Gly Test 3 Practice Ch 21

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Amino Acid Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The climate system involves the exchanges of energy and moisture that occur among the ________ spheres.

    • A.

      Three

    • B.

      Four

    • C.

      Five

    • D.

      Six

    • E.

      Seven

    Correct Answer
    C. Five
    Explanation
    The correct answer is five because the question is asking about the number of spheres involved in the climate system. The climate system typically involves interactions and exchanges of energy and moisture among five spheres, which are the atmosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and cryosphere. These spheres play a crucial role in shaping and influencing the Earth's climate patterns and processes.

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  • 2. 

    Lines of indirect evidence that scientists use to reconstruct past climates are termed ________.

    • A.

      Paradigms

    • B.

      Hypotheses

    • C.

      Theories

    • D.

      Inferences

    • E.

      Proxy data

    Correct Answer
    E. Proxy data
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "proxy data". Proxy data refers to indirect evidence that scientists use to reconstruct past climates. This can include things like ice cores, tree rings, and sediment cores, which provide information about temperature, precipitation, and other climate variables. By analyzing these proxy data, scientists can make inferences about past climates and gain a better understanding of how the climate has changed over time.

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  • 3. 

    Which gaseous element composes the greatest percentage of the air that we breathe?

    • A.

      Oxygen

    • B.

      Nitrogen

    • C.

      Carbon dioxide

    • D.

      Hydrogen

    • E.

      Helium

    Correct Answer
    B. Nitrogen
    Explanation
    Nitrogen is the correct answer because it makes up approximately 78% of the air that we breathe. Oxygen, while also present in the air, only makes up about 21%. Carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and helium are present in much smaller quantities and do not compose a significant percentage of the air we breathe.

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  • 4. 

    The temperature decrease in the troposphere is termed the ________.

    • A.

      Environmental lapse rate

    • B.

      Normal lapse rate

    • C.

      Tropocline

    • D.

      Tropopause

    • E.

      Thermocline

    Correct Answer
    A. Environmental lapse rate
    Explanation
    The temperature decrease in the troposphere is called the environmental lapse rate. This refers to the rate at which temperature decreases with increasing altitude in the Earth's atmosphere. This phenomenon occurs due to the decrease in air pressure and the expansion of air molecules as altitude increases. The environmental lapse rate is an important factor in understanding weather patterns and atmospheric stability.

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  • 5. 

    The amount of radiation reflected by a surface is termed its ________.

    • A.

      Electromagnetic spectrum

    • B.

      Reflectivity constant

    • C.

      Radiative number

    • D.

      Infrared quotient

    • E.

      Albedo

    Correct Answer
    E. Albedo
    Explanation
    Albedo refers to the amount of radiation reflected by a surface. It is a measure of the reflectivity of a surface, specifically in terms of solar radiation. A high albedo indicates that a surface reflects a large amount of radiation, while a low albedo means that the surface absorbs more radiation. Albedo is an important factor in climate science, as it affects the amount of energy that is absorbed or reflected by the Earth's surface, influencing temperature and climate patterns.

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  • 6. 

    Tree rings can be used ________.

    • A.

      To reconstruct paleoclimates

    • B.

      As a dating tool

    • C.

      To measure past CO2 concentrations

    • D.

      A and B

    • E.

      B and C

    Correct Answer
    D. A and B
    Explanation
    Tree rings can be used to reconstruct paleoclimates because the width and composition of tree rings can provide information about past climate conditions. Additionally, tree rings can be used as a dating tool because the number and pattern of rings can indicate the age of a tree. Therefore, the correct answer is A and B.

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  • 7. 

    The shells of numerous marine micro-organisms are composed of ________.

    • A.

      CO2

    • B.

      FeO2

    • C.

      CaCO3

    • D.

      H2SO4

    • E.

      NaCl

    Correct Answer
    C. CaCO3
    Explanation
    The shells of numerous marine micro-organisms are composed of CaCO3, which stands for calcium carbonate. Calcium carbonate is a common compound found in nature, and it is a major component of the shells of many marine organisms such as mollusks and corals. These organisms extract calcium and carbonate ions from their environment to build their shells, which provide protection and support for their bodies.

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  • 8. 

    ________ can be used as a paleothermometer.

    • A.

      Fossil pollen

    • B.

      Tree ring data

    • C.

      Aerosols

    • D.

      Foraminifera

    • E.

