EMT B Class Chapter 5 Quiz

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EMT Quizzes & Trivia

Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    The pressure against the walls of the blood vessels as blood is ejected from the heart and circulates through the body is the _______ blood pressure.

    • A.

      Systolic

    • B.

      Diastolic

    • C.

      Central Venous

    • D.

      Mean Arterial

    Correct Answer
    A. Systolic
    Explanation
    Systolic blood pressure refers to the pressure exerted on the walls of the blood vessels when the heart contracts and ejects blood into the circulation. This is the highest pressure reached during a cardiac cycle. Diastolic blood pressure, on the other hand, refers to the pressure in the blood vessels when the heart is at rest and filling with blood. Central venous pressure is the pressure in the large veins near the heart, and mean arterial pressure is the average pressure throughout the cardiac cycle.

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  • 2. 

    Which of the following structures allows food to move from the mouth to the stomach?

    • A.

      Trachea

    • B.

      Vena Cava

    • C.

      Duodenum

    • D.

      Esophagus

    Correct Answer
    D. Esophagus
    Explanation
    The esophagus is the structure that allows food to move from the mouth to the stomach. It is a muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach and is responsible for transporting food through peristalsis, a series of muscle contractions. The trachea is the windpipe, which allows air to pass into the lungs, while the vena cava is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood to the heart. The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine, where digestion continues after food leaves the stomach.

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  • 3. 

    What is another term for the frontal aspect of the body?

    • A.

      Caudal

    • B.

      Dorsal

    • C.

      Posterior

    • D.

      Anterior

    Correct Answer
    D. Anterior
    Explanation
    The frontal aspect of the body refers to the front or forward-facing side. Anterior is another term used to describe this direction.

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  • 4. 

    The elbow is _______ to the wrist?

    • A.

      Medial

    • B.

      Inferior

    • C.

      Proximal

    • D.

      Dorsal

    Correct Answer
    C. Proximal
    Explanation
    The elbow is proximal to the wrist because the term "proximal" refers to a location that is closer to the point of reference or origin. In this case, the point of reference is the shoulder, and the elbow is closer to the shoulder compared to the wrist.

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  • 5. 

    What are the two most easily injured portions of the spine?

    • A.

      Sacral and coccygeal

    • B.

      Cervical and thoracic

    • C.

      Cervical and lumbar

    • D.

      Lumbar and sacral

    Correct Answer
    C. Cervical and lumbar
    Explanation
    The cervical and lumbar portions of the spine are the two most easily injured because they are the most flexible and bear the most weight. The cervical spine, located in the neck, is particularly vulnerable to injury due to its range of motion and the delicate structures it protects, such as the spinal cord. The lumbar spine, located in the lower back, is also prone to injury due to the stress placed on it from activities like lifting heavy objects or poor posture.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following BEST describes the Trendelenburg position?

    • A.

      Lying on the side with legs drawn up and the arms clasped around them

    • B.

      Lying on the side

    • C.

      Semi-sitting

    • D.

      Lying on the back with head lower than the legs

    Correct Answer
    D. Lying on the back with head lower than the legs
    Explanation
    The Trendelenburg position is a medical position where the patient lies on their back with the head lower than the legs. This position is often used in medical procedures or emergencies to improve blood flow to vital organs and promote venous return. It can also be used to treat conditions such as hypotension or shock.

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  • 7. 

    Which of the following structures closes over the trachea to protect it during swallowing?

    • A.

      Pharynx

    • B.

      Epiglottis

    • C.

      Cricoid Cartilage

    • D.

      Diaphragm

    Correct Answer
    B. Epiglottis
    Explanation
    The epiglottis is a flap of cartilage that closes over the trachea during swallowing to prevent food or liquid from entering the airway. This helps to protect the trachea and prevent choking. The pharynx is a muscular tube that connects the nasal cavity to the esophagus and does not directly close over the trachea. The cricoid cartilage is a ring of cartilage located below the thyroid cartilage in the neck and does not close over the trachea. The diaphragm is a dome-shaped muscle that plays a role in breathing and does not close over the trachea.

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  • 8. 

    The pulse palpated on the top of the foot is called the _______ pulse

    • A.

      Phalanx Proximalis

    • B.

      Tibialis posterior

    • C.

      Dorsalis pedis

    • D.

