EDF 1005 Quiz 9

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EDF 1005 Quiz 9 - Quiz

Quiz on Chapter 8 in the Textbook and readings from week 7 and 8.


Questions and Answers
  • 1. 

    This Greek philosopher  was of a noble family and was related through his father to Codrus and on his mother's side to Solon. His real name was Aristocles. Physically perfect, he had an artistic and dialectical temperament which remained with him through his whole life and made of him the philosopher-poet

    • A.

      Isocrates

    • B.

      Socrates

    • C.

      Plato

    • D.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    C. Plato
    Explanation
    Plato, originally named Aristocles, was a Greek philosopher from a noble family. He was related to prominent figures such as Codrus and Solon. Plato was known for his physical perfection and possessed an artistic and dialectical temperament, which influenced his philosophical and poetic pursuits throughout his life.

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  • 2. 

    This philosopher is one of the most accomplished geniuses humanity has ever known. In him are united the speculative and scientific spirit and the sense of artistic beauty, the influence of which have been felt in all times. All his known works remain extant, that is, thirty-six dialogues, thirteen letters and a collection of definitions. 

    • A.

      Socrates

    • B.

      Heraclitus

    • C.

      Anaxagoras

    • D.

      Plato

    Correct Answer
    D. Plato
    Explanation
    Plato is the correct answer because the description mentions that this philosopher is one of the most accomplished geniuses known to humanity. It also states that the influence of his speculative and scientific spirit, as well as his sense of artistic beauty, has been felt throughout all times. Additionally, it states that all of his known works, including dialogues, letters, and definitions, remain extant. This aligns with Plato's reputation as a highly influential philosopher, known for his dialogues and contributions to various fields of study.

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  • 3. 

    This Greek philosopher believed that philosophy is conceived of in its practical order. Man must seek the truth; and once the truth is discovered in the purely speculative field, it must serve to find the solution of practical problems: Philosophy must render man morally better

    • A.

      Aristotle

    • B.

      Parmenides

    • C.

      Socrates

    • D.

      Plato

    Correct Answer
    D. Plato
    Explanation
    Plato believed that philosophy is conceived of in its practical order, meaning that it should have a practical application in solving real-world problems. He argued that once the truth is discovered in the purely speculative field, it must be used to find solutions to practical problems. Plato believed that philosophy should not only be a theoretical pursuit but also serve to make individuals morally better. This aligns with his concept of the philosopher-king, where those who possess wisdom and knowledge should rule over society for the greater good.

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  • 4. 

    The basis of this philosopher's school, the Academy, in which he further developed idealism. The search for truth in all things through Socratic dialogue was the basis for the school.

    • A.

      Aristotle

    • B.

      Socratic

    • C.

      Plato

    • D.

      Pythagoras

    Correct Answer
    C. Plato
    Explanation
    Plato is the correct answer because he is the philosopher associated with the Academy, where he developed his idealistic philosophy. The Academy was known for its emphasis on the search for truth through Socratic dialogue, which aligns with Plato's teachings. Aristotle, Socratic, and Pythagoras were all influential philosophers, but they are not directly connected to the Academy or its ideals.

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  • 5. 

    Which of the following are not one of the basic truths of Plato

    • A.

      Truth is in all things

    • B.

      People should search for truth because it is eternal and perfect.

    • C.

      Since there are universal truths in mathematics (the concept of 2+2=4 was true before being discovered), then there must be the same in other fields such as politics, religion and education.

    • D.

      Reality is based in matter

    Correct Answer
    D. Reality is based in matter
    Explanation
    The basic truths of Plato include the belief that truth is in all things, that people should search for truth because it is eternal and perfect, and that there are universal truths in various fields such as mathematics, politics, religion, and education. However, Plato did not believe that reality is solely based in matter. He believed in the existence of a higher reality, the realm of Forms or Ideas, which is separate from the physical world. Therefore, the statement "Reality is based in matter" does not align with Plato's philosophy.