      Corals

    Correct Answer
    E. Corals
    Explanation
    Corals can be used as a paleothermometer because they have growth rings, similar to tree rings, that can be analyzed to determine past climate conditions. By studying the isotopic composition of the coral skeleton, scientists can infer temperature variations in the ocean over time. This is possible because the ratio of oxygen isotopes in the coral skeleton is influenced by the temperature of the water in which the coral grows. Therefore, by analyzing the oxygen isotopes in coral samples, scientists can reconstruct past ocean temperatures and climate patterns.

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  • 9. 

    Ozone is concentrated in the ________.

    • A.

      Troposphere

    • B.

      Stratosphere

    • C.

      Mesosphere

    • D.

      Thermosphere

    • E.

      Cryosphere

    Correct Answer
    B. Stratosphere
    Explanation
    Ozone is concentrated in the stratosphere because it is formed when ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun reacts with oxygen molecules. This process occurs primarily in the stratosphere, where the ozone layer is located. The ozone layer plays a crucial role in protecting life on Earth by absorbing most of the sun's harmful UV radiation.

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  • 10. 

    Fifty percent of Earth's atmosphere is found below an altitude of ________.

    • A.

      4.2 km

    • B.

      5.6 km

    • C.

      6.5 km

    • D.

      7.4 km

    • E.

      7.9 km

    Correct Answer
    B. 5.6 km
    Explanation
    Fifty percent of Earth's atmosphere is found below an altitude of 5.6 km. This means that if you were to measure the height of the Earth's atmosphere, half of it would be below this altitude.

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  • 11. 

    As you ascend in elevation within the troposphere, the air temperature decreases ________.

    • A.

      3.5 ºC/km

    • B.

      4.2 ºC/km

    • C.

      5.3 ºC/km

    • D.

      6.5 ºC/km

    • E.

      7.0 ºC/km

    Correct Answer
    D. 6.5 ºC/km
    Explanation
    As you ascend in elevation within the troposphere, the air temperature decreases at a rate of 6.5 ºC per kilometer. This is known as the environmental lapse rate. As you go higher in the atmosphere, the air becomes less dense, and there is less heat from the surface to warm the air. Therefore, the temperature decreases with increasing altitude. The rate of decrease is approximately 6.5 ºC per kilometer on average, although it can vary depending on various factors such as humidity and atmospheric conditions.

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  • 12. 

    Vertical changes in temperature, pressure, wind, and humidity are recorded by ________.

    • A.

      Aerometers

    • B.

      Barographs

    • C.

      Theodolites

    • D.

      Climoprobes

    • E.

      Radiosondes

    Correct Answer
    E. Radiosondes
    Explanation
    Radiosondes are used to record vertical changes in temperature, pressure, wind, and humidity. These instruments are attached to weather balloons and are launched into the atmosphere. As the balloon ascends, the radiosonde collects data and transmits it back to the ground station. This data is crucial for weather forecasting and studying atmospheric conditions.

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  • 13. 

    In the ________ the temperature remains constant to an altitude of about 20 km.

    • A.

      Troposphere

    • B.

      Tropopause

    • C.

      Stratosphere

    • D.

      Stratopause

    • E.

      Mesosphere

    Correct Answer
    C. Stratosphere
    Explanation
    The stratosphere is the layer of the atmosphere above the troposphere. In this layer, the temperature remains constant to an altitude of about 20 km. The stratosphere is characterized by the presence of the ozone layer, which absorbs the majority of the sun's harmful ultraviolet radiation. This absorption of UV radiation causes the temperature to increase with altitude in the stratosphere, creating a stable temperature profile.

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  • 14. 

    Temperatures rise to more than 1000 ºC in the ________.

    • A.

      Troposphere

    • B.

      Stratosphere

    • C.

      Mesosphere

    • D.

      Thermosphere

    • E.

      Cryosphere

    Correct Answer
    D. Thermosphere
    Explanation
    Temperatures rise to more than 1000 °C in the thermosphere. The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere located above the mesosphere and below the exosphere. It is characterized by extremely high temperatures due to the absorption of intense solar radiation. The thermosphere is where the International Space Station orbits and where the northern lights (aurora borealis) occur.

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  • 15. 

    A surface's ________ is the amount of total radiation that it reflects.

    • A.

      Albedo

    • B.

      Lapse rate

    • C.

      Greenhouse effect

    • D.

      Isotope ratio

    • E.

      Aerosol content

    Correct Answer
    A. Albedo
    Explanation
    Albedo refers to the amount of total radiation that a surface reflects. It is a measure of how much sunlight is reflected back into space instead of being absorbed by the surface. A high albedo means that a surface reflects a large proportion of incoming radiation, while a low albedo means that a surface absorbs more radiation.

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  • 16. 

