Pleiotropy (You may inherit a gene for the complex of symptoms that are collectively called sickle-cell anemia).
Incomplete Penetrance (You may inherit the gene for diabetes but never get the disease unless you become overweight)
Epistasis (Your dog inherits a dominant allele that determines whether the fur will have dark pigment and a different allele that determines how dark the pigment will be)
Polygenic Traits (You inherit many different genes which combined effects determines your skin color).
Codominance (A cow inherits two alleles that make a positive contribution to the phenotype resulting in a black and white coat).
He developed some basic principles of heredity without having knowledge of chromosomes.
He developed the microscope for the study of genes in pea plants.
He explained the principle of dominance on the basis of the gene-chromosome theory.
He used his knowledge of gene mutations to help explain the appearance of new traits in organisms.
He studied the beaks of finches which helped him to develop the theory of evolution by natural selection.
A sperm cell
An egg cell
A haploid cell
Chromosome map percentages are not actual chromosome distances, but represent the relative position of genes.
Gene linkage is an exception to Mendel’s Law of Dominance
Genetic recombination involves both gene linkage and chromosome mapping.
Polyploid plants are avoided by plant growers because they are almost always lethal.
Each somatic cell in the human body has a different number of chromosomes depending on the function of the cell.
Artificial selection and inbreeding
Grafting and hybridization
Regeneration and incubation
Vegetative propagation and binary fission
Test cross and polyploidy