Endocrine System Test B

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Endocrine System Test B - Quiz

Anatomy & Physiology
Endocrine System Test B


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    When a hormone's levels are too high, negative feedback causes:

    • A.

      The glands to stop producing the hormone

    • B.

      The glands to produce more of the hormone

    • C.

      The endocrine system to create more glands to produce the hormone

    • D.

      The entire endocrine system to shut down

    Correct Answer
    A. The glands to stop producing the hormone
    Explanation
    When a hormone's levels are too high, negative feedback causes the glands to stop producing the hormone. This is because negative feedback is a regulatory mechanism that aims to maintain homeostasis in the body. When hormone levels become excessive, negative feedback signals the glands to reduce or stop the production of that hormone in order to restore balance. This helps prevent an overproduction of the hormone and maintains the body's equilibrium.

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  • 2. 

    Glands are best defined as:

    • A.

      Hormones that travel through the bloodstream

    • B.

      Organs that produce hormones

    • C.

      Cells that receive hormones

    • D.

      Messages that travel through nerves

    Correct Answer
    B. Organs that produce hormones
    Explanation
    Glands are best defined as organs that produce hormones. Glands are specialized structures in the body that secrete hormones, which are chemical messengers that regulate various bodily functions. These hormones are produced by specific glands such as the pituitary gland, thyroid gland, adrenal glands, and others. These glands play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis and regulating processes like growth, metabolism, reproduction, and response to stress. Therefore, the statement "organs that produce hormones" accurately defines glands.

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  • 3. 

    Negative feedback occurs when:

    • A.

      Hormone levels are too high, so glands stop producing hormones

    • B.

      Hormone levels are too low, so glands produce more hormones

    • C.

      BOTH other answers are correct

    Correct Answer
    C. BOTH other answers are correct
    Explanation
    Negative feedback occurs when hormone levels are either too high or too low. In the case of hormone levels being too high, the glands stop producing hormones to maintain balance. Similarly, when hormone levels are too low, the glands produce more hormones to restore balance. Therefore, both statements are correct as they describe different scenarios in which negative feedback occurs.

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  • 4. 

    The endocrine system works when _______________ secrete ______________ into the bloodstream.

    • A.

      Hormones; glands

    • B.

      Glands; hormones

    • C.

      Glands; receptors

    • D.

      Hormones; receptors

    Correct Answer
    B. Glands; hormones
    Explanation
    The endocrine system works when glands secrete hormones into the bloodstream. Glands are responsible for producing and releasing hormones, which are chemical messengers that travel through the bloodstream to target cells or organs. These hormones regulate various bodily functions and help maintain homeostasis.

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  • 5. 

    The organ that secretes insulin to help regulate blood sugar is the:

    • A.

      Pineal gland

    • B.

      Thyroid gland

    • C.

      Adrenal gland

    • D.

      Pancreas

    Correct Answer
    D. Pancreas
    Explanation
    The pancreas is the organ that secretes insulin to help regulate blood sugar. Insulin is a hormone that allows cells to take in glucose from the bloodstream, reducing blood sugar levels. The pancreas has specialized cells called beta cells that produce and release insulin in response to elevated blood sugar levels. This helps to maintain stable blood sugar levels and prevent high or low blood sugar. The other options, pineal gland, thyroid gland, and adrenal gland, do not have a primary role in regulating blood sugar levels.

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  • 6. 

    Letter D shows which gland?

    • A.

      Testes

    • B.

      Ovaries

    • C.

      Pancreas

    • D.

      Adrenal gland

    Correct Answer
    A. Testes
    Explanation
    The letter D in the given options represents the testes. The testes are the male reproductive glands that produce sperm and testosterone. They are responsible for the production of male sex hormones and the development of secondary sexual characteristics in males.

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  • 7. 

    The female sex hormones released by the ovaries are:

    • A.

      Testosterone and cortisol

    • B.

      Estrogen and progesterone

    • C.

      Melatonin and insulin

    • D.