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  • 6. 

    Which of the following are not one of the basic truths of Plato

    • A.

      The idea of the Good was the source of all true knowledge.

    • B.

      The world of matter was characterized as unstable, constantly changing sensory data that was untrustworthy.

    • C.

      The real and the true can be known through the senses

    • D.

      He taught that people should embrace ideas and reject matter to progress toward the Good. This can be achieved through use of the elenchus

    Correct Answer
    C. The real and the true can be known through the senses
    Explanation
    Plato believed that the real and the true cannot be known through the senses. He argued that sensory perception is unreliable and that true knowledge can only be obtained through reason and contemplation of the Forms or Ideas. The Forms, according to Plato, are the eternal and unchanging essences or patterns behind the physical world. Therefore, the statement that the real and the true can be known through the senses contradicts Plato's philosophy.

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  • 7. 

    Plato thought the elenchus or dialectic could be used to help people embrace ideas and become less materialistic.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Plato believed that the elenchus, also known as dialectic, could be a valuable tool in helping individuals to embrace ideas and move away from materialistic tendencies. The elenchus involves engaging in critical questioning and dialogue, which can lead to a deeper understanding and appreciation of abstract concepts and ideals. By engaging in this process, individuals can develop a more philosophical mindset and shift their focus away from material possessions and desires. Therefore, the statement "Plato thought the elenchus or dialectic could be used to help people embrace ideas and become less materialistic" is true.

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  • 8. 

    Plato believed that people are born ignorant, living in a cave of shadows and illusions, chained by apathy.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Plato believed that people are born ignorant and live in a cave of shadows and illusions. He argued that they are chained by apathy, meaning they lack the motivation or interest to seek knowledge and truth. This view suggests that humans are initially unaware of the true nature of reality and must actively strive to overcome their ignorance. Therefore, the statement is true.

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  • 9. 

    Plato believed which of the following :

    • A.

      the human soul is born with true knowledge; however, it is lost when placed in a material body, which corrupts such knowledge

    • B.

      The human soul is a blank slate; knowledge is impressed upon the soul after being taken in by the senses.

    Correct Answer
    A. the human soul is born with true knowledge; however, it is lost when placed in a material body, which corrupts such knowledge
    Explanation
    According to Plato, the human soul is born with true knowledge. However, this knowledge is lost when the soul is placed in a material body. Plato believed that the body corrupts the soul's knowledge, causing individuals to forget the true knowledge they possessed before birth. This idea is central to Plato's theory of Forms, where he argues that true knowledge can only be accessed through philosophical contemplation and the recollection of the soul's pre-existing knowledge.

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  • 10. 

    Plato saw a society where equal opportunity existed on all levels. Girls and boys could develop themselves to the fullest, but those who showed difficulty in abstract thinking should pursue careers that contribute to the practical realities of life, such as industry, business and military affairs. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Plato believed in a society with equal opportunities for both girls and boys, allowing them to fully develop themselves. However, he also recognized that not everyone may excel in abstract thinking. Therefore, he suggested that those who struggled with abstract thinking should pursue careers that contribute to the practical realities of life, such as industry, business, and military affairs. This aligns with the idea of equal opportunity existing on all levels, making the statement true.

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  • 11. 

    Socrates believed that knowing what is right automatically results in the desire to do it, even though this feature of our moral experience could be doubted

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Socrates believed that knowing what is right automatically results in the desire to do it. This means that if someone truly understands what is morally correct, they will naturally be inclined to act accordingly. However, Socrates acknowledged that this belief could be questioned or doubted, implying that not everyone may agree with this perspective.

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  • 12. 

    According to Plato,  because we perceive only their imperfect instances, we can never have genuine knowledge of truth, goodness, and beauty . 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    B. False
    Explanation
    According to Plato, we can have genuine knowledge of truth, goodness, and beauty, despite perceiving only their imperfect instances. Plato believed in the existence of ideal forms or concepts that are perfect and unchanging. While our perceptions may be flawed, we can still strive towards understanding these ideal forms through reason and philosophical inquiry. Therefore, the given statement is false.

