Genetics Problem Test 1

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Genetics Problem Test 1 - Quiz

Welcome to the electronic advancedbiology frontier classroom of the 21st century. The fact that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through selective breeding. However, the modern science of genetics, which attempts to understand the process of inheritance, only began with the work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century.
I wish you good luck and enjoy learning about genetics and heredity.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    In garden peas involving smooth and rough phenotypes. A phenotypic ratio of 3:1 in the F2 generation indicates that both parents (F1) are _____ for a single trait.

    • A.

      Homozygous smooth

    • B.

      Heterozygous smooth

    • C.

      Homozygous wrinkle

    • D.

      Heterozgyous wrinkle

    Correct Answer
    B. Heterozygous smooth
    Explanation
    A phenotypic ratio of 3:1 in the F2 generation indicates that both parents (F1) are heterozygous for a single trait. This is because in a monohybrid cross between two heterozygotes, there is a 1:2:1 genotypic ratio of homozygous dominant:heterozygous:homozygous recessive. When this genotypic ratio is expressed phenotypically, it results in a 3:1 ratio of the dominant phenotype to the recessive phenotype. Therefore, the F1 generation must be heterozygous for the trait in order to produce this phenotypic ratio in the F2 generation.

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  • 2. 

    Describe the genotypes given for various garden pea traits. Determine the phenotype of the following: tall pea plant (T) and short pea plant (t). The genotype is [Tt]

    • A.

      Homozygous, dominant

    • B.

      Homozygous, recessive

    • C.

      Heterozygous, dominant

    • D.

      Heterozygous, recessive

    Correct Answer
    C. Heterozygous, dominant
    Explanation
    The given genotype [Tt] represents a heterozygous individual, meaning it has two different alleles for the trait of plant height. In this case, "T" represents the dominant allele for tall height, while "t" represents the recessive allele for short height. Since the dominant allele is present, the phenotype of the individual will be tall pea plant.

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  • 3. 

    Describe the genotypes given for various garden pea traits. Determine the condition of the following: tall pea plant (T) and short pea plant (t). The genotype is [tt]

    • A.

      Homozygous, dominant

    • B.

      Homozygous, recessive

    • C.

      Heterozygous, dominant

    • D.

      Heterozygous, recessive

    Correct Answer
    B. Homozygous, recessive
    Explanation
    The genotype [tt] indicates that both alleles for the trait of plant height are the same and recessive. In this case, the recessive allele for short plant height (t) is present in both copies of the gene. Since there are no dominant alleles present, the genotype is homozygous for the recessive trait.

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  • 4. 

    Describe the genotypes given for various garden pea traits. Determine the condition of the following: round pea seeds (R) and wrinkled pea seeds (r). The genotype is [Rr].

    • A.

      Homozygous, dominant

    • B.

      Homozygous, recessive

    • C.

      Heterozygous, dominant

    • D.

      Heterozygous, recessive

    Correct Answer
    C. Heterozygous, dominant
    Explanation
    The given genotype [Rr] represents a heterozygous condition for the trait of round pea seeds (R) and wrinkled pea seeds (r). Heterozygous means that the individual has two different alleles for the same trait, in this case, one dominant allele (R) and one recessive allele (r). The dominant allele (R) will be expressed in the phenotype, resulting in round pea seeds.

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  • 5. 

    In a mating of black eyed, male mouse is crossed with a red eyed, female mouse. Black eyed (B) is dominant over red eye (b).  If the F2 generation has a genotypic ratio of 1:2:1, what are the genotypes of the Parents in the P generation?

    • A.

      [BB] X [Bb]

    • B.

      [BB] X [bb]

    • C.

      (BB) X (Bb)

    • D.

      [Bb] X [Bb]

    Correct Answer
    B. [BB] X [bb]
    Explanation
    The F2 generation having a genotypic ratio of 1:2:1 suggests that both parents in the P generation were heterozygous for the eye color gene. This is because when a homozygous dominant parent (BB) is crossed with a homozygous recessive parent (bb), the resulting F1 generation will all be heterozygous (Bb). When the F1 generation is crossed with each other, the genotypic ratio of the F2 generation will be 1 homozygous dominant (BB), 2 heterozygous (Bb), and 1 homozygous recessive (bb).

