

    • B.

      (2) altitude decreases.

    • C.

      (3) air pressure increases.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) altitude increases.
    Explanation
    As altitude increases, the air becomes thinner and the concentration of oxygen decreases. Carbon monoxide binds to hemoglobin in red blood cells, reducing their ability to transport oxygen. At higher altitudes, where there is already a lower concentration of oxygen, the presence of carbon monoxide can further decrease the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, leading to a higher susceptibility to carbon monoxide poisoning.

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  • 15. 

    Hypemic hypoxia has the same symptoms as hypoxic hypoxia, but it is most often aresult of

    • A.

      (1) poor blood circulation.

    • B.

      (2) a leaking exhaust manifold.

    • C.

      (3) use of alcohol or drugs before flight.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) a leaking exhaust manifold.
    Explanation
    Hypemic hypoxia refers to a condition where the blood is unable to carry enough oxygen to the body's tissues. It presents with similar symptoms as hypoxic hypoxia, which is caused by a lack of oxygen in the air. However, in the case of hypemic hypoxia, the most common cause is a leaking exhaust manifold. This is because a leaking exhaust manifold can introduce carbon monoxide into the bloodstream, which binds to hemoglobin and reduces its ability to carry oxygen. Therefore, option (2) is the correct answer.

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  • 16. 

    Carbon monoxide in an aircraft cabin is

    • A.

      (1) easily recognizable because of its peculiar odor.

    • B.

      (2) easily recognizable because of its peculiar color.

    • C.

      (3) difficult to recognize because of its odorless and colorless.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) difficult to recognize because of its odorless and colorless.
    Explanation
    Carbon monoxide in an aircraft cabin is difficult to recognize because it is odorless and colorless. This means that it cannot be detected by our senses, making it even more dangerous as it can go unnoticed. Carbon monoxide is a poisonous gas that can lead to severe health issues or even death if inhaled in high concentrations. Therefore, it is crucial to have proper carbon monoxide detectors and ventilation systems in place to ensure the safety of passengers and crew members.

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  • 17. 

    Large accumulations of carbon monoxide in the human body result in

    • A.

      (1) tightness across the forehead.

    • B.

      (2) loss of muscular power.

    • C.

      (3) an increased sense of well-being.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) loss of muscular power.
    Explanation
    Large accumulations of carbon monoxide in the human body result in loss of muscular power. Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas that binds to hemoglobin in the blood, preventing oxygen from being transported effectively to the body's tissues and organs. This lack of oxygen can lead to muscle weakness and fatigue, ultimately resulting in a loss of muscular power.

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  • 18. 

    What is one effect smoking has on a pilot?

    • A.

      (1) Decreases night vision by 50 percent.

    • B.

      (2) Increases body heat which, in turn, creates a demand for more oxygen.

    • C.

      (3) Creates additional carbon dioxide gases in the body which often leads to hyperventilation.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) Increases body heat which, in turn, creates a demand for more oxygen.
    Explanation
    Smoking increases body heat due to the chemicals in cigarettes, which can lead to an increased demand for oxygen in the body. This is because the body needs more oxygen to regulate its temperature and counteract the effects of smoking. This can be particularly problematic for pilots, as they already experience higher oxygen demands due to the altitude and pressure changes during flight. Smoking can further exacerbate this demand, potentially leading to decreased oxygen levels and impaired performance.

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  • 19. 

    A person may not act as a crewmember of a civil aircraft if alcoholic beverages havebeen consumed by that person within the preceding

    • A.

      (1) 8 hours.

    • B.

      (2) 12 hours.

    • C.

      (3) 24 hours.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) 8 hours.
    Explanation
    According to aviation regulations, a person is prohibited from acting as a crewmember of a civil aircraft if they have consumed alcoholic beverages within the preceding 8 hours. This rule is in place to ensure the safety of the flight, as alcohol can impair judgment, coordination, and cognitive functions, which are crucial for operating an aircraft. By enforcing an 8-hour restriction, it allows sufficient time for the body to metabolize and eliminate the alcohol from the system before performing any crew duties.

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  • 20. 

    Which would most likely result in hyperventilation?

    • A.

      (1) Emotional tension, anxiety, or fear.

    • B.

      (2) The excessive consumption of alcohol.

    • C.

