History Test: Middle Ages And Early Modern Period

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History Test: Middle Ages And Early Modern Period - Quiz

Are you ready for this middle ages and early modern period history test? For this quiz, you should recognize who the elite guards served in the military of the Ottoman Empire, who was the originator of the Mogul Dynasty, who was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566 who produced the first European book using moveable types. Build your knowledge of the Middle Ages by taking this quiz.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Empires that were formed by outside conquerors who unified the regions that they conquered were "_________________." The success of these empires was based on its mastery of the technology of firearms and they maintained their empire through force and military.

    Explanation
    Empires that were formed by outside conquerors who unified the regions that they conquered were referred to as "Gunpower Empires." These empires were successful due to their mastery of firearms technology, which gave them a significant military advantage. They maintained their empire through the use of force and military power, ensuring their dominance over the conquered territories.

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  • 2. 

    ____________ are the elite guard who served in the military of the Ottoman Empire. They were recruited from Christian families and served the sultan, after converting to Islam.

    Explanation
    Janissaries were the elite guard of the Ottoman Empire's military. They were unique in that they were recruited from Christian families and then converted to Islam before serving the sultan. This practice ensured loyalty to the empire and created a strong, dedicated force. The Janissaries played a crucial role in the empire's expansion and military success for centuries.

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  • 3. 

    This was the Byzantine church of Constantinople, which was the model for the Ottoman Turk's mosques. Their mosques were the greatest contribution they made to world art and this church as inspiration for their architecture.

    Explanation
    The correct answer is Hagia Sophia. Hagia Sophia was the Byzantine church of Constantinople, which served as a model for the Ottoman Turk's mosques. The mosques built by the Ottomans were considered their greatest contribution to world art, and they drew inspiration from the architecture of Hagia Sophia.

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  • 4. 

    The grandson of the founder of the Mogul Empire, he ascended the throne at 14. He created the greatest Indian empire since the Mauryan dynasty.

    Explanation
    Akbar was the grandson of the founder of the Mogul Empire and became the ruler at a young age of 14. During his reign, he successfully expanded the empire and created one of the largest Indian empires since the Mauryan dynasty. Akbar's reign is known for its cultural and religious tolerance, as well as his administrative and military reforms, which contributed to the prosperity and stability of the empire.

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  • 5. 

    ___________ was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566. Under his rule. the Ottoman Empire reached its high point. He was known as _________ the Great because he more than doubled their lands of his empire and encouraged the growth of architecture and arts.

    Explanation
    Suleyman was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1520 to 1566. Under his rule, the Ottoman Empire reached its high point. He was known as Suleyman the Great because he more than doubled the lands of his empire and encouraged the growth of architecture and arts.

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  • 6. 

    This was a private company that was empowered by the British crown to act on its behalf-- brought the British to India and gave them great riches.

    Explanation
    The East India Company was a private company that received a royal charter from the British crown, granting it the authority to act on behalf of the British government. This empowered the company to establish trade and expand British influence in India. Through its operations, the East India Company played a significant role in bringing the British to India and accumulating vast wealth for itself and the British Empire.

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  • 7. 

    This dynasty took over the empire of Timur Lenk in Persia, after its fall into anarchy. They used their religion as a unifying force and were able to regain some of their lost territories.

    Explanation
    The Safavids took over the empire of Timur Lenk in Persia after it fell into anarchy. They used their religion as a unifying force, which helped them regain some of the territories they had lost.

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  • 8. 

    The ____________ were a dynasty that formed in the Indian subcontinent. They were able to bring about a new era of unity to the region, which was divided into a number of Hindus and Muslim kingdoms before this dynasty.

    Explanation
    The Moguls were a dynasty that formed in the Indian subcontinent. They were able to bring about a new era of unity to the region, which was divided into a number of Hindus and Muslim kingdoms before this dynasty. The Moguls, led by powerful rulers such as Akbar the Great, implemented policies that promoted religious tolerance and cultural assimilation. They established a centralized government and expanded their empire through military conquests. The Moguls' reign marked a period of political stability and economic prosperity in India, leaving a lasting impact on its history and culture.

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  • 9. 

    This man was the founder of the Mogul Dynasty and was able to capture Delhi and establish his power in North India.

    Explanation
    Babur was the founder of the Mogul Dynasty and successfully captured Delhi, establishing his power in North India. He was a skilled military leader and strategist who expanded his empire through various military campaigns. Babur's conquest of Delhi marked the beginning of the Mogul Dynasty's rule in India, which lasted for several centuries. His achievements in establishing and consolidating his power in North India make him the correct answer to this question.