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  • 6. 

    In dogs, there is an hereditary deafness caused by a _____ gene.

    • A.

      Dominant

    • B.

      Testcross

    • C.

      Incomplete

    • D.

      Recessive

    • E.

      Codominace

    Correct Answer
    D. Recessive
    Explanation
    In dogs, hereditary deafness is caused by a recessive gene. This means that the deafness trait will only be expressed if the dog inherits two copies of the recessive gene, one from each parent. If a dog inherits only one copy of the recessive gene, it will be a carrier of the deafness trait but will not be deaf itself. The dominant gene, on the other hand, would cause deafness even if the dog only inherits one copy. Therefore, the correct answer is recessive.

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  • 7. 

    In four-o-clocks, (r) is red flower color and (w) is white flower color. If a male four-o-clock is pure red is pollinated with a female that is pink (rw). How many offspring from the total of 1,000 plants will be red in the F1 generation?

    • A.

      0

    • B.

      250

    • C.

      500

    • D.

      750

    • E.

      1,000

    Correct Answer
    C. 500
    Explanation
    When a pure red male four-o-clock is pollinated with a pink female (rw), the offspring will inherit one allele from each parent. Since the male is pure red (rr) and the female is pink (rw), the possible combinations of alleles in the offspring are rr and rw. Out of these combinations, half of the offspring will have the rr genotype, which corresponds to the red flower color. Therefore, out of the total 1,000 plants in the F1 generation, 500 plants will be red.

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  • 8. 

    In four-o-clocks, (r) is red flower color and (w) is white flower color. If a male four-o-clock is pure red is pollinated with a female that is pink (rw). How many offspring from the total of 1,000 plants will be pink?

    • A.

      0

    • B.

      250

    • C.

      500

    • D.

      750

    • E.

      1,000

    Correct Answer
    C. 500
    Explanation
    When a male four-o-clock plant that is pure red (rr) is pollinated with a female plant that is pink (rw), the offspring will inherit one allele from each parent. This means that 50% of the offspring will inherit the red allele (r) from the male parent and the pink allele (w) from the female parent, resulting in pink flowers (rw). Therefore, out of the total 1,000 plants, 500 offspring will be pink.

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  • 9. 

    In four-o-clocks, (r) is red flower color and (w) is white flower color. If a male four-o-clock is heterozygous red is pollinated with a female that is pink (rw). How many offspring in the F1 generation from the total of 1,000 plants will be white?

    • A.

      0

    • B.

      250

    • C.

      500

    • D.

      750

    • E.

      1,000

    Correct Answer
    A. 0
    Explanation
    In this scenario, the male four-o-clock is heterozygous for red color (Rr) and the female is pink (rw). Since the male only has the red color allele (R), it can only pass on the red color allele to its offspring. The female has the white color allele (w), but since the male cannot pass it on, none of the offspring in the F1 generation will have the white color allele. Therefore, the number of offspring in the F1 generation that will be white is 0.

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  • 10. 

    In humans, brown eyes (B) are dominant over blue eyes (b).  A brown-eyed man marries a blue-eyed woman and they have four children, two of who are brown-eyed and one is blue-eyed. What is the genotype of the father?

    • A.

      (BB)

    • B.

      (Bb)

    • C.

      [BB]

    • D.

      [Bb]

    • E.

      [bb]

    Correct Answer
    D. [Bb]
    Explanation
    The genotype of the father is [Bb]. This is because brown eyes (B) are dominant over blue eyes (b), so if the father has brown eyes, he must have at least one dominant allele (B). Since they have two brown-eyed children and one blue-eyed child, it means that the father passed on the dominant allele (B) to the brown-eyed children and the recessive allele (b) to the blue-eyed child. Therefore, the father must have a heterozygous genotype (Bb).

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  • 11. 

    In humans, brown eyes (B) are dominant over blue eyes (b).  A brown-eyed man marries a blue-eyed woman and they have four children, two of who are brown-eyed and one is blue-eyed. What is the genotype of the mother?

    • A.