      (3) An extremely slow rate of breathing and insufficient oxygen.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) Emotional tension, anxiety, or fear.
    Explanation
    Emotional tension, anxiety, or fear can most likely result in hyperventilation because these psychological factors can trigger a stress response in the body. When a person is experiencing intense emotions or fear, their body may respond by increasing their breathing rate and taking in more oxygen. This can lead to hyperventilation, which is characterized by rapid and shallow breathing.

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  • 21. 

    Rapid or extra deep breathing while using oxygen can cause a condition known as

    • A.

      (1) aerosinusitis.

    • B.

      (2) aerotitis.

    • C.

      (3) hyperventilation.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) hyperventilation.
    Explanation
    Rapid or extra deep breathing while using oxygen can cause a condition known as hyperventilation. Hyperventilation is a condition where a person breathes in an abnormally fast and deep manner, leading to an imbalance in the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. This can result in symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, and tingling sensations. In the given scenario, the excessive breathing while using oxygen can lead to hyperventilation. Aerosinusitis refers to inflammation of the sinuses due to changes in air pressure, while aerotitis refers to inflammation of the middle ear due to changes in air pressure.

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  • 22. 

    Hyperventilation results from

    • A.

      (1) a lack of carbon dioxide in the body.

    • B.

      (2) flying too high without supplemental oxygen.

    • C.

      (3) breathing too rapidly causing a lack of oxygen.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) a lack of carbon dioxide in the body.
    Explanation
    Hyperventilation occurs when a person breathes too rapidly, causing a decrease in the level of carbon dioxide in the body. This can happen due to various reasons such as anxiety, panic attacks, or strenuous physical activity. When carbon dioxide levels drop, it can lead to symptoms like dizziness, tingling sensations, and shortness of breath. Therefore, option (1) is the correct answer as it accurately explains the cause of hyperventilation.

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  • 23. 

    A pilot should be able to overcome the symptoms or avoid future occurrences ofhyperventilation by

    • A.

      (1) closely monitoring the flight instruments to control the airplane.

    • B.

      (2) slowing the breathing rate, breathing into a bag, or talking aloud.

    • C.

      (3) increasing the breathing rate in order to increase lung ventilation.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) slowing the breathing rate, breathing into a bag, or talking aloud.
    Explanation
    Hyperventilation is a condition where a person breathes too quickly or deeply, leading to an imbalance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. This can cause symptoms such as dizziness, tingling in the hands and feet, and confusion. Slowing the breathing rate helps to restore the balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Breathing into a bag helps to re-breathe exhaled carbon dioxide, which can also help to alleviate symptoms. Talking aloud can help to distract the person from their anxious thoughts and focus on regulating their breathing. Therefore, all of these actions can help a pilot overcome the symptoms or avoid future occurrences of hyperventilation.

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  • 24. 

    If an individual has gone scuba diving which has not required a controlled ascent and willbe flying to cabin pressure altitudes of 8,000 feet or less, the recommended waiting time is at least

    • A.

      (1) 4 hours.

    • B.

      (2) 12 hours.

    • C.

      (3) 24 hours.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) 4 hours.
    Explanation
    If an individual has gone scuba diving without a controlled ascent and will be flying to cabin pressure altitudes of 8,000 feet or less, the recommended waiting time is at least 4 hours. This waiting time is necessary to allow the body to eliminate excess nitrogen absorbed during the dive, reducing the risk of decompression sickness. Waiting for 4 hours allows for a safer ascent to higher altitudes without the risk of experiencing symptoms related to nitrogen buildup in the body.

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  • 25. 

    If an individual has gone scuba diving which has required a controlled ascent and will beflying to cabin pressure altitudes of 8,000 feet or less, the recommended waiting time is at least

    • A.

      (1) 4 hours.

    • B.

      (2) 12 hours.

    • C.

      (3) 24 hours.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) 24 hours.
    Explanation
    After scuba diving, it is recommended to wait for at least 24 hours before flying to cabin pressure altitudes of 8,000 feet or less. This waiting time is necessary to allow the body to eliminate excess nitrogen absorbed during the dive. Flying too soon after diving can increase the risk of decompression sickness, also known as "the bends," which is caused by the formation of nitrogen bubbles in the bloodstream. Waiting for 24 hours allows the body to safely eliminate the excess nitrogen and reduces the risk of decompression sickness during the flight.

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  • 26. 

    Dark adaptation is impaired by exposure to

    • A.

      (1) carbon dioxide.

    • B.

      (2) vitamin A in the diet.

    • C.

