ERS 108 1st Exam

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ERS 108 1st Exam - Quiz


Short quiz for Beaches and Coasts Exam.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    Water for earth's oceans probably came (ultimately) from: 

    • A.

      The sun

    • B.

      The moon

    • C.

      Comets

    • D.

      Anotehr galaxy

    Correct Answer
    C. Comets
    Explanation
    Comets are made up of ice and dust, and they originate from the outer regions of the solar system. As they approach the sun, the heat causes the ice to melt and release water vapor. Some of this water vapor could have reached Earth's oceans over billions of years through collisions and impacts with comets. Therefore, comets are a likely source of water for Earth's oceans.

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  • 2. 

    Compared to the U.S. West Coast, the coastal zone on the U.S. East Coast Is:

    • A.

      Very narrow

    • B.

      Much rocker

    • C.

      Very wide

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Very wide
    Explanation
    The correct answer is "very wide". This means that the coastal zone on the U.S. East Coast is significantly broader in comparison to the U.S. West Coast. The East Coast is known for its expansive and wide coastal areas, with long stretches of beaches and coastal plains.

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  • 3. 

    The most globally applicable classification of coastal environments is based on:

    • A.

      Plate tectonic setting

    • B.

      Age of shoreline

    • C.

      Relative sea level change

    • D.

      Maturity of coast

    • E.

      Presence of absence of beaches.

    Correct Answer
    A. Plate tectonic setting
    Explanation
    The most globally applicable classification of coastal environments is based on plate tectonic setting. This is because plate tectonics play a significant role in shaping the characteristics of coastal areas. Different tectonic settings, such as convergent, divergent, and transform boundaries, result in distinct landforms and geological processes along the coast. For example, convergent boundaries can lead to the formation of coastal mountains and volcanic activity, while divergent boundaries can create rift valleys and underwater ridges. Understanding the plate tectonic setting helps in identifying and studying the unique features and processes of coastal environments worldwide.

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  • 4. 

    Collision coasts are best characterized by:

    • A.

      Seacliffs

    • B.

      Muddy bluffs

    • C.

      Barrier islands

    • D.

      Deltas

    • E.

      Estuaries

    Correct Answer
    A. Seacliffs
    Explanation
    Collision coasts are best characterized by seacliffs. Collision coasts are formed when two tectonic plates collide, causing uplift and the formation of steep cliffs along the coast. These cliffs are typically made of hard rock and are often eroded by the action of waves, creating a dramatic and rugged coastline. Muddy bluffs, barrier islands, deltas, and estuaries are not typically associated with collision coasts.

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  • 5. 

    A fjord typically has circulation that is:

    • A.

      Well mixed

    • B.

      Partly mixed

    • C.

      Reverse estuarine

    • D.

      Well stratified

    • E.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    D. Well stratified
    Explanation
    A fjord typically has well stratified circulation. This means that the water in a fjord is organized into distinct layers or strata based on temperature and salinity. The surface layer, known as the epilimnion, is warmer and less dense, while the deeper layer, known as the hypolimnion, is colder and more dense. These layers do not mix easily, resulting in a stratified circulation pattern in the fjord.

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  • 6. 

    An important component of river detla upbuilding involves?

    • A.

      Flooding

    • B.

      Subsidence

    • C.

      Mudlumps

    • D.

      Compaction

    • E.

      Isostasy

    Correct Answer
    A. Flooding
    Explanation
    Flooding is an important component of river delta upbuilding because it brings sediment-rich water to the delta, depositing sediments and building up the land. When a river floods, it overflows its banks and spreads out across the delta, carrying with it fine sediments that settle out as the water slows down. Over time, these sediment deposits accumulate and contribute to the growth of the delta. Flooding also helps to maintain the dynamic nature of the delta, as it redistributes sediments and shapes the landforms.

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  • 7. 

    The easiest rock type for waves to erode is generally: 

    • A.

      An igneous rock

    • B.

      A sedimentary rock

    • C.

      A metamorphic rock

    • D.

      They are equally easy to erode

    Correct Answer
    B. A sedimentary rock
    Explanation
    Sedimentary rocks are formed through the accumulation of sediments, which are often loose and unconsolidated. These rocks have a layered structure and are made up of various particles such as sand, silt, and clay. Due to their loose nature, sedimentary rocks are generally easier for waves to erode compared to igneous or metamorphic rocks, which are usually more compact and resistant to erosion.

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  • 8. 

    Freeze/thaw action erodes rocks most rapidly: 

    • A.

      Below low tide

    • B.

      Above high tide

    • C.

      In tropical areas

    • D.

      In arctic areas

    Correct Answer
    B. Above high tide
    Explanation
    Freeze/thaw action refers to the process where water seeps into cracks and crevices in rocks, freezes, and expands, causing the rock to break apart. This process is most effective in areas where there are frequent freeze-thaw cycles. Above high tide, the rocks are exposed to the elements and are more likely to experience these cycles, as they are not constantly submerged in water. In contrast, below low tide, the rocks are consistently submerged and do not experience the same freeze-thaw action. Therefore, above high tide is the correct answer as it explains why freeze/thaw action erodes rocks most rapidly.