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  • 10. 

    The __________ is the best example of Mogul architecture that combined Persian and Indian influences together. It is considered to be the most beautiful building in India and was built by Shah Jahan in memory of his wife.

    Explanation
    The Taj Mahal is considered the best example of Mogul architecture that combines Persian and Indian influences. Built by Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, it is widely regarded as the most beautiful building in India.

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  • 11. 

    Also known as the Northern Renaissance humanism, _________ had the major goal to reform the Catholic Church. It was the idea that we can use reason to understand faith.

    Explanation
    Christian Humanism, also known as the Northern Renaissance humanism, aimed to reform the Catholic Church by emphasizing the use of reason to comprehend faith. It sought to bring a more intellectual and rational approach to religious teachings and practices. Christian Humanists believed that by studying ancient texts, such as the Bible and the works of early Christian thinkers, they could gain a deeper understanding of Christianity and promote positive changes within the Church. This movement played a significant role in the broader cultural and intellectual transformation of Europe during the Renaissance period.

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  • 12. 

    An artistic movement where artists tried to portray the world realistically by portraying humans in realistic settings.

    Explanation
    The Northern Renaissance was an artistic movement where artists aimed to depict the world realistically by portraying humans in realistic settings. This period, which occurred in Northern Europe during the 15th and 16th centuries, was characterized by a focus on detail, naturalistic representation, and a departure from the stylized and idealized portrayals of the Italian Renaissance. Artists such as Jan van Eyck, Albrecht Dürer, and Hans Holbein the Younger were prominent figures of the Northern Renaissance, creating works that emphasized the accurate representation of the human form and the surrounding environment.

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  • 13. 

    The language and everyday speech in a particular language.

    Explanation
    Vernacular literature refers to the body of written works that are written in the language and everyday speech of a particular region or community. It encompasses literature that is not in a standardized or formal language, but rather reflects the unique expressions, dialects, and cultural nuances of a specific group of people. This can include novels, poems, plays, and other forms of literary works that are rooted in the vernacular language. Vernacular literature plays a crucial role in preserving and promoting cultural identity and heritage, as it captures the essence of a community's language and traditions.

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  • 14. 

    One of the most influential works on political power that tells leaders how to attain and maintain power.

    Explanation
    Machiavelli's book, "The Prince," is considered one of the most influential works on political power. It provides guidance to leaders on how to acquire and retain power. Machiavelli's ideas are often controversial, as he suggests that leaders should be willing to use deceit, manipulation, and even violence to achieve their goals. "The Prince" has had a lasting impact on political thought and is still studied and debated today.

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  • 15. 

    The "Father of Humanism" did more than any individual to help spread humanism.

    Explanation
    Petrarch, known as the "Father of Humanism," played a significant role in promoting and popularizing humanism during the Renaissance. His works, particularly his poetry and letters, celebrated the beauty of the individual and emphasized the importance of human potential and achievement. Petrarch's writings inspired a new way of thinking that focused on human values, education, and the revival of classical literature and culture. Through his writings and teachings, Petrarch became a leading figure in the humanist movement and greatly contributed to its spread and influence in Europe.

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  • 16. 

    An artist who is admired for his madonnas (paintings of the Virgin Mary) and frescoes in the Vatican Palace. Had the School of Athens.

    Explanation
    Raphael is the correct answer because he is an artist who is known for his madonnas and frescoes in the Vatican Palace. He is particularly admired for his depictions of the Virgin Mary in his paintings. Additionally, he is famous for his masterpiece, the School of Athens.

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  • 17. 

    Holy Roman Emperor who wanted to keep the Holy Roman Empire catholic and completely under his control. Did not want to give princes the power to change religion.

    Explanation
    Charles V was a Holy Roman Emperor who aimed to maintain the Holy Roman Empire as a Catholic entity and retain complete control over it. He opposed granting power to the princes to change religion, as he wanted to ensure religious unity and prevent any potential challenges to his authority. Charles V's desire to centralize power and maintain Catholicism as the dominant religion in the empire aligns with the given explanation.

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  • 18. 

    Was considered the archetypal person during the Italian Renaissance. He was the basis to which everyone else measured their work.