      (3) cabin pressure altitudes above 5,000 feet.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) cabin pressure altitudes above 5,000 feet.
    Explanation
    Exposure to cabin pressure altitudes above 5,000 feet impairs dark adaptation. Dark adaptation is the process by which the eyes adjust to low-light conditions, allowing us to see in the dark. When exposed to high altitudes, the reduced oxygen levels can affect the functioning of the retinal cells responsible for dark adaptation. This impairment can make it more difficult for the eyes to adjust to low-light environments, leading to decreased visual acuity in the dark.

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  • 27. 

    What preparation should a pilot make to adapt the eyes for night flying?

    • A.

      (1) Wear sunglasses after sunset until ready for flight.

    • B.

      (2) Avoid red lights at least 30 minutes before the flight.

    • C.

      (3) Avoid bright white lights at least 30 minutes before the flight.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) Avoid bright white lights at least 30 minutes before the flight.
    Explanation
    To adapt the eyes for night flying, a pilot should avoid bright white lights at least 30 minutes before the flight. This is because exposure to bright white lights can cause temporary blindness or reduce night vision capabilities. By avoiding these lights, the pilot's eyes will have time to adjust to the low light conditions of night flying, allowing for better visibility and reducing the risk of accidents. Wearing sunglasses after sunset or avoiding red lights does not directly contribute to adapting the eyes for night flying.

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  • 28. 

    One aid in increasing night vision effectivness would be to

    • A.

      (1) look directly at objects.

    • B.

      (2) force the eyes to view off center.

    • C.

      (3) increase intensity of interior lighting.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) force the eyes to view off center.
    Explanation
    By forcing the eyes to view off center, the peripheral vision is engaged, which is more sensitive to low light conditions. This allows for better night vision effectiveness as the eyes are able to gather more light and detect objects in the dark. Looking directly at objects or increasing the intensity of interior lighting would not have the same effect and may even hinder night vision capabilities.

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  • 29. 

    What is the most effective way to use the eyes during night flight?

    • A.

      (1) Look only at far away, dim lights.

    • B.

      (2) Scan slowly to permit off-center viewing.

    • C.

      (3) Concentrate directly on each object for a few seconds.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) Scan slowly to permit off-center viewing.
    Explanation
    The most effective way to use the eyes during night flight is to scan slowly to permit off-center viewing. This allows the pilot to take advantage of the peripheral vision, which is more sensitive to detecting dim lights and objects in low light conditions. By scanning slowly and not fixating on one object for too long, the pilot can maximize their ability to detect potential hazards and maintain situational awareness during night flights.

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  • 30. 

    The most effective technique to use for detecting other aircraft at night is to

    • A.

      (1) turn the head and sweep the eyes rapidly over the entire visible region.

    • B.

      (2) avoid staring directly at the point where another aircraft is suspected to be flying.

    • C.

      (3) avoid scanning the region below the horizon so as to avoid the effect on ground light on the eyes.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) avoid staring directly at the point where another aircraft is suspected to be flying.
    Explanation
    The most effective technique for detecting other aircraft at night is to avoid staring directly at the point where another aircraft is suspected to be flying. This is because staring directly at a point can cause the eyes to fixate on that spot, leading to the phenomenon known as "target fixation." Target fixation can cause pilots to miss other aircraft or obstacles in their peripheral vision. By avoiding staring directly at a suspected point, pilots can maintain a broader field of view and increase their chances of detecting other aircraft.

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  • 31. 

    The best method to use when looking for other traffic at night is to

    • A.

      (1) look to the side of the object and scan slowly.

    • B.

      (2) scan the visual field very rapidly.

    • C.

      (3) look to the side of the object and scan rapidly.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) look to the side of the object and scan slowly.
    Explanation
    When looking for other traffic at night, it is important to use a method that allows for better visibility in low light conditions. By looking to the side of the object and scanning slowly, the driver can increase their chances of spotting any potential hazards or other vehicles on the road. Rapid scanning or scanning the visual field very rapidly may cause the driver to miss important details or fail to detect other traffic, increasing the risk of accidents.

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  • 32. 

    The most effective method of scanning for other aircraft for collision avoidance duringnighttime hours is to use

    • A.

      (1) regularly spaced concentration on the 3-, 9-, and 12-o'clock positions.

    • B.

      (2) a series of short, regularly spaced eye movements to search each 30-degree sector.

    • C.