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  • 13. 

    Plato believed that the interests of the state are best preserved if children are raised and educated by the society as a whole, rather than by their biological parents.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Plato believed that the interests of the state are best preserved if children are raised and educated by the society as a whole, rather than by their biological parents. This is because he believed that the state should prioritize the common good over individual interests, and that by raising children collectively, they would be instilled with the values and ideals of the state. This would ensure that they would grow up to be productive and loyal citizens, contributing to the overall stability and success of the state.

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  • 14. 

    Plato denied that there is any systematic difference between men and women with respect to the abilities relevant to being a guardian—the capacity to understand reality and make reasonable judgments about it.

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Plato believed that there is no inherent difference between men and women when it comes to the abilities necessary to be a guardian. He argued that both genders have the capacity to understand reality and make rational judgments. Therefore, the statement is true according to Plato's perspective.

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  • 15. 

    Plato held that the perfect society will occur only when kings become philosophers or philosophers are made kings. 

    • A.

      True

    • B.

      False

    Correct Answer
    A. True
    Explanation
    Plato believed that the ideal society can only be achieved when rulers are philosophers or philosophers become rulers. This is because philosophers possess the wisdom, knowledge, and love for truth that is necessary to govern a society justly and effectively. By combining intellectual excellence with political power, Plato believed that the rulers would make decisions based on reason and virtue, leading to a harmonious and perfect society. Therefore, the statement "Plato held that the perfect society will occur only when kings become philosophers or philosophers are made kings" is true.

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  • 16. 

    The Ideas of Plato are endowed with real existence in a world superior to the world which we see. Ideas as they appear in our own mind are but the images or representations of things in this world apart. These ideas are called

    • A.

      Cognitions

    • B.

      Images

    • C.

      Forms

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    C. Forms
    Explanation
    Plato believed that the Ideas or Forms have a higher level of reality than the physical world we perceive. According to him, the Ideas exist in a separate realm and are the true essence of things, while the physical world is just a reflection or imperfect copy of these Forms. Therefore, the correct answer is "forms" because Plato referred to the Ideas as forms that exist in a superior world.

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  • 17. 

    _______was born in 384 BCE at Stagirus, a Greek colony and seaport on the coast of Thrace. His father Nichomachus was court physician to King Amyntas of Macedonia, and from this began his long association with the Macedonian Court, which considerably influenced his life. 

    • A.

      Socrates

    • B.

      Plato

    • C.

      Pythagoras

    • D.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    D. Aristotle
    Explanation
    Aristotle was born in 384 BCE at Stagirus, a Greek colony and seaport on the coast of Thrace. His father Nichomachus was court physician to King Amyntas of Macedonia, which led to Aristotle's close connection with the Macedonian Court. This association had a significant impact on his life and career.

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  • 18. 

    At the invitation of Philip of Macedonia this philosopher became the tutor of his 13 year old son Alexander ; he did this for the five years.

    • A.

      Socrates

    • B.

      Plato

    • C.

      Aristotle

    • D.

      Isocrates

    Correct Answer
    C. Aristotle
    Explanation
    At the invitation of Philip of Macedonia, Aristotle became the tutor of his 13-year-old son Alexander. Aristotle held this position for five years.

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  • 19. 

    This Greek philosopher set up his own school at a place called the Lyceum. When teaching at the Lyceum, he had a habit of walking about as he discoursed. It was in connection with this that his followers became known in later years as the peripatetics, meaning “to walk about.”

    • A.

      Socrates

    • B.

      Plato

    • C.

      Aristotle

    • D.

      Isocrates

    Correct Answer
    C. Aristotle
    Explanation
    Aristotle, the Greek philosopher, established his own school at the Lyceum. While teaching there, he had a practice of walking around while giving lectures. This distinctive characteristic of his teaching style led his followers to be known as the peripatetics, which means "to walk about."

