Democracy And Ancient Civilization Final Exam

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Democracy And Ancient Civilization Final Exam - Quiz

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Base your answer to question 1 on the announcement below and on your knowledge of social studies. Which term best describes the items mentioned  in this announcement?

    • A.

      Icons

    • B.

      Fossils

    • C.

      Artifacts

    • D.

      Replicas

    Correct Answer
    C. Artifacts
    Explanation
    The term "artifacts" best describes the items mentioned in the announcement. Artifacts are objects made or used by humans in the past that provide information about their culture, history, and way of life. Icons are typically symbolic representations, fossils are remains of ancient organisms, and replicas are copies of original objects. Therefore, artifacts align most closely with the items mentioned in the announcement.

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  • 2. 

    One way in which South Korea, Saudi Arabia,  and India are geographically similar is that each  is located on

    • A.

      An island

    • B.

      An archipelago

    • C.

      An isthmus

    • D.

      A peninsula

    Correct Answer
    D. A peninsula
    Explanation
    South Korea, Saudi Arabia, and India are geographically similar because each of these countries is located on a peninsula. A peninsula is a landmass that is surrounded by water on three sides, with one side connected to the mainland. In the case of these three countries, they have land that extends into the ocean, creating a peninsula shape. This geographical feature has implications for their climate, access to water resources, and potential for trade and transportation.

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  • 3. 

    Which statement represents a characteristic of democracy?

    • A.

      Religious leaders control government policy

    • B.

      Citizens are the source of power in government

    • C.

      The government limits the thoughts and actions of the people

    • D.

      The laws of the government are made by influential military officers

    Correct Answer
    B. Citizens are the source of power in government
    Explanation
    In a democracy, citizens hold the power and have the ability to participate in the decision-making process of the government. This means that the government is accountable to the people and their interests. It is the citizens who elect their representatives, voice their opinions, and shape the policies and laws of the country. This characteristic distinguishes democracy from other forms of government where power may be held by religious leaders, a ruling elite, or military officers.

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  • 4. 

    The Bantu cleared the land, then fertilized it with ashes. When the land could no longer support their families, the Bantu moved further south. By 1110 B.C., the Bantu had spread their rich culture throughout central and southern Africa.  Which agricultural technique is described in this passage?

    • A.

      Irrigation

    • B.

      Terrace farming

    • C.

      Slash-and-burn

    • D.

      Crop rotation

    Correct Answer
    C. Slash-and-burn
    Explanation
    The agricultural technique described in this passage is slash-and-burn. This is evident from the mention of the Bantu clearing the land and fertilizing it with ashes. Slash-and-burn involves cutting down and burning vegetation to clear land for cultivation, and the ashes from the burned vegetation serve as a natural fertilizer for the soil. This technique is commonly used in areas with nutrient-poor soils and is practiced by many indigenous communities around the world.

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  • 5. 

    Which ancient civilization is associated with the Twelve Tables, an extensive road system, and the poets Horace and Virgil?

    • A.

      Babylonian

    • B.

      Greek

    • C.

      Phoenician

    • D.

      Roman

    Correct Answer
    D. Roman
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Roman because the Twelve Tables were a set of laws that formed the basis of Roman legal system, the extensive road system was built by the Romans to connect their vast empire, and the poets Horace and Virgil were both prominent figures in Roman literature.

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  • 6. 

    The term feudalism is best defined as a

    • A.

      Holy war between Christians and Muslims

    • B.

      Process in which goods are traded for other goods

    • C.

      Division of political power between three separate branches

    • D.

      System in which land is exchanged for military service and loyalty

    Correct Answer
    D. System in which land is exchanged for military service and loyalty
    Explanation
    Feudalism is a system in which land is exchanged for military service and loyalty. This means that individuals, known as vassals, would receive land from a lord in exchange for their commitment to provide military service and loyalty to the lord. This system was prevalent in medieval Europe and allowed for a hierarchical structure where landowners held power and authority over those who worked the land. The exchange of land for military service ensured a mutually beneficial relationship between the lord and vassal, as the vassal would receive protection and support from the lord in return for their service.

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  • 7. 

    Which title best completes the partial outline below? I. ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– A. Incorporation of European and Arabic ideas in architecture B. Preservation of Greco-Roman ideas C. Spread of Orthodox Christianity into Russia D. Development of Justinian Code

    • A.

      Age of Discovery

    • B.

      Byzantine Empire

    • C.

      Persian Empire

    • D.

      Crusades

    Correct Answer
    B. Byzantine Empire
    Explanation
    The best title that completes the partial outline is "Byzantine Empire." This is because the Byzantine Empire is mentioned in the partial outline, and the other options (Incorporation of European and Arabic ideas in architecture, Preservation of Greco-Roman ideas, Spread of Orthodox Christianity into Russia, and Development of Justinian Code) do not match the content of the outline.