    If Earth's atmosphere contained no greenhouse gases, the average surface temperature would be ________.

    • A.

      Higher

    • B.

      Lower

    • C.

      Unchanged

    • D.

      Uncalculable

    • E.

      Nonexistent

    Correct Answer
    B. Lower
    Explanation
    If Earth's atmosphere contained no greenhouse gases, the average surface temperature would be lower. Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, trap heat in the atmosphere and contribute to the greenhouse effect. Without these gases, less heat would be trapped, leading to a decrease in the average surface temperature.

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  • 17. 

    Eccentricity, obliquity, and precession are considered to be causes of ________ climate change.

    • A.

      Natural

    • B.

      Human

    • C.

      Solar

    • D.

      Volcanic

    • E.

      Astrological

    Correct Answer
    A. Natural
    Explanation
    Eccentricity, obliquity, and precession are natural phenomena that occur in the Earth's orbit and rotation. These factors cause variations in the amount and distribution of solar radiation received by the Earth, leading to changes in climate over long periods of time. Therefore, the correct answer is natural, as these factors are natural causes of climate change.

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  • 18. 

    Explosive volcanic eruptions can act to ________ global temperatures.

    • A.

      Raise

    • B.

      Lower

    • C.

      Moderate

    • D.

      Expand

    • E.

      Volcanic eruptions do not affect temperature.

    Correct Answer
    B. Lower
    Explanation
    Volcanic eruptions can lower global temperatures because they release large amounts of ash, gases, and aerosols into the atmosphere. These volcanic emissions can block sunlight and reduce the amount of solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. This leads to a cooling effect, as less heat is trapped in the atmosphere. Additionally, sulfur dioxide emitted during volcanic eruptions can react with water vapor to form sulfate aerosols, which can also reflect sunlight and contribute to the cooling effect. Therefore, explosive volcanic eruptions have the potential to lower global temperatures.

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  • 19. 

    A general term for particulate matter found in the atmosphere is ________.

    • A.

      Albedo

    • B.

      Isotopes

    • C.

      Proxy data

    • D.

      Pollen

    • E.

      Aerosols

    Correct Answer
    E. Aerosols
    Explanation
    Aerosols refer to small particles or liquid droplets that are suspended in the air. These particles can be natural, such as dust, pollen, or sea salt, or they can be anthropogenic, such as pollutants from vehicle emissions or industrial activities. Aerosols have a significant impact on the Earth's climate and air quality as they can scatter or absorb sunlight, contribute to cloud formation, and affect visibility. Therefore, aerosols are considered a general term for particulate matter found in the atmosphere.

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  • 20. 

    Some scientists believe that these huge magnetic storms are responsible for variations in temperature and precipitation.

    • A.

      Hurricanes

    • B.

      Tsunamis

    • C.

      Sunspots

    • D.

      Typhoons

    • E.

      Monsoons

    Correct Answer
    C. Sunspots
    Explanation
    Sunspots are dark areas on the surface of the sun that are caused by magnetic storms. These storms release large amounts of energy and can affect Earth's climate. Some scientists believe that these sunspot-induced magnetic storms are responsible for variations in temperature and precipitation. This explanation suggests that sunspots play a role in influencing weather patterns and climate changes on Earth.

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  • 21. 

    Burning which of the following materials contributes carbon dioxide to Earth's atmosphere?

    • A.

      Coal

    • B.

      Petroleum

    • C.

      Wood

    • D.

      A and C

    • E.

      A, B, and C

    Correct Answer
    E. A, B, and C
    Explanation
    Coal, petroleum, and wood all contain carbon, and when they are burned, carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere. This is because the combustion process involves the carbon in these materials combining with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. Therefore, burning any of these materials contributes carbon dioxide to Earth's atmosphere.

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  • 22. 

    The increase in global temperature during the twentieth century was approximately ________.

    • A.

      0.5°C

    • B.

      0.6°C

    • C.

      0.7°C

    • D.

      0.8°C

    • E.

      0.9°C

    Correct Answer
    D. 0.8°C
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 0.8°C. This is the approximate increase in global temperature during the twentieth century. This suggests that there was a significant rise in temperature over this time period, which could have been caused by various factors such as greenhouse gas emissions and human activities.

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  • 23. 

    Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are considered ________ (greenhouse) gases.

    • A.

      Minor

    • B.

      Trace

    • C.

      Constituent

    • D.

      Volatile

    • E.

      Negligible

    Correct Answer
    B. Trace
    Explanation
    Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are considered trace gases. This means that they exist in the atmosphere in relatively small concentrations compared to other gases. While they may be present in smaller amounts, they still have significant effects on the greenhouse effect and climate change.

