# Eas Final Practice 2.0

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• 1.

### Where would you be least likely to find igneous rock?

• A.

Big island of Hawaii

• B.

Mid-ocean ridge

• C.

Andes mountains

• D.

Southern Illinois

• E.

On Stone Mountain

D. Southern Illinois
Explanation
Igneous rock is formed from the cooling and solidification of molten magma or lava. Southern Illinois is located in the central United States, far away from any active volcanic activity or areas where magma is likely to reach the surface. Therefore, it is least likely to have igneous rock formations compared to the other options listed. The Big Island of Hawaii, Mid-ocean ridge, Andes mountains, and Stone Mountain are all geologically active areas where igneous rock is commonly found.

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• 2.

### Who finally proposed a theory that satifactorily explains the motion of the planets in our solar system?

• A.

Galileo

• B.

Tycho Brahe

• C.

Hipparchus

• D.

Kepler

• E.

Copernicus

D. Kepler
Explanation
Johannes Kepler proposed a theory that satisfactorily explains the motion of the planets in our solar system. Kepler's laws of planetary motion provided a mathematical description of how the planets move around the Sun. He discovered that the planets move in elliptical orbits, with the Sun at one of the foci. Kepler's laws revolutionized our understanding of the solar system and laid the foundation for modern astronomy.

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• 3.

### As the frequency of electromagnetic radiation increases, the energy of each photon will:

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Remain the same

A. Increase
Explanation
As the frequency of electromagnetic radiation increases, the energy of each photon will increase. This is because the energy of a photon is directly proportional to its frequency. Higher frequency radiation has more energy per photon compared to lower frequency radiation. Therefore, as the frequency increases, so does the energy of each photon.

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• 4.

### Which of these is most closely associated with the initial appearance of atmospheric oxygen on Earth?

• A.

Banded Iron Formations

• B.

Ash layers in sediments

• C.

Redbeds

• D.

None of the above

A. Banded Iron Formations
Explanation
Banded Iron Formations are most closely associated with the initial appearance of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. These formations are composed of alternating layers of iron-rich minerals and chert, and they were formed during the Precambrian era when oxygen levels in the atmosphere were low. The iron-rich minerals in these formations were deposited in the oceans by iron-rich water that was released by volcanic activity. As photosynthetic organisms like cyanobacteria evolved and began producing oxygen through photosynthesis, the oxygen reacted with the iron in the ocean, causing it to precipitate and form these distinctive banded formations.

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• 5.

### Who will appear to age faster?

• A.

A person on Earth

• B.

A person on a spaceship orbiting Earth at a speed of 0.8 c (the speed of light)

• C.

Neither, they will age at the same rate

A. A person on Earth
Explanation
A person on Earth will appear to age faster compared to a person on a spaceship orbiting Earth at a speed of 0.8 c (the speed of light). This is due to the phenomenon of time dilation predicted by Einstein's theory of relativity. As an object approaches the speed of light, time slows down for that object relative to a stationary observer. Therefore, the person on the spaceship, moving at a high speed, will experience time passing slower than the person on Earth. As a result, the person on Earth will age faster than the person on the spaceship.

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• 6.

### Which of these is NOT a characteristic of a scientific theory?

• A.

It is based on research of a substantial amount of data

• B.

It is a speculation based on limited research

• C.

It must be able to predict future events with a measurable degree of accuracy

• D.

It is consistent with other related theories

• E.

None of the above

B. It is a speculation based on limited research
Explanation
A scientific theory is not a speculation based on limited research because it is based on the research of a substantial amount of data. Scientific theories are formed through rigorous investigation, experimentation, and analysis of empirical evidence. They are supported by a wealth of data and observations, which allows scientists to make accurate predictions about future events with a measurable degree of accuracy. Additionally, scientific theories are expected to be consistent with other related theories, providing a comprehensive understanding of a particular phenomenon. Therefore, the given answer correctly states that a scientific theory is not a speculation based on limited research.

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• 7.

### During an ice ago, 0-18 in the ocean will be

• A.

Enhanced

• B.

Lessened

• C.

The same

A. Enhanced
Explanation
During an ice age, the presence of ice causes the sea level to decrease. As a result, the area of the ocean that is covered by water (0-18) is reduced. Therefore, the correct answer is "lessened".

