Endocrine Glands And Hormones

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| By Jenniferlh
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Jenniferlh
Community Contributor
Quizzes Created: 1 | Total Attempts: 300
Questions: 35 | Attempts: 300

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Endocrine Gland Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    What is another name for the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland?

    Explanation
    The anterior lobe of the pituitary gland is also known as the adenohypophysis. This term refers to the front portion of the pituitary gland that produces and releases various hormones that regulate bodily functions. The adenohypophysis plays a crucial role in controlling growth, metabolism, reproduction, and other important physiological processes.

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  • 2. 

    What is another name for the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland?

    Explanation
    The posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is also known as the neurohypophysis. This is because it is primarily composed of neural tissue and plays a crucial role in the release and storage of hormones produced by the hypothalamus. The neurohypophysis is responsible for secreting hormones such as oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) into the bloodstream, which regulate various bodily functions including childbirth, lactation, and water balance.

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  • 3. 

    What is the class of hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary called?

    Explanation
    The class of hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary is called trophic hormones. These hormones stimulate the growth and function of other endocrine glands in the body. They regulate the secretion of hormones from these glands, which in turn control various physiological processes. Examples of trophic hormones include thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). Trophic hormones play a crucial role in maintaining hormonal balance and overall body homeostasis.

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  • 4. 

    Which hormone promotes overall tissue and organ growth?

    Explanation
    The hormone that promotes overall tissue and organ growth is the growth hormone. This hormone is secreted by the pituitary gland and plays a crucial role in stimulating cell division, increasing protein synthesis, and promoting the growth of bones, muscles, and organs. It also helps regulate metabolism and maintain a healthy body composition. Overall, the growth hormone is essential for proper growth and development in individuals.

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  • 5. 

    Which hormone stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and secrete T4 and T3

    Explanation
    The hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce and secrete T4 and T3 is thyroid stimulating hormone. This hormone is released by the pituitary gland in response to low levels of T4 and T3 in the blood. Thyroid stimulating hormone acts on the thyroid gland to increase the production and release of T4 and T3, which are important for regulating metabolism and growth in the body.

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  • 6. 

    Which hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids like hydrocortisone (aka cortisol)?

    Explanation
    The hormone that stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids like hydrocortisone (cortisol) is adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH). ACTH is produced by the pituitary gland and acts on the adrenal cortex to promote the release of glucocorticoids. These hormones play a crucial role in regulating metabolism, immune response, and stress response in the body.

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  • 7. 

    Which hormone stimulates the growth of ovarian follicles in women and production of sperm in men?

    Explanation
    Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is responsible for stimulating the growth and development of ovarian follicles in women. It plays a crucial role in the menstrual cycle by promoting the maturation of eggs within the ovaries. In men, FSH stimulates the production of sperm in the testes. This hormone is produced by the pituitary gland and is essential for reproductive function in both men and women.

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  • 8. 

    Which hormone stimulates ovulation and conversion of ovulated ovarian structure into the corpus luteum?

    Explanation
    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is responsible for stimulating ovulation, which is the release of an egg from the ovary. After ovulation, the ovulated ovarian structure transforms into the corpus luteum, which produces hormones such as progesterone to prepare the uterus for potential pregnancy. LH plays a crucial role in regulating the female reproductive system and is essential for the successful release of an egg and the subsequent formation of the corpus luteum.

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  • 9. 

    Which hormone stimulates milk production?

    Explanation
    Prolactin is the hormone responsible for stimulating milk production. It is produced by the pituitary gland in response to the suckling of a baby at the breast. Prolactin levels increase during pregnancy and remain high after childbirth to initiate and maintain lactation. This hormone acts on the mammary glands in the breasts, promoting the production of milk and its release into the ducts for breastfeeding.

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  • 10. 

    What hormones are released (but not produced) by the posterior pituitary?

    Explanation
    The hormones antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin are released by the posterior pituitary gland. These hormones are not produced by the posterior pituitary, but rather synthesized and produced by the hypothalamus. The hormones are then transported and stored in the posterior pituitary until they are released into the bloodstream when needed. Antidiuretic hormone helps regulate water balance in the body by reducing urine production, while oxytocin is involved in various functions such as uterine contractions during childbirth and milk ejection during breastfeeding.

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  • 11. 

    Which hormone promotes the retention of water?

    Explanation
    Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is responsible for promoting the retention of water in the body. It is released by the pituitary gland and acts on the kidneys to increase water reabsorption. ADH helps to regulate the body's water balance by reducing the amount of water excreted in urine, thus preventing excessive water loss. This hormone plays a crucial role in maintaining proper hydration levels and preventing dehydration.

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  • 12. 

    Which hormone stimulates the contractions of the uterus during labor?

    Explanation
    Oxytocin is the hormone that stimulates the contractions of the uterus during labor. It is produced by the pituitary gland and plays a crucial role in the progression of labor. Oxytocin helps to initiate and strengthen uterine contractions, leading to the dilation and effacement of the cervix. It also promotes the release of more oxytocin, creating a positive feedback loop that helps to push the baby through the birth canal. Additionally, oxytocin is involved in bonding and the release of breast milk after childbirth.