    Explanation
    Leonardo da Vinci is considered the archetypal person during the Italian Renaissance because of his immense influence and impact on art, science, and literature during that time. His innovative ideas and creations set a standard for others to aspire to, making him the basis against which everyone else measured their work. Da Vinci's exceptional talent and versatility, evident in his paintings, inventions, and scientific observations, made him an iconic figure of the Renaissance period. His contributions continue to be celebrated and admired even today, solidifying his status as the epitome of the Renaissance ideal.

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  • 19. 

    A formal agreement that accepted the division of Christianity in Germany. This was the first time a political state recognized a church other than the Catholic Church.

    Explanation
    The Peace of Augsburg was a formal agreement in Germany that accepted the division of Christianity. It marked the first time that a political state recognized a church other than the Catholic Church. The agreement allowed German princes to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism as the official religion of their territories, granting religious freedom to some extent. This peace treaty was significant in establishing the principle of cuius regio, eius religio (whose realm, his religion), which meant that the religion of the ruler determined the religion of the land.

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  • 20. 

    The ____________ or _____________ made a vow of absolute obedience to the pope.

    Explanation
    The Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits, were a religious order that pledged complete obedience to the pope. They were founded by Saint Ignatius of Loyola in the 16th century and played a significant role in the Counter-Reformation. The Jesuits were known for their commitment to education, missionary work, and intellectual pursuits. They became influential figures in the Catholic Church and were renowned for their loyalty and dedication to the papacy.

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  • 21. 

    This family took over Florence and were known as a family of power. Used their wealth and personal influence to control the government.

    Explanation
    The Medici family gained control over Florence through their wealth and personal influence, allowing them to exert power and control over the government. They used their financial resources to manipulate the political landscape and ensure their own interests were protected. This made them a family of significant influence and authority in Florence during their time.

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  • 22. 

    The best-known Christian humanist. Helped lay the egg of the Protestant Reformation and called his view the "Philosophy of Christ."

    Explanation
    Erasmus is considered the best-known Christian humanist because of his significant contributions to the Renaissance movement. He played a crucial role in laying the foundation for the Protestant Reformation, even though he did not fully support it. Erasmus's ideas and writings, including his famous work "The Philosophy of Christ," emphasized the importance of personal piety, the study of classical texts, and the need for reform within the Catholic Church. His influence on religious and intellectual thought during his time solidifies his position as the best-known Christian humanist.

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  • 23. 

    The ____________ was a vital part of the Catholic Reformation. They met for 18 years and determined faith and good works were needed to achieve salvation.

    Explanation
    The Council of Trent was a significant event during the Catholic Reformation. This council convened for a period of 18 years and played a crucial role in shaping the Catholic Church's response to the Protestant Reformation. One of the key outcomes of the Council of Trent was the affirmation that both faith and good works were necessary for salvation. This decision aimed to counter the Protestant belief in salvation by faith alone. The Council of Trent's teachings and reforms had a lasting impact on the Catholic Church and helped to solidify its doctrine and practices.

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  • 24. 

    Based on the study of the classics (literary works of ancient Greece and Rome). _________ was a key intellectual movement of the (Ital.) Renaissance.

    Explanation
    Humanism was a key intellectual movement of the Renaissance that was based on the study of the classics, specifically the literary works of ancient Greece and Rome. It emphasized the importance of human potential, individualism, and the pursuit of knowledge and education. Humanists believed in the power of reason and sought to revive and incorporate classical ideas and values into contemporary society. They focused on the study of humanities, such as literature, history, philosophy, and art, as a means to understand and improve the human condition. Humanism played a significant role in shaping the cultural, intellectual, and artistic developments of the Renaissance period in Italy.

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  • 25. 

    One of the most important characters in the Protestant Reformation. Wrote the 95 These and was a martyr, turning the movement into a revolution.

    Explanation
    Martin Luther is the correct answer because he was indeed one of the most significant figures in the Protestant Reformation. He wrote the 95 Theses, which criticized the Catholic Church's corrupt practices and sparked a wave of dissent. Luther's ideas spread rapidly, leading to a revolution in religious thought and practice. Additionally, Luther's refusal to recant his beliefs led to his excommunication and branded him as a martyr for the Reformation cause.

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  • 26. 

    A decree baning the writings of Martin Luther, and made him an outlaw.

    Explanation
    The Edict of Worms was a decree issued by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521, which declared Martin Luther an outlaw and banned his writings. This edict was a response to Luther's teachings and criticisms of the Catholic Church, particularly his Ninety-Five Theses. By making Luther an outlaw, the edict essentially made it illegal to support or disseminate his ideas, further solidifying the Catholic Church's opposition to the Protestant Reformation. The Edict of Worms played a significant role in the ongoing religious conflicts of the time and contributed to the polarization between Catholicism and Protestantism.

