# Earthquakes Assessment Mcfadden Period 2 2015

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• 1.

### When stress causes rocks to break: vibrations called _____________________ are produced.

• A.

Earthquakes

• B.

Tsunami

• C.

Faults

• D.

Elastic Limit

A. Earthquakes
Explanation
When stress causes rocks to break, the release of energy creates vibrations known as earthquakes. These vibrations travel through the Earth's crust, causing the ground to shake. Earthquakes can occur along fault lines, which are areas where rocks have broken and slipped past each other. The elastic limit refers to the maximum amount of stress a material can handle before permanently deforming, but it is not directly related to the production of vibrations. Tsunamis, on the other hand, are large ocean waves typically caused by underwater earthquakes, but they are not the vibrations themselves.

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• 2.

### When tension forces pull rock apart a ________________ occurs.

• A.

Reverse Fault

• B.

Normal Fault

• C.

Strike-slip Fault

• D.

Transform Fault

B. Normal Fault
Explanation
When tension forces pull rock apart, a normal fault occurs. In a normal fault, the hanging wall moves downward relative to the footwall, resulting in the extension and stretching of the rock mass. This type of faulting is commonly associated with divergent plate boundaries, where two tectonic plates move away from each other, creating tensional forces that cause the rock to fracture and slide. The movement along the fault plane is primarily vertical, with the hanging wall moving down and the footwall moving up. This can lead to the formation of fault scarps and the displacement of rock layers.

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• 3.

### _______________________ waves cause particles in rocks to move at right angles to the direction of the waves.

• A.

Surface Waves

• B.

Primary Waves

• C.

Secondary Waves

• D.

Tertiary Waves

C. Secondary Waves
Explanation
Secondary waves, also known as shear waves, are a type of seismic wave that causes particles in rocks to move at right angles to the direction of the wave. These waves are slower than primary waves and can only travel through solid materials. They are responsible for the side-to-side shaking motion during an earthquake and are the second wave to arrive at a seismograph station, hence the name "secondary waves."

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• 4.

### The ___________ of an earthquake is the point of Earth's surface above the focus.

• A.

Focus

• B.

Epicenter

• C.

Foci

• D.

Fault

B. Epicenter
Explanation
The epicenter of an earthquake refers to the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus, which is the underground origin or starting point of the earthquake.

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• 5.

### The measure of energy released by an earthquake is the earthquake's ________________________

• A.

Magnitude

• B.

Destructive Force

• C.

Focus

• D.

Epicenter

A. Magnitude
Explanation
The measure of energy released by an earthquake is known as its magnitude. Magnitude is a quantitative measurement of the seismic energy released during an earthquake, which is calculated using various seismological techniques. It is an important factor in understanding the strength and impact of an earthquake, as it provides a standardized scale to compare different seismic events. Magnitude is typically reported using the Richter scale or the moment magnitude scale (Mw), both of which take into account the amplitude of seismic waves recorded by seismographs.

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• 6.

### At a _____________________, the rocks above the fault surface are forced up and over the rocks below the fault surface.

• A.

Reverse Fault

• B.

Normal Fault

• C.

Strike-Slip Fault

• D.

Transform Fault

A. Reverse Fault
Explanation
A reverse fault occurs when the rocks above the fault surface are pushed up and over the rocks below the fault surface. This type of fault is characterized by a steeply inclined fault plane and is caused by compressional forces in the Earth's crust. The movement along a reverse fault is vertical and the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall. Reverse faults are commonly associated with convergent plate boundaries, where two tectonic plates collide and cause compression.

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• 7.

### By studying seismic wave information, a scientist discovered that boundary between Earth's crust and its upper mantle, which is called the ______________.

• A.

Moho

• B.

Lithosphere

• C.

Asthenosphere

• D.

Crust

A. Moho
Explanation
The correct answer is Moho. The Moho is the boundary between the Earth's crust and its upper mantle. It was discovered by studying seismic wave information. Seismic waves travel at different speeds through different layers of the Earth, and the Moho is characterized by a significant increase in seismic wave velocity. This discovery has provided valuable insights into the structure and composition of the Earth's interior.