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  • 20. 

    Forms are powerless to explain changes of things and a thing’s ultimate extinction. Forms are not causes of movement and alteration in the physical objects of sensation.

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    B. Aristotle
    Explanation
    Aristotle's philosophy diverged from Plato's in many ways, including their views on forms. While Plato believed that forms were the ultimate reality and that they explained the changes and ultimate extinction of things, Aristotle disagreed. He argued that forms were not causes of movement and alteration in physical objects of sensation. Instead, Aristotle believed that the material substance itself, along with its potential and actuality, was responsible for these changes. Therefore, Aristotle's perspective aligns with the given statement that forms are powerless to explain changes and a thing's ultimate extinction.

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  • 21. 

    To have knowledge of a particular object, it must be knowledge of the substance which is in that things.

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    B. Aristotle
    Explanation
    Aristotle believed that in order to have true knowledge of an object, one must have knowledge of the substance that the object is made of. He argued that objects are composed of matter and form, and that understanding the substance or essence of an object is essential for true knowledge. This is in contrast to Plato, who believed that true knowledge could only be obtained through abstract forms and ideas. Therefore, the correct answer is Aristotle.

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  • 22. 

    To have knowledge of a particular object, one must know the form of the thing, not through the senses, but through the elenchus.

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    A. Plato
    Explanation
    Plato believed that in order to truly know and understand something, one must go beyond the information gathered through the senses. He argued that true knowledge can only be attained through the use of reason and rational thought, which he referred to as the elenchus. Plato believed that the physical world is merely a reflection or imperfect representation of the true forms or ideas that exist in a higher realm. Therefore, to have knowledge of a particular object, one must grasp its true form or essence through philosophical inquiry rather than relying solely on sensory perception.

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  • 23. 

    For ____________, the form is not something outside the object, but rather in the varied phenomena of sense. Real substance, or true being,

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    B. Aristotle
    Explanation
    Aristotle believed that the form is not something separate from the object, but rather inherent in the diverse sensory phenomena. He argued that true substance or being can be found within the tangible world and can be observed through our senses. This is in contrast to Plato's philosophy, which posited that the true form or essence of things exists in a separate realm of ideas.

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  • 24. 

    ___________mentions supra-sensible entities he calls “Forms” (or “Ideas”). So, for example, in the Phaedo, we are told that particular sensible equal things are equal because of their “participation” or “sharing” in the character of the Form of Equality, which is absolutely, changelessly, perfectly, and essentially equal. 

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    A. Plato
    Explanation
    Plato is the correct answer because he is known for his theory of Forms or Ideas. In this theory, Plato suggests that there are supra-sensible entities called Forms, which are perfect and unchanging. According to Plato, particular sensible things in the physical world are only imperfect copies or reflections of these Forms. In the given explanation, it is mentioned that Plato believes that sensible equal things are equal because they participate or share in the character of the Form of Equality, which is perfectly and essentially equal. This aligns with Plato's philosophy and his concept of Forms.

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  • 25. 

    Knowledge involves the recognition of the Forms 

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    A. Plato
    Explanation
    Plato believed that knowledge involves the recognition of the Forms. In his philosophy, Forms are the abstract, perfect, and unchanging ideals or concepts that exist beyond the physical world. According to Plato, true knowledge can only be obtained by understanding these Forms, as they represent the ultimate reality and essence of things. Through a process of contemplation and reasoning, individuals can recognize and grasp these Forms, thereby attaining genuine knowledge. This concept of knowledge as the recognition of the Forms is a central aspect of Plato's philosophy and distinguishes his ideas from those of Aristotle and other philosophers.

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  • 26. 

    There is no such thing as teaching, only recollection of knowledge from past lives, or anamnesis. 

    • A.

      Socrates

    • B.