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  • 27. 

    Radicals who disliked giving the state a dominant role in the church and believed in a separation of church and state. Were persecuted by Protestants and Catholics.

    Explanation
    Anabaptists were a group of radicals who opposed the state's control over the church and advocated for the separation of church and state. They believed in adult baptism and rejected the practice of baptizing infants. Due to their beliefs, Anabaptists faced persecution from both Protestants and Catholics who saw them as a threat to their religious and political authority.

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  • 28. 

    This man produced the first European book using movable type.

    Explanation
    Johannes Gutenberg is credited with producing the first European book using movable type. He invented the printing press with movable type in the mid-15th century, revolutionizing the process of book production. This innovation allowed for faster and more efficient printing, making books more accessible to a wider audience. Gutenberg's invention had a profound impact on the spread of knowledge and the development of literacy in Europe, marking the beginning of the printing revolution.

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  • 29. 

    Factors that lead to the Italian Renaissance:

    • A.

      Power of Church Decreasing

    • B.

      Stability Increasing

    • C.

      Middle class had more money to spend and access

    • D.

      Emphasis on the individual

    • E.

      The upper class had money to spend and access

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Power of Church Decreasing
    B. Stability Increasing
    D. Emphasis on the individual
    E. The upper class had money to spend and access
    Explanation
    The factors that led to the Italian Renaissance include the decreasing power of the Church, increasing stability, emphasis on the individual, and the upper class having money to spend and access. As the power of the Church declined, it allowed for more freedom of thought and expression, leading to a flourishing of art, literature, and science. The increasing stability in Italy during this time provided a conducive environment for cultural and intellectual growth. The emphasis on the individual during the Renaissance encouraged personal achievements and the pursuit of knowledge. Additionally, the wealth and resources of the upper class allowed for patronage of artists and scholars, further fueling the Renaissance.

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  • 30. 

    This treaty signed by the Spanish and Portuguese split the Americas between two groups. The Spanish and Portuguese agreed to wipe out the natives--not each other.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Treaty of Tordesillas
    Explanation
    The Treaty of Tordesillas was a treaty signed by the Spanish and Portuguese in 1494. It aimed to divide the newly discovered lands of the Americas between the two countries. The treaty established a line of demarcation, which gave the Spanish control over most of the territories west of the line, while the Portuguese gained control over the territories to the east. The treaty also implied that both countries would work together to colonize and exploit the newly discovered lands, but it did not mention wiping out the natives.

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  • 31. 

    This made Catholicism the official religion of France, but gave Huguenots the same political rights as Catholics, allowing them to worship freely.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Edict of Nantes
    Explanation
    The Edict of Nantes was a law passed in France that made Catholicism the official religion of the country. However, it also granted Huguenots, who were French Protestants, the same political rights as Catholics. This meant that Huguenots were allowed to worship freely, despite their religious differences. The Edict of Nantes aimed to promote religious tolerance and maintain peace within the country by granting equal rights to both Catholics and Huguenots.

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  • 32. 

    This ruler passed a new Act of Supremacy, balanced the power between France and Spain, and is credited with defeating the Spanish armada.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Elizabeth Tudor
    Explanation
    Elizabeth Tudor is the correct answer because she was the ruler who passed a new Act of Supremacy, which established her as the Supreme Governor of the Church of England. This act solidified her power and authority within the country. Additionally, Elizabeth Tudor successfully balanced the power between France and Spain through diplomatic negotiations and alliances. Finally, she is famously credited with defeating the Spanish armada in 1588, which was a significant military victory for England and solidified her status as a strong and capable leader.

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  • 33. 

    This granted all German states the right to choose their own religion, bringing an end to the Holy Roman Empire.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Peace of Westphalia
    Explanation
    The Peace of Westphalia was a series of treaties signed in 1648 that ended the Thirty Years' War in Europe. One of the key provisions of the peace agreements was the recognition of the principle of cuius regio, eius religio, which granted each German state the right to determine its own religion. This marked a significant shift in the political landscape of Europe, as it brought an end to the Holy Roman Empire and established the principle of religious freedom and sovereignty for individual states.

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  • 34. 