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• 8.

### Which star is most likely to supernova?

• A.

A brown dwarf

• B.

A blue star

• C.

A red giant

• D.

A yellow star

B. A blue star
Explanation
Blue stars are the most likely to supernova because they are massive and have short lifespans. Blue stars have a high rate of nuclear fusion, which causes them to burn through their fuel quickly. As a result, they exhaust their nuclear fuel faster than other types of stars. This rapid consumption of fuel leads to the eventual collapse of the star's core and a massive explosion known as a supernova. Brown dwarfs, red giants, and yellow stars do not have the same level of mass or rate of nuclear fusion as blue stars, making them less likely to undergo a supernova.

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• 9.

### Which of these scientists did NOT base his scientific work on the common scientific method of observation, mathematical analysis, and comparison of theoretical results to observed data

• A.

Newton

• B.

Kepler

• C.

Copernicus

• D.

Einstein

• E.

Wegener

E. Wegener
Explanation
Wegener did not base his scientific work on the common scientific method of observation, mathematical analysis, and comparison of theoretical results to observed data. Wegener's work was focused on the theory of continental drift, which was not widely accepted during his time. He gathered evidence from various fields such as geology, paleontology, and climatology to support his theory, but his approach was not fully in line with the traditional scientific method.

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• 10.

### As the recession speed of a star increases, the difference between the wavelength measured on earth and the wavelength emitted by the star will:

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Stay the same

A. Increase
Explanation
As the recession speed of a star increases, the wavelength of light emitted by the star will shift towards the red end of the spectrum. This is known as redshift. When the wavelength measured on Earth is compared to the wavelength emitted by the star, the difference between them will increase. This is because the recession speed causes the wavelength to stretch out, resulting in a larger difference between the two wavelengths.

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• 11.

### Which of these is the primary reason we believe our solar system contains a second or third generation star?

• A.

The comparison of radionuclides in carbonaceous meteorites

• B.

Bode's law

• C.

The deficiency of volatile elements among the inner planets

• D.

Some elements on earth are only produced in supernovae

• E.

None of the above

D. Some elements on earth are only produced in supernovae
Explanation
Some elements on Earth are only produced in supernovae. This suggests that our solar system contains a second or third generation star because these elements can only be formed through the explosive death of a massive star. As the debris from the supernova explosion disperses and mixes with other interstellar material, it eventually becomes part of a new star system, like our own. Therefore, the presence of these elements on Earth indicates that our solar system formed from the remnants of a previous star's explosion.

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• 12.

### Which of these is the most significant reason to discard the gravitational capture by hypothesis for the moon:

• A.

Tidal locking between the earth and moon

• B.

The similarity of O-18 between lunar and terrestrial samples

• C.

The presence of lunar marae

• D.

The increasing distance between the earth and moon

• E.

The absence of a lunar atmosphere

B. The similarity of O-18 between lunar and terrestrial samples
Explanation
The similarity of O-18 between lunar and terrestrial samples is the most significant reason to discard the gravitational capture by hypothesis for the moon. This is because O-18 is a stable isotope of oxygen that is found in both the Earth and the Moon. If the Moon was captured by Earth's gravity, it would be expected to have a different composition than the Earth. The fact that the O-18 isotope is the same in both samples suggests that the Moon and Earth have a common origin, rather than the Moon being captured by Earth's gravity.

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• 13.

### Which of these is not found in the s-process?

• A.

Alpha-decay

• B.

Beta-decay

• C.

Neutron capture

• D.

Electron capture

• E.

None of the above

A. Alpha-decay
Explanation
The s-process, or slow neutron capture process, is a nucleosynthesis process that occurs in stars. It involves the capture of neutrons by atomic nuclei, resulting in the creation of heavier elements. Alpha-decay, on the other hand, is a radioactive decay process in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle. This process is not associated with the s-process and is not found in it. Therefore, the correct answer is alpha-decay.

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• 14.

### What is the primary reason that mars is too cold to be habitable

• A.

Mars is outside the habitable zone of our solar system

• B.

The martian atmosphere is almost entirely carbon dioxide

• C.

Gravitational attraction by the planet jupiter

• D.

Mars is no longer tectonically active

• E.