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  • 13. 

    The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract is a neural connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract is indeed a neural connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary. This connection allows for the hypothalamus to release hormones that are then transported to the posterior pituitary, where they are stored and eventually released into the bloodstream. This pathway plays a crucial role in regulating various hormones and maintaining homeostasis in the body.

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  • 14. 

    The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract is a vascular connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract is not a vascular connection, but rather a neural connection between the hypothalamus and the posterior pituitary. It consists of axons that extend from the hypothalamus to the posterior pituitary, allowing for the release of hormones such as oxytocin and vasopressin into the bloodstream.

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  • 15. 

    The hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system is a vascular link between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system is a specialized network of blood vessels that connects the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary gland. This system allows for direct communication between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary, facilitating the release of hormones from the hypothalamus into the anterior pituitary. This connection is crucial for the regulation of various physiological processes, including hormone secretion and control of the endocrine system. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 16. 

    The hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system is a neural link between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    The hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system is not a neural link, but rather a vascular link between the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary. It consists of a network of blood vessels that allows for the direct transport of hormones from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary, bypassing the general circulation. This system plays a crucial role in regulating hormone secretion and maintaining homeostasis in the body.

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  • 17. 

    Which of the following are hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary?

    • A.

      Luteinizing Hormone

    • B.

      Oxytocin

    • C.

      Growth Hormone

    • D.

      Follicle-Stimulating Hormone

    • E.

      Antidiuretic Hormone

    • F.

      Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone

    • G.

      Epinephrine

    • H.

      Calcitonin

    • I.

      Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone

    • J.

      Prolactin

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Luteinizing Hormone
    C. Growth Hormone
    D. Follicle-Stimulating Hormone
    F. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
    I. Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone
    J. Prolactin
    Explanation
    The anterior pituitary gland is responsible for secreting several hormones that regulate various bodily functions. Luteinizing hormone, growth hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, and prolactin are all hormones that are secreted by the anterior pituitary gland. These hormones play important roles in reproductive function, growth and development, thyroid function, adrenal gland function, and lactation. Therefore, the correct answer includes these hormones as they are all secreted by the anterior pituitary gland.

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  • 18. 

    Hypothalamus and anterior pituitary are controlled by the target glands they regulate via negative feedback inhibition.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The statement is true because the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland are both involved in regulating the endocrine system through a negative feedback mechanism. The hypothalamus produces hormones that control the release of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland. In turn, the anterior pituitary gland releases hormones that regulate the activity of other endocrine glands, known as target glands. When the target glands release hormones, they can inhibit the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary gland from producing more hormones, creating a negative feedback loop. This helps maintain balance and regulate hormone levels in the body.

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  • 19. 

    The adrenal glands are located:

    • A.

      Below the hypothalamus

    • B.

      Above the kidneys

    • C.

      Embedded in the thyroid glands

    Correct Answer
    B. Above the kidneys
    Explanation
    The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. These small, triangular-shaped glands are part of the endocrine system and are responsible for producing hormones such as adrenaline, cortisol, and aldosterone. They are situated on top of each kidney and are made up of two distinct parts: the adrenal cortex and the adrenal medulla. The adrenal glands play a crucial role in regulating various bodily functions, including metabolism, blood pressure, and stress response.

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  • 20. 

    The adrenal medulla secretes steroid hormones called corticosteroids.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    These are secreted by the adrenal cortex, not the adrenal medulla.

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  • 21. 

    What are the three types of corticosteroids?

    Correct Answer
    mineralocorticoids glucocorticoids sex steroids
    mineralocorticoids sex steroids glucocorticoids
    sex steroids glucocorticoids mineralocorticoids
    sex steroids mineralocorticoids glucocorticoids
    glucocorticoids sex steroids mineralocorticoids
    Explanation
    The three types of corticosteroids are mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and sex steroids.

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  • 22. 

    What type of steroid is aldosterone?

    Correct Answer
    mineralocorticoid
    mineralocorticoids
    Explanation
    Aldosterone is a type of steroid hormone known as a mineralocorticoid. Mineralocorticoids are responsible for regulating the balance of minerals, particularly sodium and potassium, in the body. Aldosterone specifically acts on the kidneys to increase the reabsorption of sodium and the excretion of potassium, helping to maintain proper electrolyte balance and blood pressure. Therefore, the correct answer is mineralocorticoid or mineralocorticoids.

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  • 23. 

    Glucocorticoids regulate the metabolism of glucose and other organic molecules.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones that play a crucial role in regulating various metabolic processes in the body, including the metabolism of glucose and other organic molecules. These hormones help in increasing blood glucose levels by promoting gluconeogenesis (the production of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources) and inhibiting glucose uptake by cells. Additionally, glucocorticoids also promote the breakdown of proteins and fats, leading to an increase in the availability of organic molecules for energy production. Therefore, it is accurate to say that glucocorticoids regulate the metabolism of glucose and other organic molecules.