      Plato

    • C.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    A. Socrates
    Explanation
    Socrates believed that teaching is not the process of imparting knowledge to someone, but rather the process of helping them recollect or remember knowledge that they already possess from past lives. This concept is known as anamnesis. Socrates argued that true learning involves questioning and critical thinking, rather than simply accepting information from an external source. Therefore, the correct answer is Socrates, as he is the philosopher associated with this belief.

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  • 27. 

    One’s soul existed in past lives and knowledge is transferred from those lives to the current one. “These [ideas] were revealed in a former state of existence, and are recovered by reminiscence (anamnesis) or association from sensible things” 

    • A.

      Socrates

    • B.

      Plato

    • C.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    A. Socrates
    Explanation
    The given quote suggests that one's soul existed in past lives and that knowledge is transferred from those lives to the current one through reminiscence or association with sensible things. This belief aligns with the philosophy of Socrates, who believed in the immortality of the soul and the concept of anamnesis, which is the recollection of knowledge from past lives. Therefore, the correct answer is Socrates.

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  • 28. 

    ___________ defends a clear ontological dualism in which there are two types of realities or worlds:  the sensible world and the intelligible world or, as he calls it, the world of the Ideas.

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    A. Plato
    Explanation
    Plato defends a clear ontological dualism in which there are two types of realities or worlds: the sensible world and the intelligible world or, as he calls it, the world of the Ideas. This means that according to Plato, there is a physical world that we perceive through our senses, and there is also a higher realm of Ideas or Forms that are eternal and unchanging. These Ideas are the true reality, and the physical world is merely a reflection or imperfect copy of them. Plato's philosophy has had a significant influence on Western thought and has shaped our understanding of metaphysics and epistemology.

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  • 29. 

     According to Plato, the ________________ is the world of individual realities, and so is multiple and constantly changing, is the world of generation and destruction; is the realm of the sensible, material, temporal and space things.

    • A.

      Sensible world

    • B.

      Intelligible world

    • C.

      The spiritual world

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    A. Sensible world
    Explanation
    According to Plato, the sensible world is the world of individual realities, constantly changing and characterized by generation and destruction. It is the realm of material, temporal, and spatial things. The intelligible world, on the other hand, is the world of eternal and unchanging forms or ideas. The spiritual world refers to a realm beyond the physical and material, often associated with religious or metaphysical beliefs. Therefore, the correct answer is the sensible world.

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  • 30. 

    According to Plato, _______________is the world of the universal, eternal and invisible realities called Ideas (or "Forms"), which are immutable and do not change because they are not material, temporal or space. Ideas can be understood and known; they are the authentic reality.

    • A.

      Sensible world

    • B.

      Intelligible world

    • C.

      The spiritual world

    • D.

      None of these

    Correct Answer
    B. Intelligible world
    Explanation
    According to Plato, the intelligible world is the world of universal, eternal, and invisible realities called Ideas or Forms. These Ideas are immutable and do not change because they are not material, temporal, or spatial. Unlike the sensible world, which is the world of physical objects that we perceive through our senses, the intelligible world represents the authentic reality that can be understood and known. Therefore, the correct answer is the intelligible world.

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  • 31. 

    Evidence does not rise from sensible knowledge. This kind of knowledge leads to relativism, which is, in essence, absurd. Besides, we have knowledge not based on the senses. Science based on sensation as criterion for truth is not possible, because we cannot have science of changeable things which just appears to our senses. Science has to be based on reason, which studies the nature or essence of things.            

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    A. Plato
    Explanation
    Plato is the correct answer because the explanation provided suggests that knowledge cannot be derived solely from sensory experience. Instead, knowledge should be based on reason and the study of the nature or essence of things. This aligns with Plato's philosophy of Forms, where he believed that true knowledge is obtained through rational understanding of the eternal and unchanging Forms, rather than through the imperfect and transient world of sensory perception. Aristotle, on the other hand, believed that knowledge is acquired through observation and experience, which contradicts the given explanation.

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  • 32. 

    According Aristotle, there are ____causes

    • A.

      2

    • B.

      4

    • C.

      6

    • D.