The martian albedo is too high

D. Mars is no longer tectonically active
Explanation
Mars being no longer tectonically active is the primary reason why it is too cold to be habitable. Tectonic activity, such as volcanic eruptions and plate movements, plays a crucial role in regulating a planet's temperature. On Earth, tectonic activity helps in the release of heat from the planet's interior, maintaining a stable and habitable climate. However, Mars lacks this activity, causing its interior to cool down over time. As a result, Mars has lost much of its internal heat, leading to a cold and inhospitable environment.

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• 15.

### Which of these does not meet the requirements of a current scientific theory as discussed in this course

• A.

Gravity

• B.

Creation of life

• C.

Evolution of life

• D.

Relativity

• E.

None of the above

B. Creation of life
Explanation
The answer "creation of life" does not meet the requirements of a current scientific theory as discussed in the course because it lacks empirical evidence and cannot be tested or observed through scientific methods. Scientific theories are based on evidence, experimentation, and observation, whereas the concept of "creation of life" is often associated with religious or philosophical beliefs rather than scientific evidence.

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• 16.

### What can we assume happened at the time the "redbeds" first appeared

• A.

Photosynthesis began

• B.

The first oxygen was present in the surface oceans

• C.

Significant oxygen began to be present in the deep ocean

• D.

Trace amounts of oxygen began to be present in the atmosphere

C. Significant oxygen began to be present in the deep ocean
Explanation
At the time the "redbeds" first appeared, significant oxygen began to be present in the deep ocean. This can be inferred because the presence of oxygen in the deep ocean is necessary for the formation of redbeds, which are sedimentary rocks that contain iron oxide. The formation of iron oxide requires the interaction of iron-rich sediments with oxygen. Therefore, the presence of redbeds suggests that there was a significant amount of oxygen available in the deep ocean during that time.

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• 17.

### Some astrophysicists believe that jupiter plays a key role in maintaining the habitability of earth by:

• A.

Shielding earth from cosmic radiation

• B.

Gravitationally scavenging meteors which could strike earth

• C.

Absorbing excess solar radiation

• D.

Capturing dust from dense interstellar dust clouds

• E.

None of the above

B. Gravitationally scavenging meteors which could strike earth
Explanation
Jupiter's large gravitational pull helps to attract and capture meteors that could potentially collide with Earth. This "gravitational scavenging" acts as a protective mechanism, reducing the likelihood of these meteors reaching our planet and causing potentially catastrophic impacts. Therefore, this role of Jupiter in preventing meteor strikes contributes to maintaining the habitability of Earth.

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• 18.

### About 300 thousand years after the big bang, light was able to first propagate through the universe because

• A.

The universe had expanded

• B.

Most free electrons had become attached to atoms

• C.

Helium atoms had formed

• D.

Gravity had begun to form stars

• E.

None of the above

B. Most free electrons had become attached to atoms
Explanation
About 300 thousand years after the big bang, light was able to first propagate through the universe because most free electrons had become attached to atoms. This process is known as recombination, where electrons combine with positively charged ions to form neutral atoms. Prior to this, the universe was filled with a plasma of free electrons and ions, which caused light to scatter and prevented it from traveling freely. However, as the universe cooled down, the electrons and ions combined, allowing light to travel without obstruction.

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• 19.

### As the rate of radioactive isotope decay in the earth's mantle decreases, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmoshpere will tend to

• A.

Increase

• B.

Decrease

• C.

Stay the same

B. Decrease
Explanation
As the rate of radioactive isotope decay in the earth's mantle decreases, it means that less radioactive material is being released into the atmosphere. This decrease in radioactive decay leads to a decrease in the production of carbon dioxide, as radioactive decay is one of the sources of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Therefore, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will tend to decrease.

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• 20.

### Which of these is a major reason that venus is too hot for life

• A.

It has a runaway greenhouse effect

• B.

It has no greenhouse gases

• C.

It has less water than earth

• D.

It has the same gas composition as mars

A. It has a runaway greenhouse effect
Explanation
Venus is too hot for life because it has a runaway greenhouse effect. This means that the planet's atmosphere traps heat from the sun, causing the temperature to rise to extremely high levels. The greenhouse gases present in Venus' atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, contribute to this effect by trapping and retaining the heat. As a result, the surface temperature on Venus reaches about 900 degrees Fahrenheit, making it inhospitable for any form of life.