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  • 24. 

    Methane is produced by ________ bacteria.

    • A.

      Aerobic

    • B.

      Anaerobic

    • C.

      Aerated

    • D.

      Oxidized

    • E.

      Polymorphic

    Correct Answer
    B. Anaerobic
    Explanation
    Methane is produced by anaerobic bacteria because anaerobic bacteria are able to survive and thrive in environments with little to no oxygen. These bacteria have the ability to break down organic matter in the absence of oxygen, leading to the production of methane gas as a byproduct.

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  • 25. 

    The increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide ("laughing gas") results primarily from ________.

    • A.

      Automobiles

    • B.

      Factories

    • C.

      Dental procedures

    • D.

      Locomotives

    • E.

      Fertilizers

    Correct Answer
    E. Fertilizers
    Explanation
    Fertilizers are the primary source of the increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide. Fertilizers contain nitrogen compounds, which can be converted into nitrous oxide through various biological and chemical processes. When these fertilizers are used in agriculture, excess nitrogen can be released into the environment and contribute to the increase in atmospheric nitrous oxide levels. This is particularly significant because nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change and ozone depletion.

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  • 26. 

    Global warming is likely to have a greater adverse effect on ________ regions.

    • A.

      Polar

    • B.

      Tropical

    • C.

      Grassland

    • D.

      Coastal

    • E.

      Boreal

    Correct Answer
    A. Polar
    Explanation
    Global warming is likely to have a greater adverse effect on polar regions because these regions are already experiencing the most significant changes in temperature and ice melting. The increase in global temperatures leads to the melting of polar ice caps, which contributes to rising sea levels and loss of habitat for polar animals. Additionally, the melting of permafrost in polar regions releases large amounts of greenhouse gases, further exacerbating global warming.

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  • 27. 

    Sea level has risen between ________ over the last 100 years.

    • A.

      5 and 10 cm

    • B.

      10 and 15 cm

    • C.

      10 and 23 cm

    • D.

      15 and 23 cm

    • E.

      25 and 30 cm

    Correct Answer
    C. 10 and 23 cm
    Explanation
    Sea level has risen between 10 and 23 cm over the last 100 years. This indicates that there has been a significant increase in the average height of the world's oceans. The rise in sea level can be attributed to various factors such as melting glaciers, thermal expansion of seawater, and human activities leading to increased greenhouse gas emissions. This increase in sea level has serious implications for coastal regions, as it can result in more frequent and severe flooding events, erosion of shorelines, and loss of habitat for marine life.

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  • 28. 

    Melting of permafrost will release ________ as a result of decomposing vegetation.

    • A.

      Nitrous oxide

    • B.

      Carbon dioxide and methane

    • C.

      CFCs and ozone

    • D.

      Hydrogen and helium

    • E.

      Carbonic acid

    Correct Answer
    B. Carbon dioxide and methane
    Explanation
    The melting of permafrost leads to the decomposition of vegetation, which releases carbon dioxide and methane. These greenhouse gases are trapped within the permafrost and are released into the atmosphere when it thaws. Carbon dioxide and methane are known for their significant contributions to global warming and climate change.

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  • 29. 

    When atmospheric CO2 dissolves in seawater, it forms ________.

    • A.

      Carbonic acid

    • B.

      Carbolic acid

    • C.

      Hydrochloric acid

    • D.

      Nitric acid

    • E.

      Chloroform

    Correct Answer
    A. Carbonic acid
    Explanation
    When atmospheric CO2 dissolves in seawater, it forms carbonic acid. This is because when CO2 reacts with water, it undergoes a chemical reaction to form carbonic acid. This reaction is important in the ocean as it leads to a decrease in pH, making the water more acidic. This process is known as ocean acidification and can have detrimental effects on marine life, particularly organisms with calcium carbonate shells or skeletons.

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  • 30. 

    Increased levels of atmospheric CO2 will ultimately ________ the pH of global oceans.

    • A.

      Raise

    • B.

      Lower

    • C.

      Suspend

    • D.

      Dilute

    • E.

      Have no effect on

    Correct Answer
    B. Lower
    Explanation
    Increased levels of atmospheric CO2 will ultimately lower the pH of global oceans. This is because when CO2 dissolves in seawater, it forms carbonic acid, which increases the concentration of hydrogen ions in the water. This increase in hydrogen ions leads to a decrease in pH, making the water more acidic. This process is known as ocean acidification and can have detrimental effects on marine organisms and ecosystems.

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