The land was in mountainous areas.
Farmland was fertile and water was nearby.
The area was near the ocean water supply.
The area received adequate rainfall.
The Fertile Crescent and the Mediterranean Sea
The Persian Gulf and the Mediterranean Sea
The northern plateau and the southern plateau
The Tigris River and the Euphrates River
They needed a way to control the surplus.
They needed a way to control the low water levels.
They needed a way to control the flooding.
They needed a way to control the river’s flow.
If they have a steady food supply, people can develop a complex society.
People prefer government jobs over life as a farmer.
The development of cities led to inventions like irrigation.
People rely on hunting and gathering because it is the only way to survive.
Each city-state owned crops that had been destroyed by natural causes.
Each city-state had only one skill: farming.
Each city-state wanted to build walls around its farms.
Each city-state wanted to have enough farmland to grow food.
To protect inhabitants of the city-state from attack
To collect water that could be used to irrigate farmland
To protect inhabitants of the city-state from floods
To keep people from moving to another city-state
A triangle has three sides and there were three social classes.
Most of the people were priests and laborers who made up the bottom of a triangle.
A very small number of people were rulers, like the top of a triangle.
Power grew as it flowed from the top levels of society down to the bottom.
Sumerians valued education for their children.
Sumerians wanted their children to become scribes.
Sumerians needed more students to complete their assignments.
Sumerians needed help from their children to read and write.
Rectangles and triangles
The idea that there are 360 minutes in an hour
The idea that clock faces should be round
The number 60 as a measure for time
To honor the gods
So they could easily be found
So architects could display their work
To mark the center of the city
Gold and silver.
Phoenicians would only trade with people who could write in Phoenician.
The Phoenician alphabet spread along their trade routes.
Trade increased in places where the Phoenician alphabet was not used.
Phoenicians traded knowledge of their alphabet for goods and services they needed.
Division of labor