      Thyroxine and testosterone

    Correct Answer
    B. Estrogen and progesterone
    Explanation
    Estrogen and progesterone are the correct answer because they are the primary female sex hormones released by the ovaries. Estrogen is responsible for the development and maintenance of female reproductive organs and secondary sexual characteristics, while progesterone prepares the uterus for pregnancy and helps maintain a healthy pregnancy. Testosterone and cortisol are not female sex hormones, but rather male and stress hormones respectively. Melatonin and insulin are hormones involved in regulating sleep and blood sugar levels, and thyroxine is a hormone produced by the thyroid gland.

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  • 8. 

    This couple have less of the growth hormone in their body, which explains their short stature. Which gland is responsible for producing this growth hormone?

    • A.

      Adrenal gland

    • B.

      Thyroid gland

    • C.

      Pituitary gland

    • D.

      Testes

    Correct Answer
    C. Pituitary gland
    Explanation
    The pituitary gland is responsible for producing the growth hormone. This hormone plays a crucial role in regulating the growth and development of the body. In this case, the couple has less of the growth hormone, which explains their short stature.

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  • 9. 

    This guy is exhausted! What hormone is responsible for helping control his sleep patterns?

    • A.

      Thyroxine

    • B.

      Melatonin

    • C.

      Testosterone

    • D.

      Insulin

    Correct Answer
    B. Melatonin
    Explanation
    Melatonin is a hormone that is responsible for regulating sleep patterns. It is produced by the pineal gland in the brain and helps to control the body's internal clock, signaling when it is time to sleep. When levels of melatonin rise in the evening, it promotes drowsiness and prepares the body for sleep. Therefore, in this case, the person's exhaustion can be attributed to a lack of melatonin or disruption in the normal production of this hormone.

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  • 10. 

    Too much stress is dangerous because:

    • A.

      The body has too much adenosine

    • B.

      The body does not have time to heal, rest and digest

    • C.

      The body does not have enough cortisol

    • D.

      The body's muscles begin to break down

    Correct Answer
    B. The body does not have time to heal, rest and digest
    Explanation
    When the body is under too much stress, it does not have enough time to heal, rest, and digest. This is because the body's resources are focused on dealing with the stressor, and other essential functions, such as repairing cells, replenishing energy, and maintaining proper digestion, are neglected. As a result, chronic stress can lead to various health issues, including weakened immune system, digestive problems, and increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.

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  • 11. 

    Which of the following is a true statement about adenosine?

    • A.

      Adenosine gives us more energy

    • B.

      Adenosine builds up as we use energy

    • C.

      Adenosine creates high levels of stress

    • D.

      Adenosine is made by the testes

    Correct Answer
    B. Adenosine builds up as we use energy
    Explanation
    Adenosine is a molecule that is produced in the body as a byproduct of energy consumption. As we use energy, adenosine accumulates in our system. This buildup of adenosine acts as a signal to the body that it needs to rest and recover. Therefore, the statement "adenosine builds up as we use energy" is true.

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  • 12. 

    Adrenaline triggers a ____________ response by_______________ heart rate  in response to stress.

    • A.

      Sympathetic; increasing

    • B.

      Parasympathetic; increasing

    • C.

      Sympathetic; decreasing

    • D.

      Parasympathetic; decreasing

    Correct Answer
    A. Sympathetic; increasing
    Explanation
    Adrenaline triggers a sympathetic response by increasing heart rate in response to stress. Sympathetic response refers to the activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which prepares the body for "fight or flight" response. Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is released by the adrenal glands during times of stress or danger. It stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, leading to an increase in heart rate. This physiological response helps to prepare the body for intense physical activity and enhances the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the muscles, enabling a quick response to the stressful situation.

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  • 13. 

    Caffeine is making this guy's brain think that he is:

    • A.

      NOT tired, because his brain is receiving more adenosine

    • B.

      NOT tired, because caffeine blocks his brain from receiving adenosine

    • C.

      Tired, because he is using too much energy

    • D.