    The controller of finances who improved the transportation system raised tariffs on foreign goods and created a merchant marine to carry French goods.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Colbert
    Explanation
    Colbert is the correct answer because he was a controller of finances in France during the reign of Louis XIV. He implemented various economic reforms to boost the country's economy, including raising tariffs on foreign goods to protect domestic industries and creating a merchant marine to promote French trade. These measures aimed to improve the transportation system and increase the export of French goods, ultimately contributing to the economic growth of the nation.

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  • 35. 

    The Russian nobility--Ivan the Terrible crushed their power.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Boyars
    Explanation
    During Ivan the Terrible's reign, he sought to consolidate his power and reduce the influence of the Russian nobility, known as the boyars. He implemented policies that weakened their authority and crushed their power. Ivan the Terrible saw the boyars as a threat to his rule and actively worked to undermine their position in society. This led to a significant decline in the power and influence of the boyars, making them the correct answer to the question.

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  • 36. 

    ___________ laid the foundation of the Prussian state, giving it the 4th largest army in Europe.

    Correct Answer(s)
    William Frederick I
    Explanation
    William Frederick I laid the foundation of the Prussian state and built up its military power, making it the 4th largest army in Europe. His reign from 1713 to 1740 was marked by significant military reforms and expansion, including the establishment of a standing army and the promotion of militarism as a core value of the state. Under his rule, Prussia became a formidable military power and laid the groundwork for its future successes in European politics and warfare.

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  • 37. 

    _________ said that humans were guided by the need for survival---not reason. Said absolute power was essential to maintain order.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Hobbs
    Explanation
    The given answer, Hobbs, is correct because Thomas Hobbes, a philosopher from the 17th century, argued that humans are primarily driven by the instinct of self-preservation and the need for survival. He believed that reason alone is not enough to govern human behavior and that absolute power is necessary to maintain order in society. Hobbes' ideas on the role of power and the nature of humans were influential in political philosophy.

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  • 38. 

    ____________ was the powerful daimyo of Edo who took control of Japan and the title of Shogun. Brought a time known as the "Great Peace"

    Correct Answer(s)
    Tokugawa Leyasu
    Explanation
    Tokugawa Leyasu was the powerful daimyo of Edo who took control of Japan and the title of Shogun. He brought a time known as the "Great Peace." This refers to the period of stability and peace that was established under Tokugawa's rule, which lasted for over 250 years. During this time, strict social order was enforced, foreign trade was limited, and cultural development flourished. Tokugawa Leyasu's leadership and policies played a crucial role in shaping Japan's history and laying the foundation for its future development.

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  • 39. 

    ______________ is the idea that the sole purpose of colonies is to bring in gold and aid the economy of the mother.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Mercantilism
    Explanation
    Mercantilism is the economic theory that suggests colonies exist solely to generate wealth and benefit the mother country's economy. This theory was prevalent during the colonial era when European powers sought to establish colonies to exploit their resources and establish trade monopolies. The main goal of mercantilism was to accumulate precious metals, particularly gold, through a favorable balance of trade. The colonies were expected to provide raw materials and serve as markets for the mother country's manufactured goods, ensuring a steady flow of wealth back to the imperial power.

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  • 40. 

    Trying to destroy another country by undermining their economy or undergoing a trade war is known as __________

    Correct Answer(s)
    Economic Warfare
    Explanation
    Economic warfare refers to the act of attempting to harm or weaken another country's economy through various means, such as trade wars, sanctions, or financial manipulation. It involves using economic tools as weapons to gain a strategic advantage or to exert influence over another nation. This can include tactics like imposing tariffs, restricting access to resources, or destabilizing currency values. Economic warfare is a non-kinetic form of conflict that aims to achieve political or military objectives by targeting the economic stability and prosperity of a rival nation.

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  • 41. 

    This kingdom controlled the Spice Trade (prior to Europe)

    Correct Answer(s)
    Melaka
    Explanation
    Melaka was a powerful kingdom located in Southeast Asia, specifically in present-day Malaysia. It was strategically positioned along the maritime trade routes, making it a key player in the spice trade during the pre-European era. Melaka's location allowed it to control the trade of valuable spices such as cloves, nutmeg, and pepper, which were highly sought after commodities at the time. The kingdom's control over the spice trade brought immense wealth and influence, attracting traders from various parts of the world, including China, India, and the Middle East.

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  • 42. 