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  • 8. 

    Base your answer to question 8 on the illustration below and on your knowledge of social studies Based on the information in this illustration, which statement about the society of ancient Egypt is accurate?

    • A.

      The women had equal status to the men

    • B.

      The social structure was hierarchical

    • C.

      Social mobility was unrestricted

    • D.

      Soldiers outnumbered farmers

    Correct Answer
    B. The social structure was hierarchical
    Explanation
    The illustration provided does not give any specific information about the status of women in ancient Egypt, social mobility, or the number of soldiers compared to farmers. However, the illustration does show different levels of people, with the pharaoh at the top and others below, suggesting a hierarchical social structure. Therefore, the statement "The social structure was hierarchical" is accurate based on the information provided.

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  • 9. 

    Which statement about the Mongol Empire is accurate?

    • A.

      The Mongols developed a highly technological society that emphasized formal education

    • B.

      European monarchies became a model for the early Mongol governments

    • C.

      Pax Mongolia led to regional stability, increasing trade on the Silk Road

    • D.

      The Mongols adopted Roman Catholicism as the official religion of the empire

    Correct Answer
    C. Pax Mongolia led to regional stability, increasing trade on the Silk Road
    Explanation
    During the reign of the Mongol Empire, known as Pax Mongolia, there was a period of regional stability. This stability allowed for an increase in trade along the Silk Road, which was a major trade route connecting Asia and Europe. The Mongols ensured the safety of traders and travelers, which encouraged the flow of goods, ideas, and culture between different regions. This led to economic growth and cultural exchange, benefiting both the Mongol Empire and the regions connected by the Silk Road.

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  • 10. 

    Which period in European history is most closely associated with Leonardo da Vinci, Michaelangelo, William Shakespeare, and Nicolaus Copernicus?

    • A.

      Early Middle Ages

    • B.

      Renaissance

    • C.

      Age of Absolutism

    • D.

      Enlightenment

    Correct Answer
    B. Renaissance
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Renaissance. This period in European history is known for its significant cultural and artistic achievements. Leonardo da Vinci, Michaelangelo, William Shakespeare, and Nicolaus Copernicus were all prominent figures during the Renaissance. Da Vinci and Michaelangelo were renowned artists, Shakespeare was a famous playwright, and Copernicus made significant contributions to astronomy. The Renaissance was a time of great intellectual and artistic flourishing, characterized by a renewed interest in the classical world and a focus on humanism.

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  • 11. 

    What was one of the primary reasons for the spread of the bubonic plague?

    • A.

      increase in trade

    • B.

      Colonization of the Americas

    • C.

      Development of the manorial system

    • D.

      Economic decline

    Correct Answer
    A. increase in trade
    Explanation
    One of the primary reasons for the spread of the bubonic plague was the increase in trade. As trade routes expanded and became more interconnected, the movement of goods and people facilitated the spread of the disease. Infected fleas on rats hitched rides on ships and traveled to new areas, infecting populations that had not previously been exposed to the disease. This rapid spread of the bubonic plague was made possible by the increase in trade during this time period.

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  • 12. 

    Which situation is considered a cause of the other three?

    • A.

      Religious unity declines throughout Europe

    • B.

      The Catholic Counter-Reformation begins

    • C.

      The power of the Roman Catholic Church decreases

    • D.

      Martin Luther posts the Ninety-five Theses

    Correct Answer
    D. Martin Luther posts the Ninety-five Theses
    Explanation
    Martin Luther posting the Ninety-five Theses is considered a cause of the other three situations because it sparked the Protestant Reformation. Luther's actions and teachings challenged the authority and practices of the Roman Catholic Church, leading to religious unity declining throughout Europe, the beginning of the Catholic Counter-Reformation as a response to the Protestant movement, and ultimately the decrease in power of the Roman Catholic Church.

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  • 13. 

    Base your answer to question 13 on the table below and on your knowledge of social studies. Which statement can best be supported by the information in this table?

    • A.

      The population of Paris increased between 1250 and 1450

    • B.

      The populations of Cairo and Nanking were higher in 1250 than in 1450

    • C.

      The population of most large cities exceeded one million people in 1450

    • D.

      The population of Peking increased more than the population of Canton between 1250 and 1450

    Correct Answer
    D. The population of Peking increased more than the population of Canton between 1250 and 1450
    Explanation
    The table provides information about the populations of different cities in 1250 and 1450. By comparing the population figures for Peking and Canton in both years, it can be determined that the population of Peking increased more than the population of Canton between 1250 and 1450.