      (3) peripheral vision by scanning small sectors and utilizing off-center viewing.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) peripheral vision by scanning small sectors and utilizing off-center viewing.
    Explanation
    The correct answer is (3) peripheral vision by scanning small sectors and utilizing off-center viewing. This method is the most effective for scanning for other aircraft during nighttime hours because it allows pilots to maximize their field of view and detect potential threats in their peripheral vision. By scanning small sectors and utilizing off-center viewing, pilots can quickly and efficiently scan the sky for other aircraft, reducing the risk of collision. This method also allows pilots to maintain focus on their primary flight instruments while still being aware of their surroundings.

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  • 33. 

    Prior to starting each maneuver, pilots should

    • A.

      (1) check altitude, airspeed, and heading indications.

    • B.

      (2) visually scan the entire area for collision avoidance.

    • C.

      (3) announce their intentions on the nearest CTAF.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) visually scan the entire area for collision avoidance.
    Explanation
    Before starting each maneuver, pilots should visually scan the entire area for collision avoidance. This is important because pilots need to be aware of any other aircraft or obstacles in their vicinity to avoid potential collisions. Checking altitude, airspeed, and heading indications is also important, but visually scanning the area is crucial for maintaining situational awareness and ensuring safety in the airspace. Announcing intentions on the nearest CTAF may be necessary in certain situations, but it is not a requirement prior to starting each maneuver.

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  • 34. 

    What is an effective way to prevent a collision hazard in the traffic pattern?

    • A.

      (1) Enter the pattern in a descent.

    • B.

      (2) Maintain the proper traffic pattern altitude and continually scan the area.

    • C.

      (3) Rely on radio reports from other aircraft who may be operating in the traffic pattern.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) Maintain the proper traffic pattern altitude and continually scan the area.
    Explanation
    Maintaining the proper traffic pattern altitude and continually scanning the area is an effective way to prevent a collision hazard in the traffic pattern. By staying at the correct altitude, pilots ensure that they are following the established flight path and avoiding potential conflicts with other aircraft. Continually scanning the area allows pilots to be aware of other aircraft in the vicinity and take appropriate actions to avoid any potential collisions. Relying solely on radio reports from other aircraft may not provide accurate or timely information, making it less effective in preventing collision hazards.

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  • 35. 

    Which technique should a pilot use to scan for traffic to the right and left duringstraight-and-level flight?

    • A.

      (1) Continuous sweeping of the windshield from right to left.

    • B.

      (2) Concentrate on relative movement detected in the peripheral vision area.

    • C.

      (3) Systematically focus on different segments of the sky for short intervals.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) Systematically focus on different segments of the sky for short intervals.
    Explanation
    Pilots should systematically focus on different segments of the sky for short intervals when scanning for traffic to the right and left during straight-and-level flight. This technique allows the pilot to effectively cover the entire field of view and increases the chances of detecting other aircraft. Continuous sweeping of the windshield from right to left may cause the pilot to miss traffic in certain areas, while concentrating on relative movement detected in the peripheral vision area may not provide a comprehensive view of the sky. Therefore, systematically focusing on different segments of the sky for short intervals is the most appropriate technique for scanning for traffic in this situation.

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  • 36. 

    How can you determine if another aircraft is on a collision course with your aircraft?

    • A.

      (1) The other aircraft will always appear to get larger and closer at a rapid rate.

    • B.

      (2) The nose of each aircraft is pointed at the same point in space.

    • C.

      (3) There will be no apparent relative motion between your aircraft and the other aircraft.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) There will be no apparent relative motion between your aircraft and the other aircraft.
    Explanation
    If there is no apparent relative motion between your aircraft and the other aircraft, it means that both aircraft are moving in the same direction and at the same speed. This indicates that there is a high probability of a collision course. When two aircraft are on a collision course, they will appear to be stationary relative to each other, as they are approaching each other head-on. This lack of relative motion is a clear indication that another aircraft is on a collision course with your aircraft.

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  • 37. 

    The most effective method of scanning for other aircraft for collision avoidance duringdaylight hours is to use

    • A.

      (1) regularly spaced concentration on the 3-, 9-, and 12-o'clock positions.

    • B.

      (2) a series of short, regularly spaced eye movements to search each 10-degree sector.

    • C.

      (3) peripheral vision by scanning small sectors and utilizing off-center viewing.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) a series of short, regularly spaced eye movements to search each 10-degree sector.
    Explanation
    The most effective method of scanning for other aircraft for collision avoidance during daylight hours is to use a series of short, regularly spaced eye movements to search each 10-degree sector. This method allows for a systematic and thorough search of the airspace, ensuring that no aircraft are missed. By scanning in small sectors and utilizing off-center viewing, pilots can effectively use their peripheral vision to detect any potential threats. This method is more efficient than concentrating on specific clock positions, as it covers a wider area and reduces the chances of overlooking an aircraft.