      Tired, because his brain receives more adenosine

    Correct Answer
    B. NOT tired, because caffeine blocks his brain from receiving adenosine
    Explanation
    Caffeine is a stimulant that blocks the receptors in the brain that would normally receive adenosine, a chemical that signals tiredness. By blocking these receptors, caffeine prevents the brain from receiving the signal of tiredness, making the person feel awake and not tired.

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  • 14. 

    Why is the cortisol triggered by stress helpful?

    • A.

      It gives the body extra energy to respond to stress

    • B.

      It helps the body rest and digest

    • C.

      It helps the body calm down

    Correct Answer
    A. It gives the body extra energy to respond to stress
    Explanation
    Cortisol is a hormone released in response to stress. It helps the body by providing extra energy to cope with stressful situations. This extra energy allows the body to respond effectively to stress, whether it be by fighting or fleeing from the source of stress. By increasing blood sugar levels, cortisol provides the body with the necessary fuel to handle the demands of stress. Therefore, cortisol triggered by stress is helpful as it enables the body to effectively respond to and manage stressful situations.

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  • 15. 

    Which type of diabetes tends to affect children and is referred to as "juvenile diabetes"?

    • A.

      Type I

    • B.

      Type II

    • C.

      Type I and Type II

    • D.

      Type III

    Correct Answer
    A. Type I
    Explanation
    Type I diabetes tends to affect children and is commonly referred to as "juvenile diabetes" because it is usually diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. This type of diabetes occurs when the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to a lack of insulin. It is different from Type II diabetes, which is more commonly seen in adults and is often associated with lifestyle factors such as obesity and lack of physical activity.

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  • 16. 

    Which of the following is NOT a risk factor for Type II diabetes?

    • A.

      Being overweight

    • B.

      Lack of exercise

    • C.

      Smoking

    • D.

      Increased cortisol levels

    Correct Answer
    D. Increased cortisol levels
    Explanation
    Increased cortisol levels is not a risk factor for Type II diabetes. Cortisol is a hormone released by the body in response to stress. While high levels of cortisol can contribute to weight gain and increase the risk of developing other health conditions, it is not directly linked to the development of Type II diabetes. The primary risk factors for Type II diabetes include being overweight, lack of exercise, and smoking, all of which can lead to insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism.

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  • 17. 

    Why is insulin important?

    • A.

      It helps the body absorb glucose out of the blood, to reduce blood sugar

    • B.

      It helps the body break down food to make glucose, to raise blood sugar

    • C.

      It helps the body to build glucose, to raise blood sugar

    • D.

      It helps regulate heart rate

    Correct Answer
    A. It helps the body absorb glucose out of the blood, to reduce blood sugar
    Explanation
    Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that plays a crucial role in regulating blood sugar levels. When insulin is released into the bloodstream, it acts as a key that allows glucose to enter cells, where it is used as a source of energy. By facilitating the absorption of glucose out of the blood, insulin helps to reduce blood sugar levels and maintain them within a healthy range. This is particularly important for individuals with diabetes, as they either do not produce enough insulin or their body does not effectively use the insulin produced.

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  • 18. 

    All of the following are early signs of diabetes EXCEPT:

    • A.

      Frequent urination

    • B.

      Increased hunger and thirst

    • C.

      Confusion

    • D.

      Fatigue

    Correct Answer
    C. Confusion
    Explanation
    Confusion is not an early sign of diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar levels, which can lead to symptoms such as frequent urination, increased hunger and thirst, and fatigue. However, confusion is not typically associated with diabetes and may be a symptom of other medical conditions or factors unrelated to diabetes.

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  • 19. 

    Which of the following is NOT a long-term danger of diabetes?

    • A.

      Kidney failure

    • B.

      Cancer

    • C.

      Heart attack

    • D.

      Amputated limbs

    Correct Answer
    B. Cancer
    Explanation
    Diabetes is a chronic condition that can lead to various long-term complications. Kidney failure, heart attack, and amputated limbs are all recognized as potential dangers of diabetes. However, cancer is not typically considered a direct long-term danger of diabetes. While there may be some correlation between diabetes and certain types of cancer, it is not a widely recognized and established risk associated with the condition. Therefore, cancer is the correct answer as it is not a long-term danger specifically linked to diabetes.