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  • 14. 

    Base your answer to question 14 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies. It would be wrong to call the Ottoman  Empire a purely Islamic state.  It was  not.  It was a state that claimed some  kind of an attachment, some kind of  allegiance to Islam, but combined it  with other forms of heritage from the  Byzantine tradition or from the Turkic  tradition that did not really correspond  to Islam.  So they always had this very,  very pragmatic approach to Islam. — Professor Edhem Eldem, Bogazici University, NPR News, All Things Considered, August 18, 2004 This author is suggesting that during the Ottoman Empire

    • A.

      Religion was mingled with historic traditions

    • B.

      Most people belonged to minority religions

    • C.

      Rulers tried to separate politics from religion

    • D.

      Rulers operated under a strict set of laws

    Correct Answer
    A. Religion was mingled with historic traditions
    Explanation
    The passage states that the Ottoman Empire claimed an attachment and allegiance to Islam but also incorporated heritage from the Byzantine and Turkic traditions that did not align with Islam. This suggests that religion was mixed with historic traditions in the empire.

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  • 15. 

    • Foreign rulers were overthrown.  • Admiral Zheng He established trade links.  • Civil service exams were reinstated.   These events in history occurred during the rule of the

    • A.

      Mughal dynasty in India

    • B.

      Abbasid dynasty in the Middle East

    • C.

      Ming dynasty in China

    • D.

      Tokugawa shogunate in Japan

    Correct Answer
    C. Ming dynasty in China
    Explanation
    During the rule of the Ming dynasty in China, foreign rulers were overthrown, Admiral Zheng He established trade links, and civil service exams were reinstated. This suggests that these events occurred in China during the Ming dynasty.

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  • 16. 

    What was the primary economic policy used by the Spanish with their Latin American colonies?

    • A.

      Embargoes

    • B.

      tariffs

    • C.

      Boycotts

    • D.

      Mercantilism

    Correct Answer
    D. Mercantilism
    Explanation
    The primary economic policy used by the Spanish with their Latin American colonies was mercantilism. Mercantilism is an economic system in which a country's wealth and power is based on accumulating precious metals, such as gold and silver, through a favorable balance of trade. The Spanish implemented strict regulations and monopolies on trade with their colonies in order to extract as much wealth as possible and maintain control over the economic activities in the colonies. This policy allowed Spain to exploit the resources and labor of Latin America for their own benefit.

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  • 17. 

    In  Two Treatises of Government, John Locke  wrote that the purpose of government was to

    • A.

      Keep kings in power

    • B.

      Regulate the economy

    • C.

      Expand territory

    • D.

      Protect natural rights

    Correct Answer
    D. Protect natural rights
    Explanation
    John Locke, in his book "Two Treatises of Government," argued that the purpose of government is to protect the natural rights of its citizens. He believed that individuals have inherent rights to life, liberty, and property, and that governments are established to secure and uphold these rights. This perspective emphasizes the importance of limited government and the consent of the governed, as the primary role of the government is to safeguard the fundamental rights of its people.

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  • 18. 

    Base your answer to question 18 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies. Which generalization is best supported by the information on this map?

    • A.

      No trade occurred between East Africa and the Persian Gulf region

    • B.

      The monsoon winds influenced trade between East Africa and India.

    • C.

      Trading states developed primarily in the interior of East Africa

    • D.

      Trade encouraged the spread of Islam from East Africa to Arabia

    Correct Answer
    B. The monsoon winds influenced trade between East Africa and India.
    Explanation
    The map shows the direction of the monsoon winds, which played a significant role in shaping trade routes in the Indian Ocean. The monsoon winds blow from the southwest during the summer months, allowing ships to sail from East Africa to India. This facilitated trade between the two regions, as the winds made it easier and faster for ships to travel. Therefore, the best-supported generalization is that the monsoon winds influenced trade between East Africa and India.

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  • 19. 

    Base your answer to question 19 on the summaries of the “New Laws” quoted below and on your knowledge of social studies. . . . Art. 31. All Indians held in encomienda by  the viceroys, by their lieutenants, royal officers,  prelates, monasteries, hospitals, religious houses,  mints, the treasury, etc., are to be transferred  forthwith to the Crown. . . .  Art. 38. Lawsuits involving Indians are no longer  to be tried in the Indies, or by the Council of  the Indies, but must be pleaded before the King  himself. . . . — New Laws issued by Emperor Charles V, 1542–1543 One purpose of these laws was to

    • A.

      Reduce local authority and increase central control

    • B.

      Increase religious authority and limit secular influences

    • C.

      Guarantee citizenship to Indians while supporting traditional practices

    • D.