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  • 9. 

    How might a homeowner on an eroding bluff best reduce the rate of erosion:

    • A.

      Cut down trees in the area

    • B.

      Throw palnt debris on the bluff face

    • C.

      Harden the bluff face by riding an ATV up and down it

    • D.

      Draining water from the ground near the bluff

    • E.

      Watering teh bluff top lawn more

    Correct Answer
    D. Draining water from the ground near the bluff
    Explanation
    Draining water from the ground near the bluff is the best way for a homeowner to reduce the rate of erosion on an eroding bluff. Excess water can weaken the soil and contribute to erosion, so by draining the water, the homeowner can prevent further erosion. Cutting down trees in the area may actually increase erosion as trees help stabilize the soil. Throwing plant debris on the bluff face and riding an ATV up and down it would likely cause more damage and erosion. Watering the bluff top lawn more may not be effective in reducing erosion.

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  • 10. 

    What would be the consequence of arming the Sandy Point bluff:

    • A.

      Beach erosion

    • B.

      Marsh erosion

    • C.

      No consequence

    • D.

      Water contamination

    Correct Answer
    A. Beach erosion
    Explanation
    Arming the Sandy Point bluff would lead to beach erosion. This means that the process of arming the bluff would cause the beach to lose sand and gradually decrease in size. The erosion would occur as a result of the natural forces, such as wind and water, acting on the bluff. Over time, this could potentially have negative impacts on the coastal ecosystem and recreational activities that rely on the beach.

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  • 11. 

    Wave action most effectively erodes sea cliffs:

    • A.

      Below low tide

    • B.

      At the mid-tide elevation

    • C.

      At or just above the high tide elevation

    • D.

      High above the high tide elevation

    Correct Answer
    C. At or just above the high tide elevation
    Explanation
    Wave action most effectively erodes sea cliffs at or just above the high tide elevation. This is because waves are strongest and have the greatest impact during high tide. As the waves crash against the cliff face, they exert a powerful force that can gradually wear away and erode the rock. The constant cycle of waves reaching this elevation and then receding allows for continuous erosion to occur, leading to the gradual retreat of the sea cliff over time.

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  • 12. 

    Under Maine's Shoreland Zoning Law, bluffs with houses on them: 

    • A.

      Cannot be protected with armor

    • B.

      Cannot be cleared of all vegetation

    • C.

      Cannot be walked on

    • D.

      Cannot be owned

    • E.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    B. Cannot be cleared of all vegetation
    Explanation
    Under Maine's Shoreland Zoning Law, bluffs with houses on them cannot be cleared of all vegetation. This means that homeowners are not allowed to remove or clear all vegetation from the bluffs. This regulation is likely in place to protect the natural environment and prevent erosion. By prohibiting the clearing of vegetation, the law aims to maintain the stability and integrity of the bluffs and prevent any potential damage that could be caused by removing vegetation.

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  • 13. 

    The most likely coastal environment to form as a result of glacial till erosion on an open coast is a:

    • A.

      Salt marsh

    • B.

      Tidal flat

    • C.

      Sea cliff

    • D.

      Beach

    Correct Answer
    D. Beach
    Explanation
    Glacial till erosion occurs when glaciers grind rocks into fine sediment, which is then deposited along the coast. This sediment is typically composed of sand, gravel, and small rocks. As a result, the most likely coastal environment to form from glacial till erosion is a beach. Beaches are formed by the deposition of sediment brought in by waves and currents, and the coarse nature of glacial till makes it ideal for beach formation.

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  • 14. 

    The coast of Rockland, Maine is geologically best known for its: 

    • A.

      Landslides

    • B.

      Sea cliffs

    • C.

      Sea caves

    • D.

      Sea arches

    • E.

      Sea stacks

    Correct Answer
    A. Landslides
    Explanation
    The coast of Rockland, Maine is geologically best known for its landslides. This means that the area experiences frequent and significant movement of rock and soil down the slopes towards the sea. Landslides can occur due to various factors such as erosion, weathering, and unstable geological formations. The presence of landslides in Rockland, Maine suggests that the coastal area is susceptible to geological instability, which can have significant impacts on the local environment and infrastructure.

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  • 15. 

    Douglas Johnson's classification of coasts was based on:

    • A.

      The age of the coast

    • B.

      The tectonic setting of the coast

    • C.

      The relative maturity of the shore

    • D.

      The kind of bedrock present

    • E.

      Non of these

    Correct Answer
    E. Non of these
    Explanation
    Douglas Johnson's classification of coasts was not based on any of the options provided. The question does not provide information on what his classification was actually based on, so it is not possible to provide a specific explanation.

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  • 16. 

    What are the names of the three plate boundaries?