      BB

    • B.

      Bb

    • C.

      [BB]

    • D.

      [Bb]

    • E.

      [bb]

    Correct Answer
    E. [bb]
    Explanation
    The given answer [bb] suggests that the genotype of the mother is homozygous recessive for eye color. Since brown eyes (B) are dominant over blue eyes (b), the fact that the couple has two brown-eyed children and one blue-eyed child indicates that both parents must carry the recessive allele for blue eyes. Therefore, the mother must have a genotype of [bb].

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  • 12. 

    In humans, there is a gene that controls formation of hemoglobin, the protein in the red blood cells which carries oxygen to the body tissue. [S] is normal hemoglobin and [s] is abnormal hemoglobin.  Identify a person's genotype with abnormal hemoglobin (sickle-cell trait) formation from the list below.

    • A.

      [SS]

    • B.

      (SS)

    • C.

      [ss]

    • D.

      Ss

    Correct Answer
    C. [ss]
    Explanation
    The correct answer is [ss]. This is because the person with the genotype [ss] has two copies of the abnormal hemoglobin gene, resulting in the formation of abnormal hemoglobin and the presence of the sickle-cell trait.

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  • 13. 

    In pea plants, smooth seeds (S) are dominant to the wrinkled seeds (s). In a genetic cross of two plants that are heterozygous for the seed shape trait. What percent of the offspring should have smooth seeds?

    • A.

      0%

    • B.

      25%

    • C.

      50%

    • D.

      75%

    • E.

      100%

    Correct Answer
    D. 75%
    Explanation
    In pea plants, smooth seeds (S) are dominant to wrinkled seeds (s). When two plants that are heterozygous for the seed shape trait (Ss) are crossed, the possible genotypes of the offspring are SS, Ss, and ss. Out of these, only the SS and Ss genotypes will result in smooth seeds. Since both of these genotypes have the dominant smooth seed trait, the percentage of offspring with smooth seeds would be 75%.

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  • 14. 

       In summer squash, white fruit color (W) is dominant over yellow fruit color (w). If a squash plant homozygous for the white is crossed with a plant homozygous for yellow, what is the genotype of the P generation of the male and female?

    • A.

      (WW) X (ww)

    • B.

      [WW] X [ww]

    • C.

      [Ww] X [Ww]

    • D.

      (ww) X (ww)

    • E.

      (WW) X (YY)

    Correct Answer
    B. [WW] X [ww]
    Explanation
    The correct answer is [WW] X [ww]. This is because the question states that white fruit color (W) is dominant over yellow fruit color (w). When a squash plant homozygous for white (WW) is crossed with a plant homozygous for yellow (ww), the genotype of the P generation would be [WW] X [ww].

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  • 15. 

       In summer squash, white fruit color (W) is dominant over yellow fruit color (w). If a squash plant homozygous for the white is crossed with a plant heterozygous for white, what are the possible genotypes of the F1 generation offspring?

    • A.

      (WW) : (ww)

    • B.

      [WW] : [ww]

    • C.

      [Ww] : [Ww]

    • D.

      (ww) : (ww)

    • E.

      [WW] : [Ww]

    Correct Answer
    E. [WW] : [Ww]
    Explanation
    The correct answer is [WW] : [Ww]. This is because when a squash plant homozygous for the white fruit color (WW) is crossed with a plant heterozygous for white (Ww), the possible genotypes of the F1 generation offspring are either homozygous dominant (WW) or heterozygous (Ww) for the white fruit color.

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  • 16. 

    The following mating of a male dog is heterozygous for the deafness gene. The female dog is homozygous for the deaf gene. The female had 10 puppies and the breeder discovers that all of of the puppies have normal hearing.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The correct answer is False because if the female dog is homozygous for the deaf gene and the male dog is heterozygous for the deafness gene, there is a possibility that some of the puppies could inherit the deafness gene. Therefore, it is not true that all of the puppies would have normal hearing.

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  • 17. 

    The following mating of a male dog is homozygous for the deafness gene [d]. The female dog is homozygous for the deaf gene. The female had 10 puppies and the breeder discovers what percent of the puppies are deaf? The genotype for normal hearing is [D].

