# Geol 1340 Exam 4

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• 1.

### The salinity of oceans vary from 34 to 37 parts per thousand. What is the definition of salinity?

• A.

Grams of sodium per kilogram of dissolved ions.

• B.

Grams of solution per cubic kilometer of seawater.

• C.

Grams of dissolved ions in 1 kilogram of solution.

• D.

Grams of water in 1 kilogram of solution.

C. Grams of dissolved ions in 1 kilogram of solution.
Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 2.

### Why does ocean water have higher salinity in subtropical regions than along the equatorial belt?

• A.

Rainfall within subtropical regions has a higher salt content than along the equator.

• B.

Precipitation is greater in the subtropics than along the equatorial belt.

• C.

Evaporation exceeds precipitation in the subtropical region, whereas the reverse occurs along the equator.

• D.

More streams and rivers empty into the ocean within subtropical regions than along the equatorial belt.

C. Evaporation exceeds precipitation in the subtropical region, whereas the reverse occurs along the equator.
Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 3.

### Which of the following statements is NOT true regarding surface water in the oceans?

• A.

Motion of the surface layer is primarily driven by wind and deflected by the Coriollis force.

• B.

The surface layer is heated by the sun.

• C.

The temperature of surface water varies with latitude and the seasons.

• D.

Most surface water originates near Greenland and Antarctica and afterwards flows as surface water towards the equator.

D. Most surface water originates near Greenland and Antarctica and afterwards flows as surface water towards the equator.
Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 4.

### Which of the following statements is TRUE?

• A.

Coastlines are always in equilibrium with oceans and therefore never change.

• B.

The sea surface is everywhere smooth and flat.

• C.

Global sea level has risen and fallen many times throughout Earth history.

• D.

Ocean currents generate the tides.

C. Global sea level has risen and fallen many times throughout Earth history.
Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 5.

### The following configuration of the Earth-Moon-Sun system will result in__________.

• A.

Neap tide

• B.

Ocean gyres

• C.

Spring tide

• D.

A lunar eclipse

C. Spring tide
Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 6.

### Which of the following will cause a global rise in sea level?

• A.

Global cooling during an ice age

• B.

Assembly of continents into a supercontinent.

• C.

Decrease in the volume of mid-ocean ridges

• D.

Global warming during an interglacial cycle

• E.

Removing fish from the oceans

D. Global warming during an interglacial cycle
Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 7.

### For incoming ocean waves approaching a coast, which of the following wave forms occur closest to the beach?

• A.

Crests

• B.

Swells

• C.

Surf

• D.

Breakers

C. Surf
Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 8.

### Which of the following statements regarding waves approaching a coast is FALSE?

• A.

Wave crests bunch closer together when approaching the beach.

• B.

Approaching wave crests align parallel with the coastline in what is known as wave refraction.

• C.

Waves speed up when approaching the beach.

• D.

Wave crests increase in height when approaching the beach.

C. Waves speed up when approaching the beach.
Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 9.

### Which of the following depositional features along a coast is called a Bay barrier or baymouth bar?

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

• E.

E

E. E
Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 10.

### Which of the following structures is a breakwater?

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

A. A
Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 11.

### For the following figure, where is the greatest amount of coastal erosion occuring?

• A.

Cove

• B.

Bay

• C.

• D.

Coastal erosion is the same everywhere

Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 12.

### Which of the following statements about beach drift and longshore currents is TRUE?

• A.

Beach drift causes beach sand to remain in place.

• B.

Longshore currents prevent waves from striking the beach.

• C.

Beach drift transports sediment in the same direction as does longshore current.

• D.

The zigzag motion of sand describes sediment transport by longshore currents.

C. Beach drift transports sediment in the same direction as does longshore current.
Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 13.

### Atoll, barrier, and fringing describe different types of ________.

• A.

Coastal erosional features

• B.

Coastal depositonal features

• C.

Wetlands

• D.

Coral reefs

D. Coral reefs
Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 14.

### Which of the following is LEAST LIKELY associated with wetlands?

• A.

Mangroves

• B.

Salt marshes

• C.

