Food And Nutrition 3rd Edition - Chapter 17 Testbank

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Food And Nutrition 3rd Edition - Chapter 17 Testbank - Quiz


The Food and Nutrition testbanks consist of multiple choice questions that test your knowledge of the topics covered in the book. You can use these questions to check your understanding as you read through each chapter, or practise for your exam.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Indispensable amino acids:

    • A.

      Must be supplied by the diet

    • B.

      Do not contain nitrogen

    • C.

      Are used only for protein synthesis

    • D.

      Are often called non-essential amino acids

    • E.

      Include alanine and aspartate

    Correct Answer
    A. Must be supplied by the diet
    Explanation
    Indispensable amino acids are amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the body and therefore must be obtained from the diet. They are essential for the synthesis of proteins in the body. This means that they are required for various biological processes and cannot be substituted by other amino acids. Hence, they must be supplied through the diet to meet the body's needs.

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  • 2. 

    The nitrogen content of 100g of beef is 4.8g. The beef therefore contains approximately ___g of protein.

    • A.

      1g

    • B.

      5g

    • C.

      15g

    • D.

      30g

    • E.

      40g

    Correct Answer
    D. 30g
    Explanation
    Protein is made up of amino acids, and nitrogen is an essential component of amino acids. The nitrogen content of 4.8g in 100g of beef indicates the amount of nitrogen present in the protein. Since approximately 16% of protein is composed of nitrogen, we can calculate the protein content by dividing the nitrogen content by 0.16. Therefore, 4.8g of nitrogen corresponds to approximately 30g of protein in the beef.

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  • 3. 

    A likely example of someone in negative nitrogen balance would be:

    • A.

      A growing child

    • B.

      A pregnant mother

    • C.

      A burns patient

    • D.

      An athlete gaining muscle mass

    • E.

      A vegetarian

    Correct Answer
    C. A burns patient
    Explanation
    A burns patient is a likely example of someone in negative nitrogen balance because burns cause extensive tissue damage, leading to increased protein breakdown and loss. This results in a higher demand for protein to repair and regenerate damaged tissues. However, if the intake of protein is insufficient to meet this demand, the patient will experience a negative nitrogen balance, where the body breaks down more protein than it synthesizes. This can lead to muscle wasting and impaired healing.

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  • 4. 

    Human protein requirements are difficult to determine due to:

    • A.

      Reliance on indirect measurements for determination

    • B.

      Variable requirements of different groups

    • C.

      Variations in the nutritional quality of different foods

    • D.

      Difficulties measuring all vehicles of protein excretion

    • E.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    E. All of the above
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "All of the above". Human protein requirements are difficult to determine because they rely on indirect measurements, such as nitrogen balance studies, which may not accurately reflect actual protein needs. Additionally, different groups of individuals have variable protein requirements based on factors like age, sex, and activity level. Furthermore, the nutritional quality of different foods can vary, making it challenging to determine the specific protein content and its bioavailability. Lastly, measuring all vehicles of protein excretion, such as urine and feces, can be difficult and may lead to inaccuracies in determining protein requirements.

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  • 5. 

    The best recommendation for ensuring adequate protein intake is to:

    • A.

      Eat a variety of foods from all the food groups

    • B.

      Consume 200g of meat every day

    • C.

      Consume at least 4 serves of dairy foods each day

    • D.

      Follow strict food combining guidelines if vegetarian

    • E.

      Combine legumes with cereals

    Correct Answer
    A. Eat a variety of foods from all the food groups
    Explanation
    Eating a variety of foods from all the food groups is the best recommendation for ensuring adequate protein intake because different foods contain different types and amounts of protein. By consuming a variety of foods, individuals can ensure that they are getting a balanced and diverse range of proteins from sources such as meat, dairy, legumes, cereals, and vegetables. This approach helps to ensure that all essential amino acids are obtained and that the body receives a sufficient amount of protein for proper growth and maintenance.

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  • 6. 

    The nutritional quality of dietary proteins depends on:

    • A.

      How closely their indispensable amino acid content matches the requirement of the human body

    • B.

      How closely their dispensable amino acid content matches the requirement of the human body

    • C.

      The digestibility of the protein

    • D.

      A and c

    • E.

      B and c

    Correct Answer
    D. A and c
    Explanation
    The nutritional quality of dietary proteins depends on how closely their indispensable amino acid content matches the requirement of the human body and the digestibility of the protein. Indispensable amino acids are those that the body cannot produce on its own and must be obtained from food. Therefore, if the protein contains a good balance of these essential amino acids, it is considered to have high nutritional quality. Additionally, the digestibility of the protein is important as it determines how efficiently the body can break down and absorb the amino acids from the protein. Therefore, both factors, a and c, contribute to the nutritional quality of dietary proteins.

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  • 7. 

    Cow’s milk has a net protein utilisation value of 81 therefore:

    • A.

      81% of the milk protein is metabolised in the body

    • B.

      81% of the protein is retained by the body

    • C.

      Milk has 20% less protein than egg yolk

    • D.

      80% of the limiting amino acid in milk is retained in the body

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    B. 81% of the protein is retained by the body
    Explanation
    The net protein utilization value of cow's milk is 81, which means that 81% of the milk protein is retained by the body. This indicates that the body is able to effectively use and absorb the protein present in cow's milk, leading to a high retention rate.

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  • 8. 

    The amino acid in shortest supply in relation to human requirement in wheat flour protein is:

    • A.

      Methionine

    • B.

      Phenylalanine

    • C.

      Lysine

    • D.

      Leucine

    • E.