    • A.

      0%

    • B.

      25%

    • C.

      50%

    • D.

      75%

    • E.

      100%

    Correct Answer
    E. 100%
    Explanation
    In this scenario, both the male and female dogs are homozygous for the deafness gene [d]. Since the deafness gene is dominant over the normal hearing gene [D], all the puppies will inherit at least one copy of the deafness gene from their parents. Therefore, 100% of the puppies will be deaf.

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  • 18. 

    What is the dominant eye color in humans based upon genetic problems you have been presented with during introduction to genetics?   (Please enter your answer using all lower case letters.)

    Correct Answer
    brown
    Explanation
    The dominant eye color in humans, based on the genetic problems presented during the introduction to genetics, is brown. This suggests that brown eye color is more prevalent and has a higher likelihood of being inherited compared to other eye colors.

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  • 19. 

    What is the name of this genetic blood condition?

    • A.

      Deafness

    • B.

      Sickle-cell

    • C.

      Hemophilia

    • D.

      Thalassemia

    Correct Answer
    B. Sickle-cell
    Explanation
    Sickle-cell is the correct answer because it is a genetic blood condition characterized by abnormal hemoglobin, causing red blood cells to become rigid and sickle-shaped. This condition can lead to various complications such as anemia, organ damage, and pain episodes. Deafness, Hemophilia, and Thalassemia are not related to this specific genetic blood condition.

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  • 20. 

    _____ is a different form of genes for a single trait. Here is the genotype...[Mn]

    • A.

      Alleles

    • B.

      Dominant

    • C.

      Heterozygous

    • D.

      Recessive

    • E.

      Homozygous

    Correct Answer
    C. Heterozygous
    Explanation
    Heterozygous is the correct answer because it refers to a genotype that contains two different forms of genes for a single trait. In this case, the genotype [Mn] indicates that the individual has one dominant allele (M) and one recessive allele (n) for the trait. Heterozygosity often results in a dominant phenotype, as the dominant allele masks the effects of the recessive allele.

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  • 21. 

    _____ gene that is always expressed or visible.

    • A.

      Alleles

    • B.

      Dominant

    • C.

      Heterozygous

    • D.

      Recessive

    • E.

      Homozygous

    Correct Answer
    B. Dominant
    Explanation
    Dominant gene refers to a gene that is always expressed or visible, regardless of whether it is paired with a recessive gene or not. In a heterozygous individual, where two different alleles are present for a specific gene, the dominant allele will determine the phenotype. On the other hand, in a homozygous individual, where two identical alleles are present, if the dominant allele is present, it will be expressed. Therefore, the correct answer is "Dominant".

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  • 22. 

    _____ gene that is expressed only in the homozygous state.

    • A.

      Alleles

    • B.

      Dominant

    • C.

      Heterozygous

    • D.

      Recessive

    • E.

      Homozygous

    Correct Answer
    D. Recessive
    Explanation
    A recessive gene is one that is only expressed when an individual has two copies of the gene, meaning they are homozygous for that gene. In the case of this question, the correct answer is "Recessive" because it is the only option that fits the description of a gene that is expressed only in the homozygous state.

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  • 23. 

    _____ genotypes made of the same alleles.

    • A.

      Alleles

    • B.

      Dominant

    • C.

      Heterozygous

    • D.

      Homozygous

    • E.

      Recessive

    Correct Answer
    D. Homozygous
    Explanation
    Homozygous genotypes are made of the same alleles. In homozygous individuals, both alleles for a particular trait are identical. This means that if the individual has a homozygous dominant genotype, both alleles are dominant, and if the individual has a homozygous recessive genotype, both alleles are recessive. Homozygous genotypes are often used to determine the inheritance pattern of traits in genetics.

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  • 24. 

    _____ genotypes made of two different alleles.

    • A.

      Alleles

    • B.

      Dominant

    • C.

      Heterozygous

    • D.

      Recessive

    • E.