    Huguenots vs. Catholics (ie: Henry of Navaree vs. Valois Dynasty and ultra-catholics). The people eventually sided with Navaree making him the 1st Protestant king. This war of religion is ___________

    Correct Answer(s)
    French Wars of Religion
    Explanation
    The given correct answer, "French Wars of Religion," is an appropriate explanation for the situation described in the question. It accurately captures the conflict between the Huguenots (Protestants) and Catholics in France during the 16th century. The mention of Henry of Navaree and the Valois Dynasty further supports the connection to the French Wars of Religion, as Henry of Navaree, also known as Henry IV, played a significant role in the conflict as the first Protestant king of France.

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  • 43. 

    Most Catholic King--supported of militant catholicism.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Philip II
    Explanation
    Philip II is considered the most Catholic King because he strongly supported militant Catholicism. During his reign, he actively sought to combat Protestantism and expand Catholic influence. He was known for his unwavering devotion to the Catholic Church and his efforts to defend and promote Catholicism throughout his kingdom and beyond. His support of militant Catholicism was evident in his military campaigns against Protestant nations and his involvement in the Spanish Inquisition, which aimed to suppress heresy and maintain Catholic orthodoxy. Overall, Philip II's actions and policies demonstrated his commitment to advancing the Catholic faith.

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  • 44. 

    The war fought over recognizing Calvinism. It was the Holy Roman Empire vs. Princes. German states were allowed to choose religion, but the Holy Roman Empire was lost.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Thirty Years War
    Explanation
    The Thirty Years War was a conflict that arose from the religious tensions between Calvinism and Catholicism. The war was fought between the Holy Roman Empire and the Protestant princes of the German states. The German states were given the freedom to choose their own religion, but this ultimately led to the fragmentation and weakening of the Holy Roman Empire. The war lasted for thirty years and resulted in significant political and religious changes in Europe.

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  • 45. 

    Struggle for power between the King and Parliament. Eventually, the Parliament won.

    Correct Answer(s)
    English Civil War
    Explanation
    The English Civil War refers to the conflict that took place in England between the King and Parliament. It was a struggle for power between the two entities, with the Parliament ultimately emerging victorious. The war was fought from 1642 to 1651 and resulted in significant political and social changes in England. The Parliament's victory led to the execution of King Charles I and the establishment of a republican government under Oliver Cromwell. The English Civil War was a pivotal event in English history, marking a shift from absolute monarchy to a more parliamentary system of government.

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  • 46. 

    Supporters of the King were known as ___________ Supporters of the Parliament were called _________ ..this was during the English Civil War

    Correct Answer(s)
    Royalists/Roundheads
    Explanation
    During the English Civil War, supporters of the King were known as Royalists. They were loyal to the monarchy and believed in the divine right of kings. On the other hand, supporters of the Parliament were called Roundheads. They were mainly Puritans and believed in a more democratic system of government. The Roundheads were led by Oliver Cromwell and fought against the Royalists in order to establish a republic in England.

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  • 47. 

    Intellectual movement reflecting the uncertainity about world, suffering, religous ecstacy, heightened emotions.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Mannerism
    Explanation
    Mannerism is an artistic and intellectual movement that emerged in the late Renaissance period. It is characterized by a departure from the balance and harmony of the High Renaissance, instead embracing exaggerated and distorted forms. This style reflects the uncertainty and anxiety of the time, as well as a fascination with intense emotions and religious ecstasy. Mannerist artists sought to evoke heightened emotions in their viewers through their work, often using elongated figures, contorted poses, and exaggerated gestures. Thus, the given characteristics of uncertainty, suffering, religious ecstasy, and heightened emotions align with the style of Mannerism.

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  • 48. 

    This man believed humans were basically godo, relatively peaceful, and nonviolent before the state. (natural rights and gov. must protect those rights)

    Correct Answer(s)
    Locke
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is Locke. This man refers to the philosopher John Locke, who believed that humans were inherently good, peaceful, and nonviolent before the establishment of a governing state. According to Locke's philosophy, individuals possess natural rights that should be protected by the government.

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  • 49. 

    The Cross-roads of Trade.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Milan
  • 50. 

    The link between Asia and Europe.

    Correct Answer(s)
    Venice
    Explanation
    Venice is a city located in Italy that serves as a major connection point between Asia and Europe. It is situated in northeastern Italy and is known for its historic canals, gondolas, and beautiful architecture. Venice has been an important trading center for centuries, attracting merchants from both Asia and Europe. Its strategic location on the Adriatic Sea made it a key hub for the exchange of goods, ideas, and cultures between these two continents. Therefore, Venice can be considered as the link between Asia and Europe.

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