    Correct Answer
    subduction zones transform faults spreading centers
    Explanation
    The three plate boundaries are subduction zones, transform faults, and spreading centers. Subduction zones occur when one tectonic plate is forced beneath another, resulting in the formation of trenches and volcanic activity. Transform faults are boundaries where two plates slide past each other horizontally, causing earthquakes. Spreading centers are areas where two plates move apart, leading to the creation of new crust through volcanic activity.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the coastal tectonic settings typically has the least amount of sediment? 

    Correct Answer
    collision
    Explanation
    Collision tectonic settings typically have the least amount of sediment. This is because collision occurs when two tectonic plates converge and collide, resulting in the uplift of mountain ranges. The intense compression and folding of rocks during collision tectonics often leads to the erosion and removal of sediment, leaving behind less sediment in these areas compared to other coastal tectonic settings such as subduction zones or transform boundaries.

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  • 18. 

    List four possible sources of estuarine sediment: 

    Correct Answer
    rivers bluffs continental shelf biological
    Explanation
    Estuarine sediment can originate from various sources. Rivers are a significant source as they transport sediment from the land to the estuary. Bluffs, which are steep cliffs along the shoreline, can contribute sediment through erosion and weathering. The continental shelf, which extends from the shoreline to the deeper ocean, can supply sediment through wave and current action. Biological sources such as plants, animals, and microorganisms also contribute to estuarine sediment through their activities, such as burrowing, grazing, and decomposition.

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  • 19. 

    The process by which incoming waves compress air into rock fractures and wedge open rocks is called? 

    Correct Answer
    hydraulic riving
    Explanation
    Hydraulic riving is the correct answer because it accurately describes the process of incoming waves compressing air into rock fractures and wedging open rocks. This process occurs when the force of the water pushes into cracks and crevices in the rock, causing them to widen and expand. The pressure exerted by the water helps to break apart the rock and create fractures, ultimately leading to the formation of new openings and channels within the rock.

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  • 20. 

    List three general optionsa homeowner on a rapidly eroding bluff has to save his or her house:

    Correct Answer
    relocate accommodate armor
    Explanation
    When faced with a rapidly eroding bluff, a homeowner has three general options to save their house: relocate, accommodate, or armor. Relocating involves moving the entire house to a safer location. Accommodating means making necessary adjustments to the house or property to mitigate the effects of erosion, such as building retaining walls or installing erosion control measures. Armor refers to using physical barriers like rock revetments or seawalls to protect the bluff and prevent further erosion. These options provide different approaches to address the issue and protect the homeowner's property from the effects of erosion.

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  • 21. 

    The slow downslope movement of large masses of material is called?

    Correct Answer
    creep
    Explanation
    Creep refers to the gradual downslope movement of large masses of material, such as soil or rock, due to the force of gravity. This movement occurs over a long period of time and is typically very slow, often imperceptible. Creep is caused by the expansion and contraction of materials due to temperature changes, as well as the weight of the overlying material. It is a common form of mass wasting and can cause significant damage to infrastructure and property over time.

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  • 22. 

    Name a river delta whose shape is most influenced by waves:

    Correct Answer
    nile
    Explanation
    The Nile River delta is shaped by waves. The Nile River carries a large amount of sediment, which is deposited at the river mouth. The waves along the Mediterranean Sea coastline constantly interact with this sediment, shaping the delta over time. The strong wave action helps to shape the delta into its characteristic triangular shape, with multiple distributaries branching out from the main river channel.

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  • 23. 

    Name an estuary formed by tectonic processes; name an estuary formed by beach growth:

    Correct Answer
    San Francisco Bay
    Explanation
    San Francisco Bay is an example of an estuary formed by tectonic processes. The bay was formed due to the movement of tectonic plates, specifically the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate, which created a depression in the Earth's crust. Over time, this depression filled with water from the Pacific Ocean, forming the estuary. It is not formed by beach growth, as beach growth refers to the accumulation of sediment along a coastline, which is not the case for San Francisco Bay.

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  • 24. 

    The collapse of a sea arch leads directly to the formation of? 

    Correct Answer
    sea stack
    Explanation
    When a sea arch collapses, it leaves behind a pillar of rock isolated from the coastline, known as a sea stack. This occurs due to erosion and the continuous pounding of waves, which weakens the arch until it eventually collapses. The remaining stack stands tall as a testament to the power of natural forces.

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  • 25. 

    River sediment cannot escape from estuaries because of?

    Correct Answer
    estuarine circulation
    Explanation
    Estuarine circulation refers to the movement of water within an estuary, which is influenced by tides, winds, and freshwater input. This circulation pattern creates a flow that prevents river sediment from escaping the estuary. The sediment gets trapped within the estuary due to the combination of the incoming river water and the opposing tidal currents. As a result, the sediment settles and accumulates within the estuary, leading to the formation of mudflats and salt marshes.

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  • Nov 14, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • Feb 08, 2009
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