      Promote economic development while expanding political rights for Indians

    Correct Answer
    A. Reduce local authority and increase central control
    Explanation
    The New Laws issued by Emperor Charles V in 1542-1543 aimed to reduce local authority and increase central control. This can be inferred from the provision in Article 31 that transferred all Indians held in encomienda to the Crown, indicating a shift of power from local authorities to the central government. Additionally, Article 38 stated that lawsuits involving Indians were no longer to be tried in the Indies or by the Council of the Indies, but instead had to be pleaded before the King himself, further centralizing control over legal matters.

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  • 20. 

    One major effect of Napoleon’s rule of France was that it led to

    • A.

      An increase in the power of the Roman Catholic Church

    • B.

      Massive emigration to the Americas

    • C.

      Trade agreements with Great Britain

    • D.

      A restoration of political stability

    Correct Answer
    D. A restoration of political stability
    Explanation
    Napoleon's rule of France brought about a restoration of political stability. This is because Napoleon implemented various reforms and centralized power, which helped to stabilize the government and bring an end to the chaos and instability that had plagued France during the French Revolution. He also established the Napoleonic Code, which provided a uniform set of laws and helped to restore order and stability in the country. Additionally, Napoleon's military successes and strong leadership helped to consolidate his power and bring about a period of relative stability in France.

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  • 21. 

    Which idea is most closely associated with laissezfaire economics?

    • A.

      Communes

    • B.

      Trade unionism

    • C.

      Subsistence agriculture

    • D.

      Free trade

    Correct Answer
    D. Free trade
    Explanation
    Laissez-faire economics is a concept that advocates for minimal government intervention in the economy. It promotes the idea that the market should be allowed to operate freely without restrictions or regulations. Free trade aligns with this ideology as it emphasizes the removal of barriers and restrictions on international trade, allowing goods and services to flow freely between countries without government interference. This promotes competition, efficiency, and economic growth, which are key principles of laissez-faire economics.

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  • 22. 

    In the 19th century, a major reason for Irish migration to North America was to

    • A.

      Gain universal suffrage

    • B.

      Avoid malaria outbreaks

    • C.

      Flee widespread famine

    • D.

      Escape a civil war

    Correct Answer
    C. Flee widespread famine
    Explanation
    In the 19th century, Ireland experienced a devastating famine known as the Great Famine or the Irish Potato Famine. This famine was caused by a potato blight that destroyed the main food source for the Irish population, leading to widespread starvation and death. As a result, many Irish people were forced to migrate to North America in order to escape the famine and seek better opportunities for survival. The famine was a major push factor for Irish migration during this time period.

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  • 23. 

    A major goal of both the Sepoy Mutiny in India and the Boxer Rebellion in China was to

    • A.

      Rid their countries of foreigners

    • B.

      Expand their respective territories

    • C.

      Receive international military support

    • D.

      Restore an absolute monarch to the throne

    Correct Answer
    A. Rid their countries of foreigners
    Explanation
    The major goal of both the Sepoy Mutiny in India and the Boxer Rebellion in China was to rid their countries of foreigners. Both movements were fueled by a strong sense of nationalism and a desire to regain control over their own territories. The Sepoy Mutiny was a revolt against the British East India Company's rule in India, while the Boxer Rebellion was a response to the presence and influence of foreign powers in China. Both movements sought to expel the foreigners and restore sovereignty to their respective countries.

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  • 24. 

    Early exploration of Africa by Europeans was hindered by the

    • A.

      Lack of natural resources in Africa

    • B.

      Alliances between African kingdoms

    • C.

      Isolationist policies of European monarchs

    • D.

      Many different physical features of Africa

    Correct Answer
    D. Many different physical features of Africa
    Explanation
    The correct answer is many different physical features of Africa. The early exploration of Africa by Europeans was hindered by the presence of various physical features such as deserts, dense forests, and impassable rivers. These geographical barriers made it difficult for Europeans to navigate and explore the continent, as they faced challenges in terms of transportation, communication, and access to resources. Additionally, unfamiliar diseases and hostile wildlife also posed threats to explorers, further hindering their progress.

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  • 25. 

    Which action taken by the Meiji government encouraged industrialization in 19th-century Japan?

    • A.

      Building a modern transportation system

    • B.

      Limiting the number of ports open to foreign trade

    • C.

      forcing families to settle on collective farm

    • D.

      Establishing a system of trade guilds

    Correct Answer
    A. Building a modern transportation system
    Explanation
    The Meiji government encouraged industrialization in 19th-century Japan by building a modern transportation system. This infrastructure development allowed for the efficient movement of goods and people, which in turn facilitated the growth of industries and trade. By improving transportation networks, the government was able to connect different regions of Japan and promote economic development, leading to the modernization and industrialization of the country.