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  • 20. 

    A patient comes in complaining about the timing of her periods.  She says they only happen every few months.  She has some acne on her face and upper back and appears to be over-weight. Diagnose this patient.

    • A.

      Addison's disease

    • B.

      Hypoglycemia

    • C.

      Polycystic ovary syndrome

    • D.

      Diabetes

    Correct Answer
    C. Polycystic ovary syndrome
    Explanation
    Based on the given symptoms, the patient is experiencing irregular periods, acne, and weight gain, which are common signs of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). PCOS is a hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age. It is characterized by the formation of small cysts on the ovaries, leading to hormonal imbalances. These imbalances can cause irregular periods, acne, and weight gain. Therefore, PCOS is the most likely diagnosis for this patient.

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  • 21. 

    Thomas comes in complaining about feeling sick and tired for the past few months.  He has lost a lot of weight, seems to feel pain in his muscles, and has been throwing up in the past week or two.  His muscles seem weak and he has difficulty standing up.  Diagnose this patient.

    • A.

      Hypothyroidism

    • B.

      Addison's disease

    • C.

      Hypoglycemia

    • D.

      Dwarfism

    Correct Answer
    B. Addison's disease
    Explanation
    Based on the symptoms described, the most likely diagnosis for this patient is Addison's disease. Addison's disease is a condition where the adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones, specifically cortisol and aldosterone. Symptoms include fatigue, weight loss, muscle weakness, nausea, vomiting, and low blood pressure. The patient's symptoms of feeling sick and tired, weight loss, muscle pain, vomiting, weak muscles, and difficulty standing up align with the symptoms of Addison's disease.

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  • 22. 

    Jada has polycystic ovary syndrome. This could mean that:

    • A.

      Her ovaries are producing too much estrogen, so she is producing too many eggs.

    • B.

      Her ovaries are producing too much testosterone, so eggs don't develop properly.

    • C.

      Her thyroid gland is not producing enough thyroxine, so she is gaining weight

    • D.

      Her adrenal gland is producing too much cortisol, so she is stressed out and skipping periods.

    Correct Answer
    A. Her ovaries are producing too much estrogen, so she is producing too many eggs.
    Explanation
    Jada's diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome suggests that her ovaries are producing too much estrogen, resulting in the production of too many eggs. This hormonal imbalance can lead to various symptoms such as irregular periods, infertility, and the formation of cysts on the ovaries.

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  • 23. 

    Which of the following would be an appropriate treatment for someone with hypothyroidism?

    • A.

      Thyroxine pills

    • B.

      Eating more sugar

    • C.

      Cortisol pills

    • D.

      Growth hormone injections

    Correct Answer
    A. Thyroxine pills
    Explanation
    An appropriate treatment for someone with hypothyroidism would be to take thyroxine pills. Hypothyroidism is a condition where the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormones. Thyroxine is a synthetic form of the thyroid hormone that can help regulate the body's metabolism and energy levels. By taking thyroxine pills, the individual can supplement the deficient hormone levels and alleviate the symptoms of hypothyroidism. Eating more sugar, cortisol pills, and growth hormone injections are not appropriate treatments for hypothyroidism as they do not address the underlying hormonal imbalance.

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  • 24. 

    Addison's disease is caused by:

    • A.

      Low blood sugar

    • B.

      Low cortisol levels

    • C.

      High testosterone levels

    • D.

      High adrenaline levels

    Correct Answer
    B. Low cortisol levels
    Explanation
    Addison's disease is caused by low cortisol levels. Cortisol is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands that helps regulate various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and immune response. When cortisol levels are low, it can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, weight loss, low blood pressure, and darkening of the skin. In Addison's disease, the adrenal glands do not produce enough cortisol, which can be caused by autoimmune disorders, infections, or damage to the adrenal glands.

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