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• 8.

### A ___________________ is a seawave that is caused by seismic activity and can cause great devastation.

• A.

P-waves

• B.

S-waves

• C.

Surface Waves

• D.

Tsunami

D. Tsunami
Explanation
A tsunami is a seawave that is caused by seismic activity and can cause great devastation. Tsunamis are typically triggered by underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, or landslides. These events generate powerful waves that can travel across the ocean at high speeds, and when they reach shallow waters near the coastline, they can rapidly increase in height and cause widespread destruction. Tsunamis are known for their destructive power and have the potential to cause loss of life and property damage on a massive scale.

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• 9.

### Most destruction is caused by __________________ waves

• A.

S-waves

• B.

Surface Waves

• C.

P-waves

• D.

Sound Waves

B. Surface Waves
Explanation
Surface waves are the correct answer because they are responsible for causing the most destruction during an earthquake. These waves travel along the Earth's surface and have a horizontal motion that can cause buildings and infrastructure to collapse. They are slower than P-waves and S-waves but have a larger amplitude, making them more destructive. Surface waves are also responsible for the shaking and rolling motion felt during an earthquake, which can lead to landslides and tsunamis in coastal areas.

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• 10.

### An instrument called a _____________________ is used to record seismic waves

• A.

Seismograph

• B.

Seismogram

• C.

Seismometer

A. Seismograph
Explanation
A seismograph is an instrument used to record seismic waves. It consists of a heavy weight attached to a stationary base, and a pen or stylus attached to the weight. When an earthquake occurs, the base remains stationary while the weight and pen move with the shaking ground. This movement is recorded on a rotating drum or a digital display, creating a seismogram. A seismometer, on the other hand, is an instrument that measures the motion of the ground during an earthquake but does not record it. Therefore, the correct instrument used to record seismic waves is a seismograph.

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• 11.

### A fault between two plates that are moving sideways past each other is called a _______________ fault

• A.

Normal

• B.

Reverse

• C.

Transform

• D.

Strike-slip

D. Strike-slip
Explanation
A fault between two plates that are moving sideways past each other is called a strike-slip fault. In this type of fault, the movement occurs horizontally along the fault line, with one block of rock sliding past the other in a sideways motion. This can result in shearing and displacement of the rocks on either side of the fault. Strike-slip faults are commonly associated with transform plate boundaries, such as the San Andreas Fault in California.

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• 12.

### ________________ waves cause particles in the Earth to move back and forth in the same  direction (similar to a slinky) as the wave travels

• A.

Secondary

• B.

Light

• C.

Surface

• D.

Primary

D. Primary
Explanation
Primary waves, also known as P-waves, are a type of seismic wave that travel through the Earth's interior. These waves cause particles in the Earth to move back and forth in the same direction as the wave travels. This means that as the P-wave travels, the particles in the Earth move in the same direction as the wave, similar to how a slinky moves back and forth when stretched and released. Therefore, the correct answer is Primary.

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• 13.

### Earthquakes generate energy waves called ____________________.

• A.

Seismic Waves

• B.

Ocean Waves

• C.

Sound Waves

• D.

Light Waves

A. Seismic Waves
Explanation
Earthquakes generate energy waves called seismic waves. These waves are produced by the release of energy during an earthquake and travel through the Earth's layers. Seismic waves are responsible for the shaking and vibrations felt during an earthquake. They can be categorized into two main types: body waves and surface waves. Body waves include primary (P) waves and secondary (S) waves, which travel through the Earth's interior. Surface waves, on the other hand, travel along the Earth's surface and are responsible for the most destructive effects of an earthquake.

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• 14.

### When the force on rocks is great enough, they break, producing vibrations called _____________.

• A.

Faults

• B.

Earthquakes

• C.

Strains

• D.

Stresses

B. Earthquakes
Explanation
When rocks experience a significant amount of force, they can fracture and create vibrations known as earthquakes. Faults, strains, and stresses are all related to the movement and deformation of rocks, but earthquakes specifically refer to the seismic events caused by the breaking of rocks under intense force.

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• 15.