      8

    Correct Answer
    B. 4
    Explanation
    Aristotle believed that there are four causes that explain the existence and nature of things. These causes are the material cause (what something is made of), the formal cause (the shape or structure of something), the efficient cause (the agent or force that brings something into being), and the final cause (the purpose or goal for which something exists). These four causes work together to provide a comprehensive understanding of the essence and functioning of objects or phenomena.

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  • 33. 

    Elements out of which an object is created

    • A.

      Material Cause

    • B.

      Efficient cause

    • C.

      Formal cause

    • D.

      Final Cause

    Correct Answer
    A. Material Cause
    Explanation
    The material cause refers to the physical components or substances that make up an object. It focuses on the raw materials or elements used in the creation of an object. In this context, the correct answer "Material Cause" suggests that the question is asking about the elements or materials that are used to create an object.

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  • 34. 

    The means by which an object is created

    • A.

      Final Cause

    • B.

      Formal cause

    • C.

      Efficient cause

    • D.

      Material Cause

    Correct Answer
    C. Efficient cause
    Explanation
    Efficient cause refers to the process or action that brings about the creation or existence of an object. It is the force or agency responsible for initiating the change or transformation required for the object to come into being. In other words, efficient cause is the means by which an object is created or caused to happen.

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  • 35. 

    The idea of the completed or created object

    • A.

      Final Cause

    • B.

      Formal cause

    • C.

      Efficient cause

    • D.

      Material Cause

    Correct Answer
    B. Formal cause
    Explanation
    The formal cause refers to the idea or concept that gives shape and structure to an object. It is the blueprint or design that guides the creation or completion of the object. In other words, the formal cause is the underlying principle or pattern that determines the form and characteristics of the object. It is the reason behind the object's existence and the basis for its functionality and purpose.

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  • 36. 

    End for which the object is made

    • A.

      Efficient Cause

    • B.

      Final Cause

    • C.

      Material Cause

    • D.

      Formal Cause

    Correct Answer
    B. Final Cause
    Explanation
    The term "final cause" refers to the ultimate purpose or goal for which an object is made. It represents the intention or desired outcome behind the creation of the object. In this context, the "end" mentioned in the question refers to the purpose or objective that the object is designed to fulfill. The other options (efficient cause, material cause, and formal cause) do not directly relate to the purpose or goal of the object, making "final cause" the correct answer.

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  • 37. 

    Happiness must be based on human nature, and must begin from the facts of personal experience. Thus, happiness cannot be found in any abstract or ideal notion

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    B. Aristotle
    Explanation
    Aristotle believed that happiness is rooted in human nature and is derived from personal experiences. He argued that true happiness cannot be found in abstract or ideal concepts alone. Instead, it is a result of living a virtuous and fulfilling life based on one's own experiences and understanding of the world. This aligns with Aristotle's philosophy of eudaimonia, which emphasizes the importance of living in accordance with one's true nature and potential. Plato, on the other hand, focused more on the pursuit of knowledge and the existence of ideal forms as the basis for happiness.

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  • 38. 

    Most moral virtues are to be understood as falling at the mean between two accompanying vices.

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    B. Aristotle
    Explanation
    Aristotle believed that moral virtues are best understood as a balance between two extremes. He argued that virtues such as courage, generosity, and temperance are found at the mean between two accompanying vices. For example, courage is the mean between recklessness and cowardice. Aristotle believed that individuals should strive to find the balance between these extremes in order to cultivate virtuous character. This perspective differs from Plato's, who focused more on the pursuit of knowledge and the idea of the Forms as the basis for moral virtue.

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  • 39. 

    Moral virtues are desire-regulating character traits which are at a mean between more extreme character traits (or vices)

    • A.

      Plato

    • B.