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• 21.

### The presence of which element in a crater is considered to provide proof of a meteor impact

• A.

Technicium

• B.

Iridium

• C.

Uranium

• D.

Thorium

• E.

Iron

B. Iridium
Explanation
Iridium is considered to provide proof of a meteor impact. This is because iridium is a rare element on Earth's surface but is abundant in meteorites. When a meteor impact occurs, it releases large amounts of iridium into the atmosphere, which then settles on the Earth's surface. Therefore, the presence of iridium in a crater is a strong indication that it was formed by a meteor impact.

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• 22.

### Which of these is not a source of atmospheric carbon dioxide?

• A.

Organic decay

• B.

Volcanic degassing

• C.

Metamorphosis of limestone into feldspars

• D.

Photosynthesis

• E.

Carbonate formation in the oceans

D. Photosynthesis
Explanation
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants and some other organisms convert carbon dioxide into oxygen and glucose. Therefore, photosynthesis is a source of atmospheric oxygen, not carbon dioxide.

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• 23.

### Which of the following statements about atmospheric oxygen is not correct

• A.

Earth is the only planet in our solar system with significant oxygen

• B.

The primary source of terrestrial oxygen is photosynthesis

• C.

Earth has always had an oxidizing atmosphere

• D.

A secondary source of terrestrial oxygen is hydrogen escape

• E.

If most terrestrial iron were not in the planetary core, there would be no atmospheric oxygen

C. Earth has always had an oxidizing atmosphere
Explanation
The statement "earth has always had an oxidizing atmosphere" is not correct. The Earth's atmosphere has not always been oxidizing. In fact, for the majority of Earth's history, the atmosphere was reducing, meaning it lacked oxygen. It was only after the evolution of photosynthetic organisms that oxygen began to accumulate in the atmosphere, leading to the oxidizing atmosphere we have today.

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• 24.

### Which of these statements is not scientifically accurate

• A.

Life may have originated in anaerobic environments (black smokers) in the ocean

• B.

Evolution is only a theory and should not be considered as any better than other explanations

• C.

It is possible that life originated on another planet, and organisms were carried here on meteorites or comets

• D.

After mass extinctions there is evidence of an explosion of biodiversity

• E.

None of the above

D. After mass extinctions there is evidence of an explosion of biodiversity
Explanation
The statement "after mass extinctions there is evidence of an explosion of biodiversity" is not scientifically accurate. Mass extinctions typically result in a significant loss of biodiversity, as many species become extinct. After such events, it takes millions of years for biodiversity to recover and reach previous levels. Therefore, there is no evidence to support the idea of an immediate explosion of biodiversity following mass extinctions.

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• 25.

### Which is the most likely source for the water of earth

• A.

Capture of hyrodgen from the sun

• B.

Meteors

• C.

Comets

• D.

During the accretion process water floated to the surface

• E.

None of the above

C. Comets
Explanation
Comets are the most likely source for the water on Earth. Comets are icy bodies that originate from the outer regions of the solar system and contain a significant amount of water. When comets enter the inner solar system, the heat from the Sun causes the ice to vaporize, releasing water vapor. Some of this water vapor can then condense and fall to Earth as precipitation, ultimately contributing to the water on our planet. Therefore, comets are considered a probable source of Earth's water.

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• 26.

### Which of the following best explains the layering of earth into the inner core, outer core, mantle, and crust

• A.

The earth was once molten and the denser materials sank towards the center

• B.

Gravity pulled the denser material in frist and material of lesser densities later

• C.

Less dense material was blown away by the ignition of the sun

• D.

Bodes law

• E.

None of the above

A. The earth was once molten and the denser materials sank towards the center
Explanation
The correct answer is that the earth was once molten and the denser materials sank towards the center. This explanation is based on the theory of planetary differentiation, which suggests that during the early stages of Earth's formation, it was in a molten state. As the molten Earth cooled down, the heavier elements and materials sank towards the center due to their higher density, forming the inner core. The less dense materials remained on the outer layers, forming the crust, mantle, and outer core. This process is known as density stratification and is supported by scientific evidence such as seismic data and the study of meteorites.