### Once the elastic limit of rocks is passed, they break and move along surfaces called _______________.

• A.

Faults

• B.

Earthquakes

• C.

Strains

• D.

Stresses

A. Faults
Explanation
When rocks are subjected to stress beyond their elastic limit, they undergo deformation and eventually break. The broken pieces of rocks then move along surfaces known as faults. Faults are the result of the movement and displacement of rocks, often caused by tectonic forces. Earthquakes are closely associated with faults, as the sudden release of energy during an earthquake is often triggered by the movement along these fault surfaces. Therefore, faults are the correct answer in this context.

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• 16.

### Most earthquakes happen ____________.

• A.

Without warning

• B.

In areas where earthquakes have occurred in the past

• C.

Along plate boundaries

• D.

All the answers provided are correct

D. All the answers provided are correct
Explanation
All the answers provided are correct because most earthquakes can happen without warning, in areas where earthquakes have occurred in the past, and along plate boundaries. Earthquakes can occur suddenly and unpredictably, causing significant damage and loss of life. They are more likely to happen in regions that have a history of seismic activity, as well as along the boundaries of tectonic plates where the movement and interaction of plates can generate seismic activity. Therefore, all the given options accurately describe the occurrence of most earthquakes.

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• 17.

### A person twice as far from the epicenter of an earthquake as another person will notice that the time between the arrival of the primary and secondary waves will be ________________.

• A.

The same

• B.

Larger

• C.

Reduced

• D.

Unnoticeable

B. Larger
Explanation
The person who is twice as far from the epicenter of an earthquake as another person will notice that the time between the arrival of the primary and secondary waves will be larger. This is because the primary waves, also known as P-waves, travel faster than the secondary waves, also known as S-waves. As the distance from the epicenter increases, the time gap between the arrival of these waves also increases. Therefore, the person who is farther away will experience a longer time interval between the arrival of the primary and secondary waves.

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• 18.

### Scientists discovered the different layers in Earth's interior by studying___________.

• A.

Tsunamis

• B.

Tides

• C.

Changes in seismic waves

• D.

All of the answers provided are correct

C. Changes in seismic waves
Explanation
Scientists discovered the different layers in Earth's interior by studying changes in seismic waves. Seismic waves are waves of energy that are generated by earthquakes and travel through the Earth. As these waves pass through different layers of the Earth, they can be refracted, reflected, or absorbed, providing valuable information about the composition and structure of the Earth's interior. By analyzing the behavior of seismic waves, scientists have been able to identify and study the various layers of the Earth, such as the crust, mantle, and core.

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• 19.

### ____________ is the force that squeezes rocks together.

• A.

Tension

• B.

Shear

• C.

Elastic Limit

• D.

Compression

D. Compression
Explanation
Compression is the force that squeezes rocks together. When rocks are subjected to compression, they are pushed together, causing them to be compressed and potentially resulting in deformation or fracturing. This force is commonly associated with convergent plate boundaries, where tectonic plates collide, causing rocks to be compressed and folded. Compression is also responsible for the formation of mountains and the creation of geological features such as fault lines and folds.

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• 20.

### ____________ is the force that pulls rocks apart.

• A.

Tension

• B.

Shear

• C.

Elastic Limit

• D.

Compression

A. Tension
Explanation
Tension is the force that pulls rocks apart. When a force is applied in opposite directions to an object, tension occurs, causing the object to stretch or elongate. In the case of rocks, tension can lead to the formation of cracks and fractures, as the rocks are pulled apart along their weakest points. This force is commonly observed in geological processes such as faulting and the formation of rift valleys.

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• 21.

### ____________ is the force that causes plates to move sideways past each other.

• A.

Tension

• B.

Shear

• C.

Elastic Limit

• D.

Compression

B. Shear
Explanation
Shear is the force that causes plates to move sideways past each other. When two plates are under stress and the forces acting on them are parallel but in opposite directions, shear forces occur. These forces cause the plates to slide past each other, resulting in lateral movement. Shear is a common force in areas where tectonic plates meet, such as fault lines, and is responsible for earthquakes and the formation of features like transform boundaries.