      Homozygous

    Correct Answer
    C. Heterozygous
    Explanation
    Heterozygous genotypes are made up of two different alleles. In genetics, alleles are alternate forms of a gene that occupy the same position on a chromosome. Heterozygous individuals have two different alleles for a particular gene, one inherited from each parent. This is in contrast to homozygous individuals, who have two identical alleles, and can be either dominant or recessive. Therefore, the correct answer is heterozygous.

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  • 25. 

    Please check any of the genotypes that are homozygous recessive.  (HINT: there are multiple answers for this question.)

    • A.

      Ee

    • B.

      [Ff]

    • C.

      [HH]

    • D.

      [qq]

    • E.

      [Ww]

    • F.

      [jj]

    Correct Answer(s)
    D. [qq]
    F. [jj]
    Explanation
    The given answer states that the genotypes [qq] and [jj] are homozygous recessive. In genetics, homozygous recessive refers to having two copies of the same recessive allele for a particular trait. In this case, the alleles represented by [qq] and [jj] are both recessive, as indicated by the lowercase letters. Therefore, these genotypes are homozygous recessive.

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  • 26. 

    DIHYBRID CROSS:  an aquatic arthropod called a Cyclops has antennae that are either smooth or barbed.  The allele for barbs [B] is dominant over smooth [bb].  Cyclops are non-resistance to pesticides [N] over resistance to pesticides [n]. What is the correct genotype for a male Cyclops that is heterozygous for both traits?

    Correct Answer(s)
    [BbNn]
    BbNn
    Explanation
    The correct genotype for a male Cyclops that is heterozygous for both traits is [BbNn]. This means that the Cyclops has one dominant allele for barbs (B) and one recessive allele for smooth (b), and one dominant allele for non-resistance to pesticides (N) and one recessive allele for resistance to pesticides (n).

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  • 27. 

    A _____ cross is between two individuals that are heterozygous for three different traits.

    • A.

      Monohybrid

    • B.

      Dihybrid

    • C.

      Trihybrid

    • D.

      Tetrahybrid

    • E.

      Octahybrid

    Correct Answer
    C. Trihybrid
    Explanation
    A trihybrid cross is between two individuals that are heterozygous for three different traits. In this type of cross, the parents carry two different alleles for each of the three traits being studied. The cross allows for the examination of the inheritance patterns for all three traits simultaneously, which can provide valuable information about the genetic interactions and ratios of offspring with different combinations of traits.

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  • 28. 

    DIHYBRID CROSS:  an aquatic arthropod called a Cyclops has antennae that are either smooth or barbed.  The allele for barbs [B] is dominant over smooth [bb].  Cyclops are non-resistance to pesticides [N] over resistance to pesticides [n].   What is the four pairs of gametes produced by both male and female aquatic cyclops when mated to form F2 generation offspring?   How many out of 16 have barbed antennae and non-resistance to pesticides?(HINT: please use a number from 0 - 16.)

    Correct Answer
    9
    nine
    Nine
    Explanation
    The correct answer is 9, which represents the number of gametes produced by both male and female aquatic cyclops when mated to form F2 generation offspring. In this dihybrid cross, the male and female cyclops can produce four different types of gametes based on the combination of alleles for antennae and resistance to pesticides. The possible combinations are Bn, Bn, Bn, and Bn. Out of the 16 possible offspring in the F2 generation, 9 will have barbed antennae and non-resistance to pesticides.

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  • 29. 

    DIHYBRID CROSS:  an aquatic arthropod called a Cyclops has antennae that are either smooth or barbed.  The allele for barbs [B] is dominant over smooth [bb].  Cyclops are non-resistance to pesticides [N] over resistance to pesticides [n].   What is the four pairs of gametes produced by both male and female aquatic cyclops when mated to form F2 generation offspring?   How many out of 16 have smooth antennae and resistance to pesticides?(HINT: please use a number from 0 - 16.) 

    Correct Answer
    1
    Explanation
    In a dihybrid cross, the male and female cyclops both have the genotype BbNn. When they mate to form the F2 generation offspring, they can produce four different combinations of alleles in their gametes: BN, Bn, bN, and bn. Out of the 16 possible combinations of alleles in the offspring, only one will have both smooth antennae (bb) and resistance to pesticides (nn). Therefore, the answer is 1.

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