      Aristotle

    Correct Answer
    B. Aristotle
    Explanation
    Aristotle believed that moral virtues are character traits that regulate our desires and actions. According to him, these virtues lie between two extremes - the excess and deficiency of a particular trait. For example, courage is the virtue that lies between recklessness (excess) and cowardice (deficiency). Aristotle's view on moral virtues emphasizes the importance of finding a balance in our actions and desires, rather than leaning towards extremes.

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  • 40. 

    The use of a system of positive reinforcement to encourage desired behavior is based on

    • A.

      Essentialism.

    • B.

      Behaviorism.

    • C.

      Existentialism.

    • D.

      Progressivism.

    Correct Answer
    B. Behaviorism.
    Explanation
    The use of a system of positive reinforcement to encourage desired behavior is based on behaviorism. Behaviorism is a psychological theory that focuses on observable behaviors and how they are influenced by the environment. It suggests that behavior can be shaped through reinforcement, such as rewards or punishments. In this case, positive reinforcement is used to encourage the desired behavior, meaning that a reward or positive consequence is given when the behavior occurs, increasing the likelihood of it being repeated in the future.

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  • 41. 

    Unlike existentialists, __________ believe that free will is an illusion and that human nature is shaped by the environment.

    • A.

      Essentialists

    • B.

      progressivists

    • C.

      Perennialists

    • D.

      Behaviorists

    Correct Answer
    D. Behaviorists
    Explanation
    Behaviorists believe that free will is an illusion and that human nature is shaped by the environment. They argue that human behavior is determined by a person's past experiences and the consequences of those experiences. According to behaviorists, individuals do not have control over their actions and choices, as they are influenced by external factors. This perspective contrasts with existentialists, who emphasize individual freedom and the ability to make choices independent of external influences.

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  • 42. 

    Today’s focus on stronger standards and more testing of both students and teachers best fits which philosophy of education?

    • A.

      essentialism

    • B.

      Perennialism

    • C.

      Progressivism

    • D.

      Social reconstructionism

    Correct Answer
    A. essentialism
    Explanation
    Essentialism is the correct answer because it emphasizes a strong focus on core knowledge and skills that are essential for students to succeed in the real world. It believes in a structured and rigorous curriculum, standardized testing, and accountability for both students and teachers. This philosophy aims to provide students with a solid foundation of knowledge and prepare them for practical and professional success.

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  • 43. 

    Which of the following best describes informal education?

    • A.

      Students learn by combining academic study with attempts to improve society.

    • B.

      Children learn from adults and older children through observing, helping, and imitating

    • C.

      Teachers guide student behavior using positive reinforcement.

    • D.

      Children define their own meaning and choose what and how to learn.

    Correct Answer
    B. Children learn from adults and older children through observing, helping, and imitating
    Explanation
    The correct answer describes informal education as children learning from adults and older children through observing, helping, and imitating. This type of education occurs outside of formal academic settings and is often based on real-life experiences and interactions with others. It emphasizes learning through observation and practical application rather than structured classroom instruction.

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  • 44. 

    The founder of the Academy in Athens was

    • A.

      Socrates.

    • B.

      Plato.

    • C.

      Aristotle.

    • D.

      Herodotus.

    Correct Answer
    B. Plato.
    Explanation
    Plato was the founder of the Academy in Athens. He established this renowned institution in 387 BC as a center for philosophical and scientific studies. The Academy became a prominent intellectual hub, attracting scholars and students from all over Greece. Plato's teachings, particularly his philosophy of ideal forms and his emphasis on the pursuit of knowledge, had a profound impact on Western philosophy and education. His Academy played a crucial role in the development of philosophical thought and the training of future philosophers, making Plato the correct answer to this question.

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  • 45. 

    The idea of eternal “forms” underlying all existence comes from

    • A.

      Heredotus

    • B.

      Aristotle

    • C.

      Plato

    • D.

      Socrates

    Correct Answer
    C. Plato
    Explanation
    Plato is the correct answer because he was the philosopher who introduced the concept of eternal "forms" underlying all existence. In his famous work, "The Republic," Plato argued that the physical world we perceive is merely a shadow or reflection of the true reality, which exists in the realm of eternal forms. According to Plato, these forms are perfect and unchanging, serving as the ultimate source of knowledge and truth. This idea had a significant influence on subsequent philosophical and religious thought.