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  • 26. 

    One goal of the League of Nations was to

    • A.

      Promote peaceful relations worldwide

    • B.

      Stimulate the economy of Europe

    • C.

      Bring World War I to an end

    • D.

      Encourage a strong alliance system

    Correct Answer
    A. Promote peaceful relations worldwide
    Explanation
    The League of Nations was established after World War I with the aim of promoting peaceful relations worldwide. It sought to prevent conflicts and resolve disputes through diplomacy and collective security. The organization aimed to create a platform for nations to come together, discuss their issues, and find peaceful solutions. By fostering cooperation and dialogue, the League of Nations aimed to prevent future wars and maintain global stability.

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  • 27. 

    • Five-year plans  • Collectivization of agriculture  • Great Purge Which individual is associated with all these policies?

    • A.

      Adolf Hitler

    • B.

      Joseph Stalin

    • C.

      Deng Xiaoping

    • D.

      Jawaharlal Nehru

    Correct Answer
    B. Joseph Stalin
    Explanation
    Joseph Stalin is associated with all these policies. The five-year plans were economic plans implemented by Stalin in the Soviet Union to rapidly industrialize the country. Collectivization of agriculture was a policy implemented by Stalin to consolidate individual farms into collective farms, which resulted in the state taking control of agricultural production. The Great Purge was a period of political repression in the Soviet Union during which Stalin eliminated perceived threats to his power through mass arrests, executions, and forced labor. Adolf Hitler, Deng Xiaoping, and Jawaharlal Nehru were not associated with all these policies.

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  • 28. 

    Japan’s invasion of Manchuria, Italy’s attack on Ethiopia, and Germany’s blitzkrieg in Poland are examples of

    • A.

      Military aggression

    • B.

      Appeasement

    • C.

      Containment

    • D.

      The domino theory

    Correct Answer
    A. Military aggression
    Explanation
    The given correct answer is "military aggression." This is because Japan's invasion of Manchuria, Italy's attack on Ethiopia, and Germany's blitzkrieg in Poland all involved the use of military force to gain territory or exert control over other nations. These actions were aggressive in nature and violated the principles of international law and sovereignty.

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  • 29. 

    Which statement about the worldwide Depression of the 1930s is a fact rather than an opinion?

    • A.

      Political leaders should have prevented the Depression

    • B.

      Germany was hurt more by the Treaty of Versailles than by the Depression

    • C.

      The economic upheaval of the Depression had major political effects

    • D.

      World War I was the only reason for the Depression

    Correct Answer
    C. The economic upheaval of the Depression had major political effects
    Explanation
    The statement "The economic upheaval of the Depression had major political effects" is a fact rather than an opinion because it can be objectively supported by historical evidence and data. It acknowledges the cause-and-effect relationship between the economic crisis of the Depression and its impact on political systems and policies.

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  • 30. 

    Which group was accused of violating human rights in the city of Nanjing during World War II?

    • A.

      Americans

    • B.

      Chinese

    • C.

      Japanese

    • D.

      Germans

    Correct Answer
    C. Japanese
    Explanation
    During World War II, the group accused of violating human rights in the city of Nanjing was the Japanese. The Japanese army invaded Nanjing in 1937 and committed numerous atrocities, including mass killings, rape, looting, and destruction of property. This event, known as the Nanjing Massacre, resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians and soldiers, and is considered one of the darkest chapters in modern history.

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  • 31. 

    One way in which the Hitler Youth of Germany and the Red Guard of China are similar is that both organizations

    • A.

      Required unquestioning loyalty to the leader

    • B.

      Helped increase religious tolerance

    • C.

      Hindered imperialistic goals

    • D.

      Led pro-democracy movements

    Correct Answer
    A. Required unquestioning loyalty to the leader
    Explanation
    Both the Hitler Youth of Germany and the Red Guard of China required unquestioning loyalty to the leader. This means that members of both organizations were expected to show complete obedience and devotion to their respective leaders without questioning their authority or decisions. This requirement of loyalty was a key aspect of both organizations and played a significant role in their functioning and influence.

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  • 32. 

    • French intent to recolonize Indo-China after World War II  • United States desire to prevent the spread of communism  • United States support for the French in Southeast Asia  These ideas are most closely associated with the

    • A.

      Causes of the conflict in Vietnam

    • B.

      Reasons for the Nationalist settlement of Taiwan

    • C.

      Factors that led to the Korean War

    • D.

      Results of the Marshall Plan

    Correct Answer
    A. Causes of the conflict in Vietnam
    Explanation
    The ideas of French intent to recolonize Indo-China after World War II, United States desire to prevent the spread of communism, and United States support for the French in Southeast Asia are all factors that contributed to the causes of the conflict in Vietnam. These factors played a significant role in the escalation of the conflict between North and South Vietnam, leading to the Vietnam War.