      Valine

    Correct Answer
    C. Lysine
    Explanation
    Lysine is the correct answer because it is an essential amino acid that is necessary for human health but cannot be produced by the body. Wheat flour protein is known to be deficient in lysine, making it the amino acid in shortest supply in relation to human requirement. A deficiency in lysine can lead to impaired growth, weakened immune function, and other health issues.

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  • 9. 

    The amino acid in shortest supply in relation to human requirement in bean protein is:

    • A.

      Methionine

    • B.

      Phenylalanine

    • C.

      Lysine

    • D.

      Leucine

    • E.

      Valine

    Correct Answer
    A. Methionine
    Explanation
    Methionine is the correct answer because it is an essential amino acid that is necessary for protein synthesis in the human body. Beans, although a good source of protein, are often deficient in methionine. This means that the amount of methionine present in bean protein is not sufficient to meet the human requirement. Therefore, if someone relies heavily on bean protein as a source of their dietary protein, they may not be getting enough methionine, which can lead to deficiencies and health problems.

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  • 10. 

    100g of yoghurt provides 370kJ and 4.3g of protein. The proportion of energy contributed by protein is therefore:

    • A.

      15%

    • B.

      20%

    • C.

      25%

    • D.

      30%

    • E.

      35%

    Correct Answer
    B. 20%
    Explanation
    The proportion of energy contributed by protein can be calculated by dividing the energy provided by protein (370kJ) by the total energy (370kJ) and then multiplying by 100. This gives us 100%. Therefore, the proportion of energy contributed by protein is 20%.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following lists three foods or dishes that could each be described as a good quality protein source?

    • A.

      Egg, tossed salad, legumes

    • B.

      Bread and butter, dried beans, meat

    • C.

      Soy milk, chicken, chickpeas

    • D.

      Milk, cheese, mushrooms

    • E.

      Lentils with rice, fish, yoghurt

    Correct Answer
    E. Lentils with rice, fish, yoghurt
    Explanation
    The answer "Lentils with rice, fish, yoghurt" is correct because all three foods mentioned in the answer are good quality protein sources. Lentils and rice together provide a complete protein, as they contain all the essential amino acids. Fish is also a high-quality protein source, as it is rich in essential amino acids and omega-3 fatty acids. Yoghurt is another good protein source, especially Greek yoghurt, as it contains a higher protein content compared to regular yoghurt. Therefore, all three foods mentioned in the answer can be described as good quality protein sources.

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  • 12. 

    To improve the adequacy of protein intake in vegan diets, it is recommended ______ should contribute at least 15% of dietary energy.

    • A.

      Legumes

    • B.

      Leafy green vegetables

    • C.

      Cereals

    • D.

      Dried apricots

    • E.

      Milk

    Correct Answer
    A. Legumes
    Explanation
    Legumes are recommended to improve protein intake in vegan diets because they are a rich source of plant-based protein. They contain essential amino acids that are necessary for the body's protein synthesis. Legumes like lentils, chickpeas, and beans are also high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, making them a nutritious addition to a vegan diet. By including legumes in their meals, vegans can ensure they are meeting their protein needs and maintaining a balanced diet.

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  • 13. 

    It is recommended all females of child bearing age who use vegan diets should take supplements of which nutrient?

    • A.

      Protein

    • B.

      Iron

    • C.

      Calcium

    • D.

      Vitamin B12

    • E.

      Vitamin C

    Correct Answer
    D. Vitamin B12
    Explanation
    Vitamin B12 is essential for the production of red blood cells and the proper functioning of the nervous system. It is primarily found in animal-based foods, making it difficult for vegans to obtain enough of it from their diet alone. Since females of childbearing age are at a higher risk of developing vitamin deficiencies, it is recommended for them to take supplements of vitamin B12 to ensure they meet their nutritional needs and prevent any potential health issues.

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  • 14. 

    A diet which provides this amount of protein should be adequate for 97.5% of the healthy female population:

    • A.

      0.3g/kg/day

    • B.

      0.6g/kg/day

    • C.

      0.75g/kg/day

    • D.

      0.84g/day

    • E.

      35g/day

    Correct Answer
    C. 0.75g/kg/day
    Explanation
    A diet that provides 0.75g of protein per kilogram of body weight per day should be sufficient for 97.5% of healthy females. This means that for every kilogram of body weight, 0.75 grams of protein should be consumed daily. This amount of protein is considered adequate to meet the nutritional needs of the majority of healthy females.

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  • 15. 

    Short term fasts or periods of starvation often result in significant and rapid initial weight loss. This is largely due to:

    • A.

      The use of protein for glucose production and the diuretic effect of ketone production causing loss of muscle mass and water

    • B.

      Fatty acid oxidation and loss of adipose tissue

    • C.

      Gluconeogenesis and metabolic oxidation of carbohydrates to allow loss of fatty tissue

    • D.

      Hormonal changes causing fluid redistribution in the body

    • E.

      None of the above

    Correct Answer
    A. The use of protein for glucose production and the diuretic effect of ketone production causing loss of muscle mass and water
    Explanation
    During short term fasts or periods of starvation, the body starts using protein for glucose production. This means that the body breaks down muscle tissue to obtain glucose, resulting in loss of muscle mass. Additionally, the production of ketones during fasting has a diuretic effect, causing water loss. Therefore, the correct answer is that short term fasts or periods of starvation often result in significant and rapid initial weight loss due to the use of protein for glucose production and the diuretic effect of ketone production causing loss of muscle mass and water.

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 14, 2024
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 13, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Allenandunwin
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