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  • 38. 

    What effect does haze have on the ability to see traffic or terrain features during flight?

    • A.

      (1) Haze causes the eyes to focus at infinity.

    • B.

      (2) The eyes tend to overwork in haze and do not detect relative movement easily.

    • C.

      (3) All traffic or terrain features appear to be farther away than their actual distance.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) All traffic or terrain features appear to be farther away than their actual distance.
    Explanation
    Haze causes a reduction in visibility by scattering and diffusing light, resulting in a decrease in contrast and clarity of objects. This can create an optical illusion where all traffic or terrain features appear to be farther away than they actually are. The reduced visibility and distorted perception of distance can make it difficult for pilots to accurately judge the position and proximity of objects, increasing the risk of collisions or accidents.

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  • 39. 

    A state of temporary confusion resulting from misleading information being sent to thebrain by various sensory organs is defined as

    • A.

      (1) spatial disorientation.

    • B.

      (2) hyperventilation.

    • C.

      (3) hypoxia.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) spatial disorientation.
    Explanation
    Spatial disorientation refers to a state of temporary confusion caused by misleading information received by the brain from different sensory organs. This can occur when the brain receives conflicting signals from the eyes, inner ear, and other sensory systems, leading to a loss of perception of one's position and motion in space. Hyperventilation is the rapid and deep breathing that can lead to a decrease in carbon dioxide levels in the blood, while hypoxia refers to a deficiency of oxygen in the body tissues.

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  • 40. 

    Most midair collision accidents occur during

    • A.

      (1) hazy days.

    • B.

      (2) clear days.

    • C.

      (3) cloudy nights.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) clear days.
    Explanation
    Midair collision accidents are more likely to occur during clear days because pilots have better visibility and can see other aircraft more easily. During hazy days or cloudy nights, visibility is reduced, making it harder for pilots to spot other aircraft, increasing the risk of collision. Therefore, clear days provide optimal conditions for pilots to see and avoid potential collisions in the airspace.

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  • 41. 

    Which procedure is recommended to prevent or overcome spatial disorientation?

    • A.

      (1) Avoid steep turns and rough control movements.

    • B.

      (2) Rely entirely on the indications of the flight instruments.

    • C.

      (3) Reduce head and eye movements to the greatest extend possible.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) Rely entirely on the indications of the flight instruments.
    Explanation
    Relying entirely on the indications of the flight instruments is recommended to prevent or overcome spatial disorientation. Spatial disorientation occurs when a pilot loses their sense of direction or position in relation to the Earth's surface. This can happen when visual cues are limited or misleading, such as during low visibility or in unfamiliar terrain. By relying on the flight instruments, which provide accurate and objective information about the aircraft's attitude, altitude, and heading, pilots can maintain spatial awareness and avoid making incorrect control inputs based on their subjective perception. This helps prevent spatial disorientation and ensures safe flying.

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  • 42. 

    Pilots are more subject to spatial disorientation if

    • A.

      (1) they ignore the sensations of muscles and inner ear.

    • B.

      (2) body signals are used to interpret flight attitude.

    • C.

      (3) eyes are moved often in the process of cross-checking the flight instruments.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) body signals are used to interpret flight attitude.
    Explanation
    Pilots are more subject to spatial disorientation if their body signals are used to interpret flight attitude. Spatial disorientation occurs when there is a mismatch between the information received from the body's sensory systems and the actual orientation of the aircraft. Relying solely on body signals can lead to incorrect perception of the aircraft's position, especially in situations where visual cues are limited or unreliable. Therefore, pilots who heavily rely on body signals for interpreting flight attitude are more prone to experiencing spatial disorientation.

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  • 43. 

    The danger of spatial disorientation during flight in poor visual conditions may bereduced by

    • A.

      (1) shifting the eyes quickly between the exterior visual field and the instrument panel.

    • B.

      (2) having faith in the instruments rather than taking a chance on the sensory organs.

    • C.

      (3) leaning the body in the opposite direction of the motion of the aircraft.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) having faith in the instruments rather than taking a chance on the sensory organs.
    Explanation
    During flight in poor visual conditions, pilots may experience spatial disorientation, which is the inability to accurately perceive one's position, motion, or attitude in space. Shifting the eyes quickly between the exterior visual field and the instrument panel (option 1) can actually exacerbate spatial disorientation as it can confuse the brain even more. Leaning the body in the opposite direction of the motion of the aircraft (option 3) is also not an effective method to reduce spatial disorientation. The best approach is to rely on the instruments (option 2) as they provide accurate and reliable information about the aircraft's position and motion, minimizing the risk of spatial disorientation.