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• 27.

### Select the option below that is the most correct conclusion. you are leading a team exploring another planet. in your explorations you run an experiment. on one side of the planet you set up a seismographic station. at a point exactly opposite on the other side of the planet, your colleagues detonate a large explosive device. at some time after the explosion, your seismograph records a P-wave, but does not record an s-wave. from these data you conclude that

• A.

The planet has a iron-nickel core

• B.

The planet has a layer of molten material in its interior

• C.

The planet has a solid interior

• D.

The planet is tectonically active

• E.

These data do not support any of the above assumptions

B. The planet has a layer of molten material in its interior
Explanation
Based on the given information, the seismograph recorded a P-wave but not an S-wave after the explosion. This suggests that the seismic waves were able to travel through the planet, indicating that the planet has a layer of molten material in its interior. This is because S-waves cannot travel through liquid, so the absence of an S-wave suggests the presence of a molten layer.

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• 28.

### What is the primary source of atmospheric oxygen on earth

• A.

Cometary bombardment

• B.

Respiration

• C.

Photosynthesis

• D.

Precipitation

• E.

Weathering of rocks

C. Photosynthesis
Explanation
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria convert sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide into glucose and oxygen. Oxygen is released as a byproduct of this process, making photosynthesis the primary source of atmospheric oxygen on Earth. Respiration is the process by which organisms use oxygen to break down glucose and release energy, while cometary bombardment, precipitation, and weathering of rocks do not contribute significantly to the production of atmospheric oxygen.

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• 29.

### Which of these is the primary reason the miller-urey experiment failed to support the oparin hypothesis?

• A.

The atmosphere used was oxidizing

• B.

The experiment failed to produce organic molecules

• C.

The molecules produced could not sustain themselves or reproduce

• D.

The pre-biotic earth atmosphere closely resembled that of the experiment

• E.

None of the above

C. The molecules produced could not sustain themselves or reproduce
Explanation
The primary reason the Miller-Urey experiment failed to support the Oparin hypothesis is that the molecules produced in the experiment could not sustain themselves or reproduce. This means that the experiment did not successfully demonstrate the formation of self-sustaining organic molecules, which is a key aspect of the Oparin hypothesis. The other options, such as the atmosphere used being oxidizing or the experiment failing to produce organic molecules, may have been contributing factors, but the inability of the molecules to sustain themselves or reproduce is the main reason for the experiment's failure to support the hypothesis.

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• 30.

### Astronomers have determined that the primary wavelength of a star is .01 microns. where would you expect to find this star on a herzsprung-russell diagram

• A.

Upper right

• B.

Upper left

• C.

Lower left

• D.

Lower right

• E.

Center

B. Upper left
Explanation
The primary wavelength of a star is directly related to its temperature. A star with a primary wavelength of .01 microns would have a high temperature. In the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, stars with high temperatures are found in the upper left region, known as the "upper left" on the diagram. This region is where the hottest and brightest stars, such as blue giants, are located.

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• 31.

### Which of these is not a process that would help concentrate gold?

• A.

Sedimentation in the oceans

• B.

Metamorphosis of sediments containing gold in subduction zones

• C.

Precipitation of deposits from water solution in the lithosphere

• D.

Deposition of placers in slow moving stream beds

• E.

Leaching of gold from rocks by superheated water

B. Metamorphosis of sediments containing gold in subduction zones
Explanation
The process of metamorphosis of sediments containing gold in subduction zones does not help concentrate gold. Subduction zones involve the collision of tectonic plates, where one plate is forced beneath another. This process typically results in intense heat and pressure, which can cause the rocks to undergo metamorphism. However, gold is not concentrated during this process. Instead, gold is concentrated through processes such as sedimentation in the oceans, precipitation of deposits from water solution in the lithosphere, deposition of placers in slow-moving stream beds, or leaching of gold from rocks by superheated water.

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• 32.

### Which of the following is least likely to cause a major extinction of life event

• A.

A snowball-earth event, triggered by plate tectonics

• B.

Anthropogenic global warming (burning of fossil fuels)

• C.

A super-plume event

• D.

A major meteorite/asteroid impact

• E.

None of the above, they are all likely to cause mass extinctions