Human Origins - Early Hominins

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| By Funkytrunks22
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Human Origins - Early Hominins - Quiz


This is over early hominins.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    French paleoanthropologist Michel Brunet discovered this in July 2002. This is potentially the earliest record of the hominid family. This comes from the desertic region of Chad in central Africa.

    Explanation
    Sahelanthropus Tchadensis was discovered by French paleoanthropologist Michel Brunet in July 2002. This fossil is significant as it is potentially the earliest record of the hominid family, providing valuable insights into human evolution. The fossil was found in the desertic region of Chad in central Africa, adding to our understanding of early human history in this region.

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  • 2. 

    The hominin features of this is that it had relatively small canines, a lack of sectorial complex, intermediate molar enamel thickness, anterior foramen magnum, reduced facial projection, and a well developed browridge. Non-hominin features of this is a small brain and basi-occipital, petrous, and temporal features.

    Explanation
    Sahelanthropus tchadensis is considered a hominin because it exhibits several key hominin features. It has relatively small canines, which is a characteristic seen in early hominins compared to other primates. It also lacks a sectorial complex, which is a specialized tooth structure found in non-hominin primates for processing tough foods. The intermediate molar enamel thickness suggests a transitional stage between non-hominin and hominin ancestors. The anterior foramen magnum, the opening at the base of the skull where the spinal cord enters, is positioned towards the front, which is a hominin trait associated with bipedalism. Additionally, Sahelanthropus tchadensis has a reduced facial projection and a well-developed browridge, which are features commonly seen in early hominins. The small brain and certain cranial features are non-hominin traits that differentiate it from later hominins.

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  • 3. 

    This is the earliest known hominin from the Rift Valley of East Africa. The femur indicates bipedalism and the humerus and finger bone retains evidence of arboreal adaptations.

    Explanation
    Orrorin Tugenesis is considered the earliest known hominin from the Rift Valley of East Africa. The mention of the femur indicating bipedalism suggests that this species walked upright on two legs, which is a key characteristic of hominins. Additionally, the mention of the humerus and finger bone retaining evidence of arboreal adaptations suggests that Orrorin Tugenesis also had adaptations for climbing trees. This combination of bipedalism and arboreal adaptations sets Orrorin Tugenesis apart as an important species in understanding the evolution of hominins.

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  • 4. 

    This is small-brained and the teeth indicate a diet like that of a chimp or baboon. They are more primitive bipedal gait than Australopithicus and are probable arboreal quadruped.

    Explanation
    Ardipithecus Ramidus is the correct answer because the description provided matches the characteristics of this species. The mention of small-brained and dental features resembling those of chimps or baboons aligns with Ardipithecus Ramidus, which had a relatively small brain size and dental morphology similar to non-human primates. Additionally, the reference to a more primitive bipedal gait and probable arboreal quadruped behavior further supports the identification of Ardipithecus Ramidus, as this species is believed to have exhibited these traits.

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  • 5. 

    This is the oldest hominid known with undisputable evidence of bipedalism. It is found in Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya 4.2-3.8 million years ago. They have a different canine/palate shape than those of the Australopithecus Africanus.

    Explanation
    Australopithecus anamensis is the correct answer because it is the oldest hominid known with undisputable evidence of bipedalism. Fossil remains of this species have been found in Kanapoi and Allia Bay, Kenya, dating back to 4.2-3.8 million years ago. One of the distinguishing features of Australopithecus anamensis is its different canine/palate shape compared to Australopithecus africanus.

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  • 6. 

    Raymond Dart's discovery of the "Taung Child" was the first early hominin found in Africa and the first discovery of a human genus different than our own. It had a small brain but clear evidence of bipedal behavior. This is a good example of mosaic evolution. This occurred in South Africa around 1924-1925. Also known as Australopithecus Africanus, the brain is endocast, the dental development, and the foramen magnum position are key points to take note of.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Raymond Dart's discovery of the "Taung Child" in South Africa in 1924-1925 was indeed the first early hominin found in Africa and the first discovery of a human genus different than our own. The Taung Child had a small brain but showed clear evidence of bipedal behavior, which is significant in understanding human evolution. The mention of mosaic evolution refers to the idea that different traits evolve at different rates, and the Taung Child's features, such as the endocast, dental development, and foramen magnum position, provide important insights into this evolutionary process. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 7. 