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  • 44. 

    If a pilot experiences spatial disorientation during flight in a restricted visibility condition,the best way to overcome the effect is to

    • A.

      (1) rely upon the aircraft instrument indications.

    • B.

      (2) concentrate on yaw, pitch, and roll sensations.

    • C.

      (3) consciously slow the breathing rate until symptoms clear and then resume normal breathing rate.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) rely upon the aircraft instrument indications.
  • 45. 

    A rapid acceleration can create the illusion of being in a

    • A.

      (1) left turn.

    • B.

      (2) noseup attitude.

    • C.

      (3) nosedown attitude.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) noseup attitude.
    Explanation
    A rapid acceleration can create the illusion of being in a noseup attitude. When a vehicle accelerates quickly, the force of acceleration pushes the body backward. This can give the sensation of the nose of the vehicle being lifted upwards, creating the illusion of a noseup attitude.

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  • 46. 

    An illusion, that an aircraft is at a higher altitude than it actually is, is produced by

    • A.

      (1) atmospheric haze.

    • B.

      (2) upsloping terrain.

    • C.

      (3) downsloping terrain.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) upsloping terrain.
    Explanation
    Upsloping terrain can create an illusion that an aircraft is at a higher altitude than it actually is because as the aircraft approaches the upward slope, the ground appears to rise, giving the impression of increased altitude. This can be misleading for pilots, as they may think they are higher than they actually are, leading to potential errors in navigation and landing.

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  • 47. 

    Who is responsible for determining whether a pilot is fit to fly for a particular flight, eventhough he or she holds a current medical certificate?

    • A.

      (1) The pilot.

    • B.

      (2) The medical examiner.

    • C.

      (3) The FA-1.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) The pilot.
    Explanation
    The pilot is responsible for determining whether they are fit to fly for a particular flight, even if they hold a current medical certificate. This means that the pilot must assess their own physical and mental condition, taking into consideration any potential factors that could affect their ability to safely operate the aircraft. The pilot's judgment and decision-making skills play a crucial role in ensuring the safety of the flight. The medical examiner and the FA-1 may provide guidance and advice, but ultimately it is the pilot's responsibility to make the final determination.

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  • 48. 

    What is the one common factor which affects most preventable accidents?

    • A.

      (1) Human error.

    • B.

      (2) Mechanical malfunction.

    • C.

      (3) Structural failure.

    Correct Answer
    A. (1) Human error.
    Explanation
    Human error is the most common factor that affects most preventable accidents. This is because accidents often occur due to mistakes, negligence, or lack of attention on the part of individuals involved. Mechanical malfunction and structural failure can also contribute to accidents, but they are not as prevalent as human errors.

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  • 49. 

    What often leads to spatial disorientation or collision with ground/obstacles when flyingunder Visual Flight Rules (VFR)?

    • A.

      (1) Duck-under syndrome.

    • B.

      (2) Continual flight into instrument conditions.

    • C.

      (3) Getting behind the aircraft.

    Correct Answer
    B. (2) Continual flight into instrument conditions.
    Explanation
    Continual flight into instrument conditions often leads to spatial disorientation or collision with ground/obstacles when flying under Visual Flight Rules (VFR). This means that the pilot continues to fly into weather conditions where visibility is reduced or obscured, relying solely on instruments for navigation and control. Without proper training and proficiency in instrument flying, pilots may become disoriented and lose situational awareness, increasing the risk of collision with the ground or obstacles.

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  • 50. 

    What is it often called when a pilot pushes his or her capabilities and the aircraft's limitsby trying to maintain visual contact with the terrain in low visibility and ceiling?

    • A.

      (1) Mind set.

    • B.

      (2) Peer pressure.

    • C.

      (3) Scud running.

    Correct Answer
    C. (3) Scud running.
    Explanation
    Scud running is often called when a pilot pushes his or her capabilities and the aircraft's limits by trying to maintain visual contact with the terrain in low visibility and ceiling. This term refers to the risky behavior of flying close to the ground or obstacles in poor weather conditions, resembling the low-hanging clouds known as scuds. It is a dangerous practice that can lead to accidents and should be avoided.

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