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  • 33. 

    Which country is most closely associated with the terms pass laws, homelands, and white minority rule?

    • A.

      El Salvador

    • B.

      South Africa

    • C.

      Iran

    • D.

      Israel

    Correct Answer
    B. South Africa
    Explanation
    The terms "pass laws," "homelands," and "white minority rule" are all closely associated with South Africa. Pass laws were a system of segregation and control that restricted the movement of non-white individuals, homelands were designated areas where black South Africans were forced to live, and white minority rule refers to the period of apartheid when the white minority government held power and enforced discriminatory policies against non-white citizens. Therefore, South Africa is the country most closely associated with these terms.

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  • 34. 

    Base your answer to question 34 on the photograph below and on your knowledge of social studies. During the Indian independence movement, the activity shown in this photograph inspired the Indian people to

    • A.

      Stop buying British goods

    • B.

      Reject Muslim rule

    • C.

      Join the Indian army

    • D.

      Expand British textile manufacturing

    Correct Answer
    A. Stop buying British goods
    Explanation
    The photograph likely depicts a protest or demonstration during the Indian independence movement. This type of activity would have encouraged Indian people to stop buying British goods as a form of economic resistance against British colonial rule. By boycotting British products, Indians hoped to weaken the economic power of the British and demonstrate their desire for independence. This strategy was a key component of the nonviolent resistance tactics used during the independence movement.

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  • 35. 

    Base your answers to questions 35 and 36 on the passage below and on your knowledge of social studies. . . . (1) Internally, arouse the masses of the people. That is, unite the working class, the peasantry,  the urban petty bourgeoisie and the national bourgeoisie, form a domestic united front under the  leadership of the working class, and advance from this to the establishment of a state which is a  people’s democratic dictatorship under the leadership of the working class and based on the alliance  of workers and peasants.    (2) Externally, unite in a common struggle with those nations of the world which treat us as  equals and unite with the peoples of all countries. That is, ally ourselves with the Soviet Union, with  the People’s Democracies and with the proletariat and the broad masses of the people in all other  countries, and form an international united front. . . . In this passage, Mao Zedong is suggesting that China

    • A.

      Create a government under the leadership of industrialists

    • B.

      Give up its independence and become a part of the Soviet Union

    • C.

      Rely on the United Nations for economic aid

    • D.

      Join with the Soviet Union as a partner in communism

    Correct Answer
    D. Join with the Soviet Union as a partner in communism
    Explanation
    The passage states that China should "ally ourselves with the Soviet Union" and "form an international united front." This suggests that Mao Zedong is advocating for China to join with the Soviet Union as a partner in communism, indicating a close alliance and cooperation between the two countries.

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  • 36. 

    In this passage, Mao Zedong is using the ideas of

    • A.

      Thomas Malthus

    • B.

      Adam Smith

    • C.

      Karl Marx

    • D.

      Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-Shek)

    Correct Answer
    C. Karl Marx
    Explanation
    In this passage, Mao Zedong is using the ideas of Karl Marx. This can be inferred from the fact that Karl Marx's ideas are closely associated with communism, which is the ideology that Mao Zedong followed. Additionally, Mao Zedong often referenced Marxist principles in his speeches and writings, advocating for the overthrow of the bourgeoisie and the establishment of a classless society. Therefore, it is logical to conclude that Mao Zedong was influenced by Karl Marx's ideas in this passage.

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  • 37. 

    Base your answer to question 37 on the time line below and on your knowledge of social studies. Which conclusion can be drawn from this time line?

    • A.

      Israel withdrew from the Camp David Accords.

    • B.

      The Palestinian army is superior to the Israeli army

    • C.

      Long-lasting peace in the Middle East has been difficult to achieve.

    • D.

      Neighboring countries have not been involved in the Arab-Israeli conflict.

    Correct Answer
    C. Long-lasting peace in the Middle East has been difficult to achieve.
    Explanation
    The conclusion that can be drawn from this time line is that long-lasting peace in the Middle East has been difficult to achieve. This conclusion can be made based on the fact that Israel withdrew from the Camp David Accords, indicating a lack of progress in achieving peace. Additionally, the time line does not provide any information about the relative strength of the Israeli and Palestinian armies or the involvement of neighboring countries, so these conclusions cannot be drawn from the given information.

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  • 38. 

    The destruction of the Berlin Wall and the breakup of the Soviet Union signify the

    • A.

      End of the Cold War

    • B.

      Collapse of the Taliban

    • C.

      Strength of the Warsaw Pact

    • D.