    Paleontologist Robert Broom discovered four South African hominin cave sites in the 1930-1940s. Among these were the sites of Kromdraai and Swartkrans which yielded the first evidence of another new hominin genus, Paranthropus Robustus.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Paleontologist Robert Broom did indeed discover four South African hominin cave sites in the 1930-1940s, including the sites of Kromdraai and Swartkrans. These sites were significant because they provided the first evidence of a new hominin genus called Paranthropus Robustus. Therefore, the statement "True" is correct.

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  • 8. 

    John Robinson, an anatomist who worked with Robert Broom in the 1950s, proposed the "dietary hypothesis" based on his studies of the South African hominins coining the terms "Gracile" and "Robust" based on the divergent adaptations of Australopithecus Africanus and Paranthropus Robust.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    John Robinson, an anatomist who worked with Robert Broom in the 1950s, proposed the "dietary hypothesis" based on his studies of the South African hominins. He coined the terms "Gracile" and "Robust" to describe the divergent adaptations of Australopithecus Africanus and Paranthropus Robust. This suggests that the statement is true.

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  • 9. 

    _________ __________ explored Olduvai Gorge from 1931-1968. There he discovered Zinjanthropus Boisei (same as Paranthropus Boisei).

    Correct Answer
    Lous Leakey
    Explanation
    Lous Leakey is the correct answer because he is the person who explored Olduvai Gorge from 1931-1968. During his exploration, he discovered Zinjanthropus Boisei, which is the same as Paranthropus Boisei.

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  • 10. 

    The ________________ _________ has a sagittal crest. This has emphasis on mastication and the temporalis muscle fiber orientation.

    Correct Answer
    Paranthropus Boisei
    Explanation
    Paranthropus boisei is the correct answer because it is a species of early hominin that had a sagittal crest. The sagittal crest is a ridge of bone running along the top of the skull, and it serves as an attachment point for the temporalis muscle, which is responsible for jaw movement and mastication. The presence of a sagittal crest in Paranthropus boisei indicates that this species had a strong emphasis on chewing tough, fibrous foods.

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  • 11. 

    This was founded 2.4 million years ago in the early "robust" form.

    Correct Answer
    Paranthropus Aethiopicus
    Explanation
    Paranthropus Aethiopicus is the correct answer because it was founded 2.4 million years ago in the early "robust" form. This species of hominin is known for its large, robust skull and strong jaw muscles, indicating a diet that included tough, fibrous foods. Paranthropus Aethiopicus is believed to be one of the earliest members of the Paranthropus genus and is significant in understanding human evolution and the development of different hominin species.

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  • 12. 

    Don Johanson and Tim White described the species Australopithecus Afarensis based on discoveries at Hadar. In 1978, it was considered one of the earliest hominins ever found. The dental remains of this show a bi-modal distribution in size interpreted as sexual dimorphism within the species. It shares more features with chimps than humans.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Don Johanson and Tim White described the species Australopithecus Afarensis based on discoveries at Hadar. In 1978, it was considered one of the earliest hominins ever found. The dental remains of this show a bi-modal distribution in size interpreted as sexual dimorphism within the species. It shares more features with chimps than humans. This statement is true because it accurately reflects the information provided about Australopithecus Afarensis and its dental remains. The bi-modal distribution in size suggests that there were significant differences in tooth size between males and females of this species, indicating sexual dimorphism. Additionally, the statement mentions that Australopithecus Afarensis shares more features with chimps than humans, which is consistent with the scientific understanding of this species.

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  • 13. 

    This is a gracile australopithecine species whose fossils were discovered in 1996 by a research team led by Ethiopian paleontologist Berhane Asfaw and Tim White, an American paleontologist. The hominin remains are believed to be a human ancestor species and the final missing link between the Australopithecus genus and the human genus, Homo.

    Correct Answer
    Australopithecus Garhi
    Explanation
    Australopithecus Garhi is a gracile australopithecine species whose fossils were discovered in 1996. These hominin remains are believed to be a human ancestor species and the missing link between the Australopithecus genus and the human genus, Homo. The fossils were found by a research team led by Ethiopian paleontologist Berhane Asfaw and American paleontologist Tim White. Australopithecus Garhi is an important species in understanding human evolution and the transition from ape-like ancestors to early humans.

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  • Mar 18, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Nov 01, 2010
    Quiz Created by
    Funkytrunks22
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