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  • 46. 

    This man is close associate with Social Reconstructionism

    • A.

      William Bagley

    • B.

      John Dewey

    • C.

      Jean Paul Sartre

    • D.

      George S. Counts

    Correct Answer
    D. George S. Counts
    Explanation
    George S. Counts is the correct answer because he is closely associated with Social Reconstructionism. Social Reconstructionism is an educational philosophy that emphasizes the role of education in promoting social change and addressing social issues. Counts was a prominent American educator and philosopher who advocated for a more socially conscious and progressive approach to education. He believed that education should be used as a tool for social reform and that schools should prepare students to be active and engaged citizens in a democratic society.

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  • 47. 

    This man is closely associated with Perennialism

    • A.

      John Dewey

    • B.

      Robert M. Hutchins

    • C.

      Mortimer Adler

    • D.

      B.F. Skinner

    Correct Answer
    C. Mortimer Adler
    Explanation
    Mortimer Adler is closely associated with Perennialism, an educational philosophy that emphasizes the importance of timeless ideas and knowledge. Adler was a prominent philosopher and educator who believed in the value of a liberal arts education and the pursuit of truth and wisdom. He advocated for a curriculum that focused on the great works of literature, philosophy, and science, which he believed would provide students with a solid foundation of knowledge and help them develop critical thinking skills. Adler's ideas align with the principles of Perennialism, making him the correct answer.

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  • 48. 

    This man is the founder of Summerhill and is closely associated with existential/humanisticeducation

    • A.

      George S. Counts

    • B.

      Arthur S. Neill

    • C.

      Lev Vygotsky

    • D.

      Jean Piaget

    Correct Answer
    B. Arthur S. Neill
    Explanation
    Arthur S. Neill is the founder of Summerhill, a renowned alternative school that promotes a humanistic and existential approach to education. He believed in giving children the freedom to choose their own activities and emphasized the importance of self-expression and self-discovery. Neill's educational philosophy aligns closely with existential and humanistic principles, which focus on the individual's personal growth, autonomy, and responsibility. Therefore, Arthur S. Neill is the correct answer for this question.

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  • 49. 

    This man's theories of genetic epistemology are foundational to constructivism

    • A.

      Jean Paul Sartre

    • B.

      B.F. Skinner

    • C.

      Jean Piaget

    • D.

      Lev Vygotsky

    • E.

      John Dewey

    Correct Answer
    C. Jean Piaget
    Explanation
    Jean Piaget's theories of genetic epistemology are foundational to constructivism. Piaget believed that children actively construct their knowledge and understanding of the world through their interactions and experiences. He proposed that cognitive development occurs in stages, with each stage building upon the previous one. Piaget's work has had a significant impact on education and psychology, as it emphasizes the importance of active learning and the role of the learner in the learning process. His theories align closely with the principles of constructivism, which emphasize the learner's active participation in constructing their own knowledge.

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  • 50. 

    This man was one o the most influential voices in the philosphical schoolof Essentialism

    • A.

      John Dewey

    • B.

      William C. Bagley

    • C.

      George S. Counts

    • D.

      Jean Piaget

    Correct Answer
    B. William C. Bagley
    Explanation
    William C. Bagley was one of the most influential voices in the philosophical school of Essentialism. Essentialism is a belief that there are certain essential and unchanging qualities or characteristics that define individuals or objects. Bagley was known for his advocacy of a traditional, content-centered curriculum that emphasized the transmission of essential knowledge to students. He believed that education should focus on teaching students the core subjects and fundamental concepts, rather than promoting individual interests or skills. Bagley's ideas had a significant impact on educational policy and curriculum development, making him an important figure in the field of education.

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  • Mar 21, 2023
    Quiz Edited by
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  • Oct 02, 2009
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