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• 22.

### ______________ faults are caused by compressional forces.

• A.

Normal

• B.

Strike-Slip

• C.

Reverse

• D.

Elastic

C. Reverse
Explanation
Reverse faults are caused by compressional forces. In a reverse fault, the hanging wall moves upward relative to the footwall, resulting in a steeply inclined fault plane. This type of fault is commonly found in areas where two tectonic plates are colliding, such as convergent plate boundaries. The compressional forces push the rocks together, causing them to buckle and fracture, leading to the formation of a reverse fault.

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• 23.

### ______________ faults are caused by shear forces.

• A.

Normal

• B.

Strike-Slip

• C.

Reverse

• D.

Elastic

B. Strike-Slip
Explanation
Strike-slip faults are caused by shear forces. In these faults, the rocks on either side of the fault move horizontally past each other, with no significant vertical displacement. This type of fault occurs when there is horizontal compression or tension in the Earth's crust, causing the rocks to slide past each other in a sideways motion. Examples of strike-slip faults include the San Andreas Fault in California.

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• 24.

### Along a(n) ________ fault, rock above the fault surface moves downward in relation to rock below the fault surface

• A.

Normal

• B.

Strike-Slip

• C.

Reverse

• D.

Elastic

A. Normal
Explanation
Along a normal fault, the rock above the fault surface moves downward in relation to the rock below the fault surface. This occurs due to tensional forces pulling the rocks apart, causing the overlying rock to slide down and create a gap. Normal faults are commonly found in areas of extension, such as divergent plate boundaries, where the Earth's crust is being pulled apart.

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• 25.

### The most destructive seismic waves are ________________.

• A.

Primary

• B.

Surface

• C.

Secondary

• D.

Tsunami

B. Surface
Explanation
Surface seismic waves are the most destructive because they travel along the Earth's surface and cause the most damage to buildings and infrastructure. These waves have a larger amplitude and longer period compared to other seismic waves, which allows them to transfer more energy and cause more destruction. Surface waves are responsible for the majority of the damage and casualties during an earthquake.

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• 26.

### The __________ waves are the first to reach a seismograph after an earthquake

• A.

Surface

• B.

Primary

• C.

Secondary

• D.

Tsunami

B. Primary
Explanation
Primary waves, also known as P-waves, are the first seismic waves to reach a seismograph after an earthquake. These waves are compressional waves that travel through the Earth's interior, causing particles to move in the same direction as the wave. They are the fastest seismic waves and can travel through solids, liquids, and gases. Due to their speed, they are the first to be detected by seismographs, providing valuable information about the earthquake's location and magnitude.

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• 27.

### At least ____________ seismographs are needed to accurately locate an earthquake's epicenter.

• A.

Two

• B.

Five

• C.

Four

• D.

Three

D. Three
Explanation
To accurately locate an earthquake's epicenter, at least three seismographs are needed. This is because seismographs record the arrival times of seismic waves at different locations. By comparing the arrival times of these waves at three different seismographs, scientists can triangulate the epicenter of the earthquake. If only two seismographs were used, it would be difficult to determine the exact location of the epicenter. Using more than three seismographs can provide additional data and improve accuracy, but three is the minimum number required for a reliable estimation.

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• 28.

### The point in the Earth's interior where the energy release of an earthquake occurs is called the _____________

• A.

Focus

• B.

Epicenter

• C.

Fault

• D.

Inner Core

A. Focus
Explanation
The point in the Earth's interior where the energy release of an earthquake occurs is called the focus. This is the exact location within the Earth where the seismic waves originate and the rupture of the fault begins. It is important to distinguish the focus from the epicenter, which is the point on the Earth's surface directly above the focus. The focus is usually located deep within the Earth, while the epicenter is the point that is felt and measured at the surface. The fault refers to the fracture or break in the Earth's crust where the movement occurs. The inner core, on the other hand, is the solid innermost part of the Earth.

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• 29.

### When seismic waves reach the Moho Discontinuity at the bottom of Earth's crust they will __________.

• A.

Slow Down

• B.

Stay the same

• C.

Stop

• D.