Bogs

• D.

Wave-cut platform

• E.

Flood plain

D. Wave-cut platform
Explanation
Chapter 13

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• 15.

### Which of the following features of an Alpine glacier is (are) formed by deposition rather than erosion?

• A.

U-shaped valley

• B.

Paternoster lakes

• C.

Horn

• D.

Lateral moraine

• E.

Cirque

D. Lateral moraine
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 16.

### Which of the following lines is (are) pointing to an Arete?

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

A. A
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 17.

### Stratified drift is most likely deposited by ___________

• A.

Glacial meltwater

• B.

Glacial ice and snow

• C.

Terminal moraines

• D.

Drumlins

A. Glacial meltwater
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 18.

### For an alpine glacier, which of the following features or processes occurs within the zone of accumulation?

• A.

Terminal moraine

• B.

Calving

• C.

Crevasses

• D.

Cirque

D. Cirque
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 19.

### Which of the following statements best describes an esker?

• A.

Small hill or knob of poorly sorted gravel deposited by a melting glacier

• B.

Hole in the ground left behind after a large block of ice melts

• C.

Sinuous, narrow ridge of coarse sand and gravel formed by a meltwater stream that flowed beneath a glacier

• D.

Elongated deposit of till streamlined in the direction of ice movement by a continental glacier

C. Sinuous, narrow ridge of coarse sand and gravel formed by a meltwater stream that flowed beneath a glacier
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 20.

### The figure below illustrates features associated with a continental glacier. Which of the following letters corresponds to the outwash plain?

• A.

A

• B.

B

• C.

C

• D.

D

• E.

E or F (check explanation for the correct answer)

A. A
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 21.

### Which of the following would LEAST LIKELY characterize a periglacial landscape?

• A.

Patterned ground forms due to frost action in the soil.

• B.

Expansion of water when freezing disrupts the soil and fractures rocks.

• C.

Melting of permafrost beneath a building constructed on the ground surface causes the structure to collapse.

• D.

Ice wedges develop in fractures below the ground surface.

• E.

Areas in subarctic and polar climates where the ground is cold but never freezes.

E. Areas in subarctic and polar climates where the ground is cold but never freezes.
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 22.

### Which of the following events MOST-LIKELY occurred during the last ice age when glaciers reached maximum extent ~18,000 years ago?

• A.

Global sea level rose

• B.

Plants and animals characteristic of colder climates migrated southward to lower latitudes

• C.

Earth's crust in areas covered by glaciers rebounded to higher elevations

• D.

Land bridges and continental shelves became submerged under water

B. Plants and animals characteristic of colder climates migrated southward to lower latitudes
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 23.

### Ice cores recovered in Greenland and Antarctica provide a record of changes in atmospheric temperature and composition dating back to over 100,000 years ago. Based on ice core data, which of the following statements is TRUE?

• A.

The atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane have actually decreased over the last 50 years.

• B.

Ice cores indicate that global temperatures have been fairly constant over the last few tens of thousands of years.

• C.

Atmospheric temperature has been steadily increasing over the last 12 thousand years and we are presently in an interglacial cycle

• D.

The concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases increase dramatically during periods of glaciation and global cooling.

C. AtmospHeric temperature has been steadily increasing over the last 12 thousand years and we are presently in an interglacial cycle
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 24.

### How can sunspot activity possibly affect Earth's climate?

• A.

Higher sunspot activity pushes Earth's orbit further from the sun, thus cooling the planet

• B.

Lower sunspot activity allows more solar radiation to escape the Sun and reach Earth, thus warming the planet

• C.

Higher sunspot activity increases the solar wind, which in turn warms Earth's upper atmosphere

• D.

The amount of sunspot activity never changes and therefore cannot affect Earth's climate

C. Higher sunspot activity increases the solar wind, which in turn warms Earth's upper atmospHere
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 25.

### Changes in the angle of tilt of Earth's rotational axis occurs approximately in _________ year cycles.

• A.

100,000

• B.

26,000

• C.

1

• D.