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  • 24. 

    Epinephrine and Norepinephrine are secreted by the:

    Correct Answer
    adrenal medulla
    Explanation
    Epinephrine and Norepinephrine are both hormones that are secreted by the adrenal medulla. The adrenal medulla is located in the inner part of the adrenal glands, which are situated on top of the kidneys. These hormones are part of the body's stress response system and are released during times of physical or emotional stress. They help to increase heart rate, blood pressure, and blood sugar levels, preparing the body for a "fight or flight" response. Therefore, the correct answer is adrenal medulla.

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  • 25. 

    Epiniphrine and norepinephrine constrict coronary blood vessels.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    They dilate them, causing increased cardiac output and heart rate.

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  • 26. 

    T4 and T3 (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) elevate the basal metabolic rate.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    T4 and T3 are hormones produced by the thyroid gland that play a crucial role in regulating metabolism. These hormones increase the basal metabolic rate, which is the amount of energy the body needs to perform basic functions at rest. Therefore, it is true that T4 and T3 elevate the basal metabolic rate.

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  • 27. 

    Name a hormone that the theyroid gland secretes.

    Correct Answer
    thyroxine
    T4
    T3
    triiodothyronine
    calcitonin
    Explanation
    The thyroid gland secretes various hormones including thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin. Thyroxine and triiodothyronine are responsible for regulating the body's metabolism, growth, and development. Calcitonin helps in regulating calcium levels in the body and is involved in bone health.

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  • 28. 

    The thyroid gland helps to regulate calcium levels of the blood.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    The thyroid gland does play a role in regulating calcium levels in the blood. It does so by producing a hormone called calcitonin, which helps to lower blood calcium levels when they become too high. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 29. 

    Hypothyroidism can cause weight loss.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    It causes weight gain because there is an inadequate secretion of thyroid hormones, a low basal metabolic rate, and therefore weight gain.

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  • 30. 

    Grave's diseasee causes hyperthyroidism.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Grave's disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes the thyroid gland to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormone, resulting in hyperthyroidism. This condition leads to symptoms such as weight loss, rapid heartbeat, increased sweating, and irritability. Therefore, it is correct to say that Grave's disease causes hyperthyroidism.

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  • 31. 

    Cretinism:

    • A.

      Causes stunted growth

    • B.

      Causes severe mental retardation

    • C.

      Is a form of hypothyroidism

    • D.

      Is a form of hyperthyroidism

    • E.

      Starts from the end of the first trimester, continues until 6 months after birht

    Correct Answer(s)
    A. Causes stunted growth
    B. Causes severe mental retardation
    D. Is a form of hyperthyroidism
    E. Starts from the end of the first trimester, continues until 6 months after birht
    Explanation
    Cretinism is a condition that causes stunted growth and severe mental retardation. It is a form of hypothyroidism, not hyperthyroidism. The condition starts from the end of the first trimester and continues until 6 months after birth.

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  • 32. 

    What is the most important hormone in the control of calcium levels of the blood?

    • A.

      Calcitonin

    • B.

      Parathyroid hormone

    • C.

      Insulin

    • D.

      Mineralocorticoids

    Correct Answer
    B. Parathyroid hormone
    Explanation
    Parathyroid hormone is the most important hormone in the control of calcium levels in the blood. It is released by the parathyroid glands and acts to increase the levels of calcium in the blood. It does this by stimulating the release of calcium from bones, increasing the absorption of calcium from the intestines, and reducing the excretion of calcium by the kidneys. This hormone plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance of calcium in the body, which is important for various physiological processes such as bone formation, nerve function, and muscle contraction.

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  • 33. 

    Parathyroid hormone causes a rise in blood calcium by acting on bones, kidneys, and the intestines. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Parathyroid hormone is responsible for increasing the levels of calcium in the blood. It achieves this by affecting three main areas: bones, kidneys, and intestines. In bones, it stimulates the release of calcium into the blood. In the kidneys, it promotes the reabsorption of calcium, preventing its excretion in urine. Finally, in the intestines, it enhances the absorption of dietary calcium. Therefore, it is correct to say that parathyroid hormone causes a rise in blood calcium by acting on these three areas.

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  • 34. 

    What is another name for the pancreatic islets?

    Correct Answer
    islets of Langerhans
    Explanation
    The pancreatic islets are also known as the islets of Langerhans. These islets are clusters of cells in the pancreas that are responsible for producing and releasing important hormones such as insulin and glucagon. They play a crucial role in regulating blood sugar levels and maintaining overall metabolic balance in the body. The name "islets of Langerhans" is derived from the German anatomist Paul Langerhans, who first discovered and described these structures in the late 19th century.

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  • 35. 

    In the pancreatic islets, the alpha cells secrete insulin and the beta cells secrete glucagon.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    Other way around

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Our quizzes are rigorously reviewed, monitored and continuously updated by our expert board to maintain accuracy, relevance, and timeliness.

  • Current Version
  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
    ProProfs Editorial Team
  • May 07, 2011
    Quiz Created by
    Jenniferlh
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