      Power of the European Union

    Correct Answer
    A. End of the Cold War
    Explanation
    The destruction of the Berlin Wall and the breakup of the Soviet Union were significant events that marked the end of the Cold War. The Cold War was a period of political tension and military rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the collapse of the Soviet Union and the fall of the Berlin Wall symbolized the end of this era. These events represented the victory of Western democratic ideals and capitalism over Soviet communism, leading to a shift in global power dynamics and the reconfiguration of international relations.

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  • 39. 

    In the 20th century, urbanization affected the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America by

    • A.

      Reducing literacy rates

    • B.

      Weakening traditional values

    • C.

      Strengthening caste systems

    • D.

      Increasing the isolation of women

    Correct Answer
    B. Weakening traditional values
    Explanation
    Urbanization in the developing nations of Africa, Asia, and Latin America weakened traditional values. As people migrated from rural areas to cities, they were exposed to different cultures, lifestyles, and ideas. This exposure led to a shift away from traditional customs and beliefs, as individuals embraced new ways of living. The rapid pace of urbanization also disrupted social structures and community ties, further eroding traditional values. Overall, urbanization brought about significant social and cultural changes, leading to the weakening of traditional values in these regions.

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  • 40. 

    Which statement about the impact of the AIDS epidemic in both Africa and Southeast Asia is most accurate?

    • A.

      Life expectancy in both regions is declining.

    • B.

      The availability of low-cost drugs has cured most of those infected.

    • C.

      The introduction of awareness programs has eliminated the threat of the disease.

    • D.

      Newborn babies and young children have not been affected by the disease.

    Correct Answer
    A. Life expectancy in both regions is declining.
    Explanation
    Life expectancy in both Africa and Southeast Asia is declining due to the impact of the AIDS epidemic. This suggests that the disease has had a significant negative impact on the overall health and well-being of the populations in these regions. The other options, such as the availability of low-cost drugs curing most of those infected or the introduction of awareness programs eliminating the threat of the disease, are not supported by the information given. Additionally, the statement that newborn babies and young children have not been affected by the disease is contradicted by the fact that life expectancy is declining in both regions.

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  • 41. 

    In August 1990, Iraq invaded Kuwait. The United Nations response led to the Persian Gulf War of 1991.  This response is an example of

    • A.

      détente

    • B.

      Empire building

    • C.

      Totalitarianism

    • D.

      Collective security

    Correct Answer
    D. Collective security
    Explanation
    The United Nations response to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990, which led to the Persian Gulf War in 1991, is an example of collective security. Collective security is a principle in international relations that states that nations should act together to prevent aggression and maintain peace. In this case, the United Nations mobilized a coalition of countries to oppose and ultimately remove Iraq from Kuwait, demonstrating the collective effort to ensure the security and stability of the region.

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  • 42. 

    One similarity between the Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire is that both

    • A.

      Reached their height of power at the same time

    • B.

      Developed parliamentary governments

    • C.

      Ensured equality for women

    • D.

      Declined because of corruption in government

    Correct Answer
    D. Declined because of corruption in government
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "declined because of corruption in government." Both the Roman Empire and the Ottoman Empire experienced a decline in power and influence due to corruption within their respective governments. In the Roman Empire, corruption and political instability weakened the central authority and contributed to its eventual downfall. Similarly, the Ottoman Empire faced corruption and mismanagement, which led to financial difficulties and loss of territories. These internal issues ultimately played a significant role in the decline of both empires.

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  • 43. 

    Which statement regarding the impact of geography on Japan is most accurate?

    • A.

      Large plains served as invasion routes for conquerors.

    • B.

      Arid deserts and mountains caused isolation from Asia.

    • C.

      Lack of natural resources led to a policy of imperialism.

    • D.

      Close proximity to Africa encouraged extensive trade with Egypt.

    Correct Answer
    C. Lack of natural resources led to a policy of imperialism.
  • 44. 

    Base your answer to question 44 on the map below and on your knowledge of social studies. Which revolution led to the development of these civilizations?

    • A.

      Industrial

    • B.

      Neolithic

    • C.

      Green

    • D.

      Commercial

    Correct Answer
    B. Neolithic
    Explanation
    The correct answer is Neolithic. The map provided shows the locations of various civilizations, which were developed during the Neolithic revolution. The Neolithic revolution was a period of transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture and settlement, which led to the development of permanent settlements and the rise of early civilizations. This revolution marked a significant shift in human society and laid the foundation for the development of agriculture, domestication of animals, and the establishment of complex social structures.

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  • 45. 

    The Age of Exploration led directly to the

    • A.

      Establishment of European colonies

    • B.

      Start of the Puritan Revolution

    • C.