41,000

D. 41,000
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 26.

### Which of the following examples will result in positive feedback?

• A.

Greater snow cover during climatic cooling reduces the activity of carbon dioxide sinks such as photosynthesis and formation of carbonate rocks, thus causing carbon dioxide to build up in the atmosphere

• B.

Warming of the climate increases evaporation in the oceans, leading to greater cloud cover such that more solar radiation is reflected back into space.

• C.

An increase in plant activity during global warming results in more carbon dioxide being removed from the atmosphere

• D.

Climate cooling increases the snow cover on land, thus increasing global albedo and causing more solar radiation to be reflected back into space

D. Climate cooling increases the snow cover on land, thus increasing global albedo and causing more solar radiation to be reflected back into space
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 27.

### How did global climate overall change throughout the last 60 million years of the Cenozoic Era?

• A.

Global climate was cold throughout the entire Cenozoic Era as evidenced by 60 million year old glaciers found today in Antarctica

• B.

Cenozoic climate started out cold, then warmed about 30 million years ago, and has since cooled again.

• C.

Cenozoic climate was warmest 60 million years ago and has gradually cooled since then, culminating in the Pleistocene Ice Age beginning 2 million years ago

• D.

Global climate today is the warmest it has ever been over the last 60 million years

C. Cenozoic climate was warmest 60 million years ago and has gradually cooled since then, culminating in the Pleistocene Ice Age beginning 2 million years ago
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 28.

### Which of the following factors can affect global climate on a time scale of several decades?

• A.

Plate tectonics

• B.

Milankovitch cycles

• C.

Changes in overall sunspot activity

• D.

Human activity such as burning of fossils fuels

• E.

Both C and D

E. Both C and D
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 29.

### Sea ice and ice shelves in the Arctic and Antarctica have increased in area over the past two decades in spite of recent global warming.

• A.

True

• B.

False

B. False
Explanation
Chapter 14

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• 30.

### Within which soil horizon does clay, iron and aluminum brought down from overlying horizons accumulate?

• A.

B-horizon

• B.

C-horizon

• C.

A-horizon

• D.

O-horizon

A. B-horizon
Explanation
Chapter 15

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• 31.

### The terms blocky, platy, and granular describe the soil's __________

• A.

Consistency

• B.

Structure

• C.

Permeability

• D.

Texture

B. Structure
Explanation
Chapter 15

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• 32.

### Which of the following does NOT add fertility to a soil?

• A.

Rich in humus

• B.

Available water

• C.

Good porosity

• D.

Presence of soil colloids

• E.

Leaching of cations

E. Leaching of cations
Explanation
Chapter 15

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• 33.

### Loam consists of...

• A.

Sand and clay only

• B.

Clay only

• C.

Sand, silt and clay

• D.

Humus and sand only

C. Sand, silt and clay
Explanation
Chapter 15

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• 34.

### Where would soil be best developed?

• A.

Cold, dry climate and scarce vegetation

• B.

Temperate climate and flat to gently-rolling topography

• C.

Dry climate and steep slopes

• D.

Area of abundant rainfall but scarce vegetation

B. Temperate climate and flat to gently-rolling topograpHy
Explanation
Chapter 15

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• 35.

### Oxisols form by a process known as ___________

• A.

Podzolization

• B.

Calcification

• C.

Cryoturbation

• D.

Laterization

D. Laterization
Explanation
Chapter 15

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• 36.

### Which of the following would most likely be a result of calcification?

• A.

An O- and A-horizon rich in humus

• B.

A hardened layer in the B horizon called caliche

• C.

A leached soil high in iron and aluminum

• D.

A churned and mixed soil resulting from repeated freezing and thawing

B. A hardened layer in the B horizon called caliche
Explanation
Chapter 15

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• 37.

### Which of the following is LEAST characteristic of Spodosols and the process of Podzolization?

• A.

Surface horizon consists of acid-rich forest litter

• B.

Sandy-bleached layer occurs below the A-horizon

• C.

Oxides and clays brought down from higher horizons accumulate in the B-horizon

• D.