      Suprametatarsal

    Correct Answer
    C. Dorsalis pedis
    Explanation
    The pulse palpated on the top of the foot is called the dorsalis pedis pulse. The term "dorsalis" refers to the top surface of the foot, while "pedis" refers to the foot itself. Therefore, the dorsalis pedis pulse is the pulse that can be felt on the top surface of the foot.

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  • 9. 

    Which of the following structures receives deoxygenated blood from the body via the vena cavae?

    • A.

      Right ventricle

    • B.

      Left ventricle

    • C.

      Right Atrium

    • D.

      Left Atrium

    Correct Answer
    C. Right Atrium
    Explanation
    The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body via the vena cavae. The vena cavae are large veins that carry blood from the body back to the heart. The deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium, then flows into the right ventricle before being pumped to the lungs for oxygenation. The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins. The left ventricle then pumps the oxygenated blood to the rest of the body.

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  • 10. 

    Which of the following is the function of the skin?

    • A.

      Regulation of body temperature

    • B.

      Regulation of salt and water balance

    • C.

      Protection from the environment

    • D.

      All of the above

    Correct Answer
    D. All of the above
    Explanation
    The skin has multiple functions, including the regulation of body temperature, the regulation of salt and water balance, and protection from the environment. It helps in maintaining body temperature by sweating and shivering. The skin also plays a role in regulating the balance of salt and water in the body through the production of sweat and the reabsorption of water. Additionally, the skin acts as a barrier, protecting the body from harmful environmental factors such as UV radiation, pathogens, and chemicals. Therefore, the correct answer is "All of the above."

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  • 11. 

    An artery is a blood vessel that only:

    • A.

      Returns blood to the heart

    • B.

      Carries oxygenated blood

    • C.

      Carried deoxygenated blood

    • D.

      Carries blood away from the heart

    Correct Answer
    D. Carries blood away from the heart
    Explanation
    An artery is a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. Unlike veins, which carry blood back to the heart, arteries are responsible for transporting oxygenated blood from the heart to various parts of the body. Arteries have thick, elastic walls that help maintain the pressure needed to propel blood forward. They branch out into smaller vessels called arterioles, which eventually lead to capillaries where oxygen and nutrients are exchanged with tissues. The oxygen-depleted blood then returns to the heart through veins.

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  • 12. 

    What vessel carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs?

    • A.

      Vena cava

    • B.

      Aorta

    • C.

      Pulmonary arteries

    • D.

      Pulmonary veins

    Correct Answer
    C. Pulmonary arteries
    Explanation
    The pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood from the heart to the lungs. Once the blood reaches the lungs, it picks up oxygen and gets rid of carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The oxygenated blood then returns to the heart through the pulmonary veins. Therefore, the correct answer is pulmonary arteries.

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  • 13. 

    What is the bone on the thumb side of the forearm?

    • A.

      Fibula

    • B.

      Acromion

    • C.

      Radius

    • D.

      Ulna

    Correct Answer
    C. Radius
    Explanation
    The bone on the thumb side of the forearm is called the radius. The radius is one of the two bones in the forearm, with the other being the ulna. The radius runs along the thumb side of the forearm, while the ulna runs along the pinky side. The radius plays a crucial role in forearm rotation and helps to support the muscles of the forearm and hand.

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  • 14. 

    What is the strongest and most muscular part of the heart?

    • A.

      Left atrium

    • B.

      Right ventricle

    • C.

      Left ventricle

    • D.

      Right atrium

    Correct Answer
    C. Left ventricle
    Explanation
    The left ventricle is the strongest and most muscular part of the heart. It is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the rest of the body, so it needs to be strong enough to generate enough pressure to push the blood through the systemic circulation. The left ventricle has thicker walls compared to the other chambers of the heart, allowing it to contract forcefully and efficiently. This strong contraction ensures that oxygenated blood is effectively distributed to the body's tissues and organs.

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  • 15. 

    A clot cannot form without which of the following blood components?

    • A.

      Plasma

    • B.

      Corpuscles

    • C.

      Platelets

    • D.

      White blood cells

    Correct Answer
    C. Platelets
    Explanation
    Platelets are essential for the formation of blood clots. When there is an injury or damage to a blood vessel, platelets are activated and aggregate at the site to form a plug, which helps in stopping bleeding. They also release various substances that promote clotting, such as clotting factors and fibrin. Without platelets, the blood would not be able to clot properly, leading to excessive bleeding and difficulty in wound healing.

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