Speed up

D. Speed up
Explanation
Seismic waves, which are generated by earthquakes or other sources of energy, travel through different layers of the Earth's interior. When these waves reach the Moho Discontinuity, which is the boundary between the Earth's crust and the underlying mantle, they undergo a change in velocity. The seismic waves speed up as they transition from the crust to the denser mantle. This increase in speed is due to the difference in physical properties of the two layers, such as density and composition. Therefore, the correct answer is "Speed up."

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• 30.

### The magnitude of an earthquake is measured by the _______________

• A.

Richter Scale

• B.

Moho

• C.

Modified Mercalli Scale

• D.

Elastic limit

A. Richter Scale
Explanation
The magnitude of an earthquake is measured by the Richter Scale. This scale was developed by Charles F. Richter in 1935 and is used to quantify the energy released during an earthquake. It measures the amplitude of seismic waves recorded by seismographs, with each whole number increase on the scale representing a tenfold increase in amplitude and approximately 31.6 times more energy release. The Richter Scale is widely recognized and used by scientists and engineers to compare and classify earthquakes based on their magnitude.

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• 31.

### Primary waves ___________ when they hit the liquid outer core.

• A.

Slow down and bend

• B.

Stay the same

• C.

Stop

• D.

Speed up

A. Slow down and bend
Explanation
Primary waves, also known as P-waves, are seismic waves that can travel through both solid and liquid materials. When these waves reach the liquid outer core, they slow down and bend due to the change in density and composition of the material. This bending phenomenon is known as refraction. Therefore, the correct answer is "Slow down and bend."

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• 32.

### Secondary waves ___________ when they hit the liquid outer core

• A.

Slow down

• B.

Stay the same

• C.

Speed up

• D.

Stop

D. Stop
• 33.

### Liquefaction is when wet soil acts like a(n) ____________________.

• A.

Solid

• B.

Liquid

• C.

Gas

• D.

Semi-solid

B. Liquid
Explanation
Liquefaction is a phenomenon in which wet soil loses its strength and behaves like a liquid. This occurs when the soil is saturated with water and subjected to stress, such as during an earthquake. The excess water in the soil reduces the friction between particles, causing them to lose contact and flow like a liquid. This can lead to ground instability, sinking, and damage to structures built on the affected soil.

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• 34.

### The difference between a magnitude 1 and a magnitude 2 on the Ritcher Scale is ________________ times more powerful.

• A.

23

• B.

32

• C.

33

• D.

22

B. 32
Explanation
The difference between a magnitude 1 and a magnitude 2 on the Richter Scale is 32 times more powerful. The Richter Scale is a logarithmic scale used to measure the intensity of earthquakes. Each whole number increase on the scale represents a tenfold increase in the amplitude of the seismic waves and approximately 32 times more energy released. Therefore, a magnitude 2 earthquake would be 32 times more powerful than a magnitude 1 earthquake.

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• 35.

### This is an example of a ______________fault.

• A.

Normal

• B.

Reverse

• C.

Strike-slip

A. Normal
Explanation
This is an example of a normal fault. In a normal fault, the hanging wall moves downward relative to the footwall. This type of faulting occurs in areas undergoing tensional stress, where the crust is being pulled apart. The movement along the fault plane is typically vertical or near-vertical.

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• 36.

### This is an example of a  ______________________fault.

• A.

Normal

• B.

Reverse

• C.

Strike-slip

B. Reverse
Explanation
This question is asking for the type of fault that is being described. The term "reverse" refers to a type of fault where the rock layers are pushed together, causing one side to move upwards relative to the other side. This is opposite to a normal fault where the rock layers are pulled apart. A strike-slip fault, on the other hand, involves horizontal movement along the fault line. Therefore, the correct answer for this question is "reverse" fault.

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• 37.

### This is an example of a ______________________fault.

• A.

Normal

• B.

Reverse

• C.

Strike-slip

C. Strike-slip
Explanation
This question is asking for the type of fault that is being described. The term "strike-slip" refers to a type of fault where the rocks on either side of the fault move horizontally past each other. In this case, the fault is not described as normal or reverse, but rather as a strike-slip fault.