Common in northern coniferous forests

• E.

Form from young volcanic ash and cinders

E. Form from young volcanic ash and cinders
Explanation
Chapter 15

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• 38.

### ___________ soils occur in regions of permafrost where cryoturbation is common and supports tundra-type of vegetation.

• A.

Ultisols

• B.

Histosols

• C.

Andisols

• D.

Gelisols

D. Gelisols
Explanation
Chapter 15

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• 39.

### This type of soil consists largely of partially decomposed organic material associated with bogs and is commonly referred to as peat.

• A.

Entisol

• B.

Histosol

• C.

Vertisol

• D.

Aridosol

B. Histosol
Explanation
Chapter 15

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• 40.

### The figure below illustrates the soil-forming process known as ____________.

• A.

Calcification

• B.

Cryoturbation

• C.

Laterization

• D.

Podzolization

C. Laterization
Explanation
chapter 15

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• 41.

### Which of the following terrestrial biomes occurs at the highest latitudes and highest altitudes?

• A.

Tundra

• B.

• C.

Rain forest

• D.

Savanna

A. Tundra
Explanation
Chapter 16

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• 42.

### Which of the following terrestrial biomes is characterized by three levels of canopy, high insolation, high average annual temperature, and contains the most diverse body of life on earth?

• A.

Needleleaf forest

• B.

Tropical savanna

• C.

Mediterranean shrubland

• D.

Tropical rain forest

D. Tropical rain forest
Explanation
Chapter 16

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• 43.

### Which of the following statements is LEAST consistent with a Mediterranean Shrubland Biome?

• A.

Monsoonal rains

• B.

Stunted, woody shrubs

• C.

Southern California is an example

• D.

Dry summer climate

A. Monsoonal rains
Explanation
Chapter 16

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• 44.

### Where do plants with deep roots, spreading root systems, water-holding tissue, and leaves with waxy coatings and fine hair most likely occur?

• A.

Tropical savannas

• B.

Deserts

• C.

Temperate rain forest

• D.

Montane forest

• E.

Alpine tundra

B. Deserts
Explanation
Chapter 16

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• 45.

### The photo below is most likely that of a _____________ biome.

• A.

Tropical rain forest

• B.

Tropical savanna

• C.

Needleleaf forest

• D.

Temperate rain forest

C. Needleleaf forest
Explanation
Chapter 16

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• 46.

### An ecosystem is composed of many communities.

• A.

True

• B.

FALSE

A. True
Explanation
Chapter 16

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• 47.

### The function or occupation of a life form within a community is called a(n) _________.

• A.

Niche

• B.

Habitat

• C.

Ecosystem

• D.

Web

A. Niche
Explanation
Chapter 16

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• 48.

### Which of the following processes is NOT part of the carbon cycle?

• A.

Use of fertilizers on crops

• B.

Construction of shells by marine organisms

• C.

Storage of oil, coal, and gas below Earth's surface

• D.

D. Plant photosynthesis E. Subduction of carbon-bearing oceanic sediments and rocks along a convergent plate boundary

• E.

F. Release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere via volcanic eruptions G. Methane escape onto the seafloor via hydrothermal vents near mid-ocean ridges

A. Use of fertilizers on crops
Explanation
Chapter 16
Correct Answer: A. Use of fertilizers on crops

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• 49.

### Which of the following cannot be directly used by plants, but rather must first be coverted into usable compounds by lightening and certain soil bacteria?

• A.

Atmospheric oxygen

• B.

Carbohydrates (sugars)

• C.

Atmospheric nitrogen

• D.

Water

C. AtmospHeric nitrogen
Explanation
Chapter 16

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• 50.

### Which of the following factors influences the distribution and biogeography of plant species?

• A.

Soil type

• B.

Air and soil temperatures

• C.

Solar insolation

• D.

Amount of precipitation

• E.

E. Regional climate F. All of the above

E. E. Regional climate F. All of the above
Explanation
Chapter 16
Correct Answer: F. All of the above

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• Mar 22, 2023
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• Apr 19, 2010
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