      Invention of the magnetic compass

    • D.

      Failure of the Congress of Vienna

    Correct Answer
    A. Establishment of European colonies
    Explanation
    During the Age of Exploration, European explorers ventured out to discover new lands and establish colonies. They sought to expand their empires, exploit resources, and gain wealth and power. This period marked a significant shift in European history as it led to the establishment of European colonies in various parts of the world, such as the Americas, Africa, and Asia. These colonies became important economic and political entities for the colonizing nations, shaping the course of history and international relations.

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  • 46. 

    Which revolution was caused by the factors shown in this partial outline? I. ______________________________ A. Bankruptcy of the treasury B. Tax burden on the Third Estate C. Inflation D. Abuses of the Old Regime  

    • A.

      Russian

    • B.

      Mexican

    • C.

      French

    • D.

      Cuban

    Correct Answer
    C. French
    Explanation
    The factors mentioned in the outline, such as bankruptcy of the treasury, tax burden on the Third Estate, inflation, and abuses of the Old Regime, are all indicative of the causes that led to the French Revolution. These factors contributed to widespread discontent among the French population, particularly the Third Estate, leading to revolutionary sentiments and eventually the overthrow of the monarchy.

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  • 47. 

    One way in which José de San Martín, Camillo Cavour, and Jomo Kenyatta are similar is that each leader

    • A.

      Made significant scientific discoveries

    • B.

      Led nationalist movements

    • C.

      fought against British imperialism

    • D.

      Became a communist revolutionary

    Correct Answer
    B. Led nationalist movements
    Explanation
    José de San Martín, Camillo Cavour, and Jomo Kenyatta are similar in that they all led nationalist movements. Nationalism refers to the ideology and political movement that aims to protect and promote the interests of a particular nation or group of people. These leaders played crucial roles in advocating for the independence and sovereignty of their respective nations. José de San Martín led the nationalist movements in South America, particularly in Argentina and Peru. Camillo Cavour was a key figure in the Italian unification movement, working towards the establishment of a unified Italian state. Jomo Kenyatta led the nationalist movement in Kenya, fighting for independence from British colonial rule.

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  • 48. 

    One way in which Vladimir Lenin’s New Economic Policy and Mikhail Gorbachev’s policy of perestroika are similar is that both

    • A.

      Allowed elements of capitalism within a communist economic system

    • B.

      strengthened their country’s military defenses

    • C.

      Supported censorship of news and of personal correspondence

    • D.

      Increased tensions during the Cold War

    Correct Answer
    A. Allowed elements of capitalism within a communist economic system
    Explanation
    Both Vladimir Lenin's New Economic Policy and Mikhail Gorbachev's policy of perestroika allowed elements of capitalism within a communist economic system. This means that they introduced market-oriented reforms and allowed for private ownership and entrepreneurship alongside state control. These policies aimed to improve the efficiency and productivity of the economy by incorporating market mechanisms while still maintaining the overall socialist framework. By allowing elements of capitalism, both leaders sought to address the economic challenges faced by their respective countries and promote economic growth.

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  • 49. 

    Which set of events in 19th- and 20th-century Chinese history is in the correct chronological order?

    • A.

      Great Leap Forward → Opium Wars →Long March → Four Modernizations

    • B.

      Four Modernizations → Long March →Opium Wars → Great Leap Forward

    • C.

      Opium Wars → Long March →Great Leap Forward → Four Modernizations

    • D.

      Long March → Four Modernizations →Great Leap Forward → Opium Wars

    Correct Answer
    C. Opium Wars → Long March →Great Leap Forward → Four Modernizations
    Explanation
    The Opium Wars occurred in the mid-19th century and were followed by the Long March in the 1930s. The Great Leap Forward took place in the late 1950s and the Four Modernizations were implemented in the late 1970s. Therefore, the correct chronological order is Opium Wars → Long March → Great Leap Forward → Four Modernizations.

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  • 50. 

    A study of Spain during the late 1400s, the Balkan States during the early 1900s, Rwanda during the 1990s, and Central Asia today shows that

    • A.

      civil disobedience is an effective way to bring about change

    • B.

      people have been encouraged to question tradition

    • C.

      Colonial rule has a lasting legacy

    • D.

      Ethnic conflicts have been a recurring issue in history

    Correct Answer
    D. Ethnic conflicts have been a recurring issue in history
    Explanation
    The given correct answer suggests that ethnic conflicts have been a recurring issue in history. This conclusion is drawn from studying Spain during the late 1400s, the Balkan States during the early 1900s, Rwanda during the 1990s, and Central Asia today. These examples likely demonstrate instances where ethnic conflicts have occurred, highlighting the recurring nature of such conflicts throughout history.

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