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• 38.

### This fault is caused by ____________________ forces.

• A.

Tensional

• B.

Compressional

• C.

Shear

A. Tensional
Explanation
This fault is caused by tensional forces. Tensional forces occur when rocks are being pulled apart, causing the fault to form and the rocks to move away from each other. This type of fault is commonly found in areas where the Earth's crust is being stretched, such as divergent plate boundaries or rift zones.

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• 39.

### This fault is caused by ____________________ forces.

• A.

Tensional

• B.

Compressional

• C.

Shear

B. Compressional
Explanation
This fault is caused by compressional forces. Compressional forces occur when two tectonic plates collide or push against each other, causing rocks to be pushed together and compressed. This compression can cause the rocks to buckle or break, resulting in a fault. Compressional forces are common in areas where two continental plates collide, such as the Himalayas.

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• 40.

### This fault is caused by ____________________ forces.

• A.

Tensional

• B.

Compressional

• C.

Shear

C. Shear
Explanation
This fault is caused by shear forces. Shear forces occur when two tectonic plates slide past each other horizontally. This type of fault is characterized by a lateral movement along the fault line, causing rocks on either side to move in opposite directions. Shear forces can result in the formation of transform boundaries, where plates slide past each other, or strike-slip faults, where rocks on either side of the fault line move horizontally.

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• 41.

### Using the graphic provided, answer the following question. Which wave travels faster?

• A.

S-waves

• B.

P-waves

• C.

Surface Waves

B. P-waves
Explanation
P-waves travel faster than S-waves and surface waves. P-waves, also known as primary waves, are the fastest seismic waves and can travel through solids, liquids, and gases. They compress and expand the material they pass through, causing particles to move in the same direction as the wave. S-waves, or secondary waves, are slower and can only travel through solids. They move particles perpendicular to the direction of the wave. Surface waves, as the name suggests, only travel along the surface of the Earth and are slower than both P-waves and S-waves.

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• 42.

### Using the graphic provided, answer the following question. What is the time difference at 3,000km?

• A.

4 Minutes

• B.

8 Seconds

• C.

16 Minutes

• D.

8 Minutes

D. 8 Minutes
Explanation
Based on the graphic provided, it can be inferred that there is a time difference of 8 minutes at 3,000km. This can be determined by observing that each line on the graphic represents a time difference of 2 minutes, and there are 4 lines between 0km and 3,000km. Therefore, multiplying 2 minutes by 4 lines equals a time difference of 8 minutes.

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• 43.

### Using the graphic provided, answer the following question. Which wave has a more constant speed?

• A.

S-waves

• B.

P-waves

• C.

Surface waves

A. S-waves
Explanation
S-waves have a more constant speed compared to P-waves and surface waves. S-waves, also known as shear waves, travel through solids and have a slower speed compared to P-waves. P-waves, also known as primary waves, can travel through solids, liquids, and gases, but their speed can vary depending on the medium. Surface waves, on the other hand, travel along the surface of the Earth and their speed can also vary. Therefore, S-waves have a more constant speed than P-waves and surface waves.

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• 44.

### Using the graphic provided, answer the following question. At what distance was the time difference 6 minutes?

• A.

2,000km

• B.

2,500km

• C.

3,000km 3,000km

• D.

3,500km

B. 2,500km
Explanation
Based on the graphic provided, it can be observed that the time difference is increasing as the distance increases. The time difference at 2,000km is less than 6 minutes, while the time difference at 3,000km is more than 6 minutes. Therefore, the distance at which the time difference is 6 minutes is in between these two values, which is 2,500km.

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• 45.

### What is the largest layer of the Earth?

• A.

Mantle

• B.

Outer Core

• C.

Inner Core

• D.

Crust

A. Mantle
Explanation
The mantle is the largest layer of the Earth. It is located between the crust and the outer core. The mantle is composed of hot, solid rock and extends about 2,900 kilometers below the Earth's surface. It accounts for approximately 84% of the Earth's volume and is responsible for the movement of tectonic plates, volcanic activity, and the convection currents that drive the Earth's geological processes.

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